An introductory overview of the functional biology of fish and how that may be affected by the contrasting habitat conditions within the aquatic environment. It describes the recent advances in comparative animal physiology which have greatly influenced our understanding of fish function as well as generating questions that have yet to be resolved. Fish taxa represent the largest number of vertebrates, with over 25,000 extant species. However, much of our knowledge, apart from taxonomy and habitat descriptions, has been based on relatively few of these species, usually those which live in fresh water and/or are of commercial interest. Unfortunately there has also been a tendency to base interpretation of fish physiology on that of mammalian systems, as well as to rely on a few type species of fish. This accessible textbook will redress the balance by using examples of fish from a wide range of species and habitats, emphasizing diversity as well as recognizing shared attributes with other vertebrates.
The Amazon and Orinoco basins in northern South America are home to the highest concentration of freshwater fish species on earth, with more than 3,000 species allotted to 564 genera. Amazonian fishes include piranhas, electric eels, freshwater stingrays, a myriad of beautiful small-bodied tetras and catfishes, and the largest scaled freshwater fish in the world, the pirarucu. Field Guide to the Fishes of the Amazon, Orinoco, and Guianas provides descriptions and identification keys for all the known genera of fishes that inhabit Greater Amazonia, a vast and still mostly remote region of tropical rainforests, seasonally flooded savannas, and meandering lowland rivers. The guide’s contributors include more than fifty expert scientists. They summarize the current state of knowledge on the taxonomy, species richness, and ecology of these fish groups, and provide references to relevant literature for species-level identifications. This richly illustrated guide contains 700 detailed drawings, 190 color photos, and 500 distribution maps, which cover all genera. An extensive and illustrated glossary helps readers with the identification keys. The first complete overview of the fish diversity in the Amazon, Orinoco, and Guianas, this comprehensive guide is essential for anyone interested in the freshwater life inhabiting this part of the world. First complete overview of the fish diversity in the Amazon and Orinoco basins Contributors include more than fifty experts Identification keys and distribution maps for all genera 190 stunning color photos 700 detailed line drawings Extensive and illustrated glossary
Gene Helfman,Bruce B. Collette,Douglas E. Facey,Brian W. Bowen
Author: Gene Helfman,Bruce B. Collette,Douglas E. Facey,Brian W. Bowen
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Technology & Engineering
The second edition of The Diversity of Fishes represents a major revision of the world’s most widely adopted ichthyology textbook. Expanded and updated, the second edition is illustrated throughout with striking color photographs depicting the spectacular evolutionary adaptations of the most ecologically and taxonomically diverse vertebrate group. The text incorporates the latest advances in the biology of fishes, covering taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, biogeography, ecology, and behavior. A new chapter on genetics and molecular ecology of fishes has been added, and conservation is emphasized throughout. Hundreds of new and redrawn illustrations augment readable text, and every chapter has been revised to reflect the discoveries and greater understanding achieved during the past decade. Written by a team of internationally-recognized authorities, the first edition of The Diversity of Fishes was received with enthusiasm and praise, and incorporated into ichthyology and fish biology classes around the globe, at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The second edition is a substantial update of an already classic reference and text. Companion resources site This book is accompanied by a resources site: www.wiley.com/go/helfman The site is being constantly updated by the author team and provides: · Related videos selected by the authors · Updates to the book since publication · Instructor resources · A chance to send in feedback
Recent decades have witnessed strong declines in fish stocks around the globe, amid growing concerns about the impact of fisheries on marine and freshwater biodiversity. Fisheries biologists and managers are therefore increasingly asking about aspects of ecology, behaviour, evolution and biodiversity that were traditionally studied by people working in very separate fields. This has highlighted the need to work more closely together, in order to help ensure future success both in management and conservation. The Handbook of Fish Biology and Fisheries has been written by an international team of scientists and practitioners, to provide an overview of the biology of freshwater and marine fish species together with the science that supports fisheries management and conservation. This volume, subtitled Fisheries, focuses on a wide range of topics, including the history of fisheries science, methods of capture, marketing, economics, major models used in stock assessments and forecasting, ecosystem impacts, marine protected areas and conservation. It builds on material in Volume 1, Fish Biology, which ranges from phylogenetics and biogeography to physiology, recruitment, life histories, genetics, foraging, reproductive behaviour and community ecology. Together, these books present the state of the art in our understanding of fish biology and fisheries and will serve as valuable references for undergraduates and graduates looking for a comprehensive source on a wide variety of topics in fisheries science. They will also be useful to researchers who need up-to-date reviews of topics that impinge on their fields, and decision makers who need to appreciate the scientific background for management and conservation of aquatic ecosystems. To order volume II, go to the box in the top right hand corner. Alternatively to order volume I, go to: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/book.asp?ref=0632054123 or to order the 2 volume set, go to: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/book.asp?ref=0632064838. Provides a unique overview of the study of fish biology and ecology, and the assessment and management of fish populations and ecosystems. The first volume concentrates on aspects of fish biology and ecology, both at the individual and population levels, whilst the second volume addresses the assessment and management of fish populations and ecosystems. Written by an international team of expert scientists and practitioners. An invaluable reference tool for both students, researchers and practitioners working in the fields of fish biology and fisheries.
