An introductory overview of the functional biology of fish and how that may be affected by the contrasting habitat conditions within the aquatic environment. It describes the recent advances in comparative animal physiology which have greatly influenced our understanding of fish function as well as generating questions that have yet to be resolved. Fish taxa represent the largest number of vertebrates, with over 25,000 extant species. However, much of our knowledge, apart from taxonomy and habitat descriptions, has been based on relatively few of these species, usually those which live in fresh water and/or are of commercial interest. Unfortunately there has also been a tendency to base interpretation of fish physiology on that of mammalian systems, as well as to rely on a few type species of fish. This accessible textbook will redress the balance by using examples of fish from a wide range of species and habitats, emphasizing diversity as well as recognizing shared attributes with other vertebrates.
Recent decades have witnessed strong declines in fish stocks around the globe, amid growing concerns about the impact of fisheries on marine and freshwater biodiversity. Fisheries biologists and managers are therefore increasingly asking about aspects of ecology, behaviour, evolution and biodiversity that were traditionally studied by people working in very separate fields. This has highlighted the need to work more closely together, in order to help ensure future success both in management and conservation. The Handbook of Fish Biology and Fisheries has been written by an international team of scientists and practitioners, to provide an overview of the biology of freshwater and marine fish species together with the science that supports fisheries management and conservation. This volume, subtitled Fisheries, focuses on a wide range of topics, including the history of fisheries science, methods of capture, marketing, economics, major models used in stock assessments and forecasting, ecosystem impacts, marine protected areas and conservation. It builds on material in Volume 1, Fish Biology, which ranges from phylogenetics and biogeography to physiology, recruitment, life histories, genetics, foraging, reproductive behaviour and community ecology. Together, these books present the state of the art in our understanding of fish biology and fisheries and will serve as valuable references for undergraduates and graduates looking for a comprehensive source on a wide variety of topics in fisheries science. They will also be useful to researchers who need up-to-date reviews of topics that impinge on their fields, and decision makers who need to appreciate the scientific background for management and conservation of aquatic ecosystems. To order volume II, go to the box in the top right hand corner. Alternatively to order volume I, go to: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/book.asp?ref=0632054123 or to order the 2 volume set, go to: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/book.asp?ref=0632064838. Provides a unique overview of the study of fish biology and ecology, and the assessment and management of fish populations and ecosystems. The first volume concentrates on aspects of fish biology and ecology, both at the individual and population levels, whilst the second volume addresses the assessment and management of fish populations and ecosystems. Written by an international team of expert scientists and practitioners. An invaluable reference tool for both students, researchers and practitioners working in the fields of fish biology and fisheries.
Ein Besuch der Apnoe-Weltmeisterschaft wird für James Nestor zum Beginn eines persönlichen Abenteuers: Fasziniert von der Kompromisslosigkeit dieses Sports, erlernt er selbst das Freitauchen. Und fortan zieht es ihn immer tiefer in die verborgene Welt der Ozeane hinab: Er besucht eine Forschungsstation 20 Meter unter der Meeresoberfläche, trifft renommierten Meeresbiologen bei ihrer Arbeit, schwimmt mit Walen und geht im U-Boot auf Tauchstation. Dabei entdeckt er einen unfassbar reichen Lebensraum, mit telepathischen Korallen, leuchtenden Fischen und rätselhaften Riesenkraken. Bis er schließlich den tiefsten Punkt der Erde erreicht – die absolute Grenze für Mensch und Technik. Eine grandiose Entdeckungsreise, die zugleich unseren Wurzeln nachspürt.
Integrating research into freshwater biodiversity and the role of keystone species, this fascinating book presents freshwater crayfish as representatives of human-exacerbated threats to biodiversity and conservation. It uses examples from these and other large decapod invertebrates to explore how communities function and are controlled, alongside the implications of human demands and conflicts over limited resources, notably the severe impacts on biodiversity. The discussion is structured around three key topics – the present situation of crayfish in world freshwater ecosystems, the applications of science to conservation management and knowledge transfer for successful crayfish management. It outlines the historic exploitation of crayfish, addressing the problems caused by invasive alien forms and explaining the importance of correct identification when dealing with conservation issues. Offering a global perspective on freshwater systems, the book ultimately highlights how the conservation of such large and long-lived species will help protect ecosystem quality in the future.
Gary Meffe,Larry Nielsen,Richard L. Knight,Dennis Schenborn
Author: Gary Meffe,Larry Nielsen,Richard L. Knight,Dennis Schenborn
Publisher: Island Press
Today's natural resource managers must be able to navigate among the complicated interactions and conflicting interests of diverse stakeholders and decisionmakers. Technical and scientific knowledge, though necessary, are not sufficient. Science is merely one component in a multifaceted world of decision making. And while the demands of resource management have changed greatly, natural resource education and textbooks have not. Until now. Ecosystem Management represents a different kind of textbook for a different kind of course. It offers a new and exciting approach that engages students in active problem solving by using detailed landscape scenarios that reflect the complex issues and conflicting interests that face today's resource managers and scientists. Focusing on the application of the sciences of ecology and conservation biology to real-world concerns, it emphasizes the intricate ecological, socioeconomic, and institutional matrix in which natural resource management functions, and illustrates how to be more effective in that challenging arena. Each chapter is rich with exercises to help facilitate problem-based learning. The main text is supplemented by boxes and figures that provide examples, perspectives, definitions, summaries, and learning tools, along with a variety of essays written by practitioners with on-the-ground experience in applying the principles of ecosystem management. Accompanying the textbook is an instructor's manual that provides a detailed overview of the book and specific guidance on designing a course around it. Ecosystem Management grew out of a training course developed and presented by the authors for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at its National Training Center in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. In 20 offerings to more than 600 natural resource professionals, the authors learned a great deal about what is needed to function successfully as a professional resource manager. The book offers important insights and a unique perspective dervied from that invaluable experience.