Fish form an extremely diverse group of vertebrates. At a conservative estimate at least 40% of the world's vertebrates are fish. On the one hand they are united by their adaptations to an aquatic environment and on the other they show a variety of adaptations to differing environmental conditions - often to extremes of temperature, salinity, oxygen level and water chemistry. They exhibit an array of behavioural and reproductive systems. Interesting in their own right, this suite of adaptive physiologies provides many model systems for both comparative vertebrate and human physiologists. This four volume encyclopedia covers the diversity of fish physiology in over 300 articles and provides entry level information for students and summary overviews for researchers alike. Broadly organised into four themes, articles cover Functional, Thematic, and Phylogenetic Physiology, and Fish Genomics Functional articles address the traditional aspects of fish physiology that are common to all areas of vertebrate physiology including: Reproduction, Respiration, Neural (Sensory, Central, Effector), Endocrinology, Renal, Cardiovascular, Acid-base Balance, Osmoregulation, Ionoregulation, Digestion, Metabolism, Locomotion, and so on. Thematic Physiology articles are carefully selected and fewer in number. They provide a level of integration that goes beyond the coverage in the Functional Physiology topics and include discussions of Toxicology, Air-breathing, Migrations, Temperature, Endothermy, etc. Phylogenetic Physiology articles bring together information that bridges the physiology of certain groupings of fishes where the knowledge base has a sufficient depth and breadth and include articles on Ancient Fishes, Tunas, Sharks, etc. Genomics articles describe the underlying genetic component of fish physiology and high light their suitability and use as model organisms for the study of disease, stress and physiological adaptations and reactions to external conditions. Winner of a 2011 PROSE Award Honorable Mention for Multivolume Science Reference from the Association of American Publishers The definitive encyclopedia for the field of fish physiology Three volumes which comprehensively cover the entire field in over 300 entries written by experts Detailed coverage of basic functional physiology of fishes, physiological themes in fish biology and comparative physiology amongst taxonomic Groups Describes the genomic bases of fish physiology and biology and the use of fish as model organisms in human physiological research Includes a glossary of terms
Author: Philippe Grandcolas,Marie-Christine Maurel
Biodiversity and Evolution includes chapters devoted to the evolution and biodiversity of organisms at the molecular level, based on the study of natural collections from the Museum of Natural History. The book starts with an epistemological and historical introduction and ends with a critical overview of the Anthropocene epoch. Explores the study of natural collections of the Museum of Natural History Examines evolution and biodiversity at the molecular level Features an introduction focusing on epistemology and history Provides a critical overview
The "precautionary principle"—the idea that society should guard against potentially harmful activities even if some cause and effect relationships have not been fully established—has often been attacked for being unscientific. However leading scientists studying the issue have begun to make the case that the precautionary principle is in fact science based, and that it creates a need for more rigorous and transparent science in examining complex and uncertain environmental risks.Precaution, Environmental Science, and Preventive Public Policy is the first book to explore the role of science in developing a more precautionary approach to environmental and public health policy. The book brings together leading scientists, legal experts, philosophers, environmental health professionals, and environmentalists to offer a multi-disciplinary perspective on the controversial debate over science and precaution. The book:discusses the critical need for science in promoting sustainabilityoutlines the ethical imperative of a more precautionary science and the philosophical foundations of that new approachconsiders some of the ways in which the current conduct of environmental science works against precautionary policiesexamines how the role and use of science differs across cultures and political systemsprovides the components of an approach to environmental science that more effectively supports precautionary decisionsThe book also offers case studies that consider various types of uncertainty and sets forth a framework for evaluating and addressing uncertainty in decision-making.Contributors include Juan Almendares, Katherine Barrett, Kamaljit Bawa, Finn Bro-Rasmussen, Donald Brown, Theofanis Christoforou, Terry Collins, Barry Commoner, Carl Cranor, Stephen Dovers, David Gee, Elizabeth Guillette, Cato ten Hallers-Tjabbes, James Huff, Matthias Kaiser, Richard Levins, Mary O'Brien, Carolyn Raffensperger, Jerry Ravetz, Vandana Shiva, Boyce Thorne-Miller, Joe Thornton, Reginald Victor, and Alistair Woodward.Precaution, Environmental Science, and Preventive Public Policy presents a broad overview of the role of science in implementing the precautionary principle and makes a compelling case that science should be used not just to study problems but to develop solutions.
Mucosal Health in Aquaculture is an essential reference on mucosal health for the diverse aquaculture community. Rich in explanatory figures and schematics, the book includes important concepts such as structural and cellular composition of mucosal surfaces in fish and shellfish, known functional roles of molecular and cellular actors during pathogen invasion, impacts of nutrition on the mucosal barriers, impacts of chemical treatments on mucosal surfaces, mucosal vaccines and vaccination strategies, and more. The health of cultured aquaculture species is critical in establishing the sustainable growth of the aquaculture industry worldwide, and mucosal health is of particular interest to those working in aquaculture because mucosal surfaces (skin, gill, intestine, reproductive tissues) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion. Mucosal Health in Aquaculture captures the latest research on mucosal barriers in aquaculture species and their impacts on nutrition and immunity to ensure sustainable aquaculture development. Includes research case studies to exhibit the importance of various integrated approaches to mucosal health Examines the latest scientific methods and technologies to maximize efficiencies for healthy fish production for farming Brings together the latest knowledge and research on mucosal barriers and mechanisms from world-wide experts in mucosal health Utilizes detailed diagrams and figures to enhance comprehension
National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Committee on Ecosystem Management for Sustainable Marine Fisheries
Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Committee on Ecosystem Management for Sustainable Marine Fisheries
Publisher: National Academies Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
Fluctuations and declines in marine fish populations have caused growing concern among marine scientists, fisheries managers, commercial and recreational fishers, and the public. Sustaining Marine Fisheries explores the nature of marine ecosystems and the complex interacting factors that shape their productivity. The book documents the condition of marine fisheries today, highlighting species and geographic areas that are under particular stress. Challenges to achieving sustainability are discussed, and shortcomings of existing fisheries management and regulation are examined. The volume calls for fisheries management to adopt a broader ecosystem perspective that encompasses all relevant environmental and human influences. Sustaining Marine Fisheries offers new approaches to building workable fisheries management institutions, improving scientific data, and developing management tools. The book recommends ways to change current practices that encourage overexploitation of fish resources. It will be of special interest to marine policymakers and ecologists, fisheries regulators and managers, fisheries scientists and marine ecologists, fishers, and concerned individuals.
Despite its supreme importance and the threat of its global crash, biodiversity remains poorly understood both empirically and theoretically. This ambitious book presents a new, general neutral theory to explain the origin, maintenance, and loss of biodiversity in a biogeographic context. Until now biogeography (the study of the geographic distribution of species) and biodiversity (the study of species richness and relative species abundance) have had largely disjunct intellectual histories. In this book, Stephen Hubbell develops a formal mathematical theory that unifies these two fields. When a speciation process is incorporated into Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson's now classical theory of island biogeography, the generalized theory predicts the existence of a universal, dimensionless biodiversity number. In the theory, this fundamental biodiversity number, together with the migration or dispersal rate, completely determines the steady-state distribution of species richness and relative species abundance on local to large geographic spatial scales and short-term to evolutionary time scales. Although neutral, Hubbell's theory is nevertheless able to generate many nonobvious, testable, and remarkably accurate quantitative predictions about biodiversity and biogeography. In many ways Hubbell's theory is the ecological analog to the neutral theory of genetic drift in genetics. The unified neutral theory of biogeography and biodiversity should stimulate research in new theoretical and empirical directions by ecologists, evolutionary biologists, and biogeographers.
Do fishes think? Do they really have three-second memories? And can they recognize the humans who peer back at them from above the surface of the water? In What a Fish Knows, the myth-busting ethologist Jonathan Balcombe addresses these questions and more, taking us under the sea, through streams and estuaries, and to the other side of the aquarium glass to reveal the surprising capabilities of fishes. Although there are more than thirty thousand species of fish—more than all mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians combined—we rarely consider how individual fishes think, feel, and behave. Balcombe upends our assumptions about fishes, portraying them not as unfeeling, dead-eyed feeding machines but as sentient, aware, social, and even Machiavellian—in other words, much like us. What a Fish Knows draws on the latest science to present a fresh look at these remarkable creatures in all their breathtaking diversity and beauty. Fishes conduct elaborate courtship rituals and develop lifelong bonds with shoalmates. They also plan, hunt cooperatively, use tools, curry favor, deceive one another, and punish wrongdoers. We may imagine that fishes lead simple, fleeting lives—a mode of existence that boils down to a place on the food chain, rote spawning, and lots of aimless swimming. But, as Balcombe demonstrates, the truth is far richer and more complex, worthy of the grandest social novel. Highlighting breakthrough discoveries from fish enthusiasts and scientists around the world and pondering his own encounters with fishes, Balcombe examines the fascinating means by which fishes gain knowledge of the places they inhabit, from shallow tide pools to the deepest reaches of the ocean. Teeming with insights and exciting discoveries, What a Fish Knows offers a thoughtful appraisal of our relationships with fishes and inspires us to take a more enlightened view of the planet’s increasingly imperiled marine life. What a Fish Knows will forever change how we see our aquatic cousins—the pet goldfish included.
Tropical Stream Ecology describes the main features of tropical streams and their ecology. It covers the major physico-chemical features, important processes such as primary production and organic-matter transformation, as well as the main groups of consumers: invertebrates, fishes and other vertebrates. Information on concepts and paradigms developed in north-temperate latitudes and how they do not match the reality of ecosystems further south is expertly addressed. The pressing matter of conservation of tropical streams and their biodiversity is included in almost every chapter, with a final chapter providing a synthesis on conservation issues. For the first time, Tropical Stream Ecology places an important emphasis on viewing research carried out in contributions from international literature. First synthetic account of the ecology of all types of tropical streams Covers all of the major tropical regions Detailed consideration of possible fundamental differences between tropical and temperate stream ecosystems Threats faced by tropical stream ecosystems and possible conservation actions Descriptions and synstheses life-histories and breeding patterns of major aquatic consumers (fishes, invertebrates)
Sugar chains (glycans) are often attached to proteins and lipids and have multiple roles in the organization and function of all organisms. They participate in activities as diverse as protein folding, leukocyte physiology, and microbial pathogenesis. Genetic defects in their assembly are at the root of a growing list of human diseases. Essentials of Glycobiology describes their biogenesis and function and offers a useful gateway to the understanding of glycans.
Author: Thibault Datry,Núria Bonada,Andrew J. Boulton
Publisher: Academic Press
Intermittent Rivers and Ephemeral Streams: Ecology and Management takes an internationally broad approach, seeking to compare and contrast findings across multiple continents, climates, flow regimes, and land uses to provide a complete and integrated perspective on the ecology of these ecosystems. Coupled with this, users will find a discussion of management approaches applicable in different regions that are illustrated with relevant case studies. In a readable and technically accurate style, the book utilizes logically framed chapters authored by experts in the field, allowing managers and policymakers to readily grasp ecological concepts and their application to specific situations. Provides up-to-date reviews of research findings and management strategies using international examples Explores themes and parallels across diverse sub-disciplines in ecology and water resource management utilizing a multidisciplinary and integrative approach Reveals the relevance of this scientific understanding to managers and policymakers
Emil Salim,Ola Ullsten,World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development
Author: Emil Salim,Ola Ullsten,World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Business & Economics
Forests are extraordinary in their contribution to the basic human need for environmental stability and security, as well as in their contribution to the livelihood of many. The World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development (WCFSD), through its unique makeup and independent nature, has been able to address the most significant issues surrounding the world's forests in a manner not possible for any other body or institution. By convening public hearings all over the world to give voice to those who depend on forests, and by engaging itself in the politics of the issues at the highest levels, the WCFSD has endeavored to address fundamental and serious concerns. This report, representing the culmination of these efforts, discusses forest practices, politics and policies, and the social situations which they create or perpetuate and presents the Commission's findings, conclusions and recommendations.