Committee on Forestry Research,Commission on Life Sciences,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council
Author: Committee on Forestry Research,Commission on Life Sciences,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
Committee on Forestry Research, National Research Council Forests are valuable in our daily lives, crucial to our nation's ecomony, and integral to the long-term health of the environment. Yet, forestry research has been critically underfunded, and the data generated under current research programs is not enough to meet the diverse needs of our society. Forestry Research provides a research agenda that should yield the information we need to develop responsible policies for forest use and management. In this consensus of forestry experts, the volume explores: The diverse and competing concerns of the timber industry, recreational interests, and wildlife and environmental organizations. The gap between our need for information and the current output of the forestry research program. Areas of research requiring attention: biology of forest organisms, ecosystem function and management, human-forest interactions, wood as raw material, and international trade and competition. Forestry Research is an important book of special interest to federal and state policymakers involved in forestry issues, research managers, researchers, faculty, and students in the field.
This volume is dedicated to an in-depth discussion of the biochemical ecology of marine fishes. The authors review fish biology with regard to the environment and the world's fisheries. They show how fish can be assessed for harvesting at the best time in their life cycles and in the correct condition for marketing, freezing, and preserving. In this context, they include coverage of adaptations of fish to the environment, life cycles, and metabolism. This volume will be of interest to biochemists, marine ecologists, and fishery scientists. Advances in Marine Biology has always offered marine biologists an in-depth and up-to-date review on a variety of topics. As well as many volumes that provide a selection of important topics, the series also includes thematic volumes that examine a particular field in detail.
An easy-to-read, beautifully illustrated undergraduate-level introduction to fresh- and running-water biology. Each chapter includes practical information on simple studies and experiments for students to try. The text begins with the physical features that define running water (lotic) habitats then continues with organisms that inhabit these habitats, and concludes with a discussion of applied issues surrounding water use, including pollution, species diversity, and conservation. The authors outline the range of living organisms in lotic habitats, and the environmental adaptations they exhibit. They discuss population, community, and ecosystem patterns and processes, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, migration, food webs, and community structure. Particular consideration is given to links between stream and river channels and their surrounding landscapes, to short-term and seasonal changes, and to historical and biogeographical factors. The text concludes with a section of additional practical field work activities and a list for further reading.
This book takes the lead in analyzing the essential fish habitat policy in detail and offers insight into how scientists and managers around the country are implementing and supporting habitat research and policy. In 27 chapters, this symposium proceedings presents the findings and conclusions of scientists and policy makers who have been working on EFH policy, and Sea Grant-funded researchers who have been studying fish habitat. Pacific salmon, summer flounder, northern pike, spiny and American lobsters, fishermen's knowledge of habitat, restoration of marsh habitats, and remote sensing of habitat are among the wide variety of important topics covered in this publication. (Midwest).
David J. Rapport,Bill L. Lasley,Dennis E. Rolston,N. Ole Nielsen,Calvin O. Qualset,Ardeshir B. Damania
Author: David J. Rapport,Bill L. Lasley,Dennis E. Rolston,N. Ole Nielsen,Calvin O. Qualset,Ardeshir B. Damania
Publisher: CRC Press
One of the critical issues of our time is the dwindling capacity of the planet to provide life support for a large and growing human population. Based on a symposium on ecosystem health, Managing for Healthy Ecosystems identifies key issues that must be resolved if there is to be progress in this complex area, such as: Evolving methods for regional ecosystem health assessment employing complex adaptive systems coupled with adaptive technologies to permit accurate determination of changes in regional and global environments Issues and methods for assessing, monitoring, and managing diversity and its impact on human health in the context of climate change, agroecosystems, restoration of forests, politics, culture, and tradition. Leading thinkers in the field provide a coherent synthesis and a benchmark for the practice of this emerging field worldwide. The more than 100 peer-reviewed papers are grouped into three major parts. The first, "Emerging Concepts," explores the diverse meanings of ecosystem health within ecological, socio-economic, and human health perspectives, and the linkages to related concepts such as ecological integrity, sustainable development, and ecological footprints. The second part, "Issues and Methods," introduces methods for assessing and monitoring ecosystem health, including strategies for gaining political and stakeholder input and support for science-based ecosystem management. The final part, "Case Studies," reports experiences of interdisciplinary teams grappling with specific issues in a variety of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.
Sammler des verlorenen Schatzes. Ein waghalsiger Forscher begibt sich auf eine der abenteuerlichsten Expeditionen, die es je gab: Alfred Russel Wallace und seine Forschungsreise ins Amazonasgebiet. Auf eigene Faust bricht der Naturenthusiast Alfred Russel Wallace im Jahr 1848 von England nach Brasilien auf, um die Tier- und Pf lanzenwelt am Amazonas zu erforschen. Wallace schlägt sich von Pará (heute Belém) aus zu den Oberläufen des Rio Negro durch – und gelangt dabei in Gegenden, die noch kein Europäer vor ihm betreten hatte. Die Beobachtung der Affen- und Schmetterlingsarten an beiden Flussufern bringt ihn erstmals auf die Spur der Evolutionstheorie, die er später zeitgleich mit Charles Darwin entwickeln wird. Die Erträge seiner Expedition sind großartig, das Unternehmen endet jedoch in einer Katastrophe: Von Krankheiten, Sandf löhen (die ihre Eier unter seine Zehennägel legen) und den ewigen Kriebelmücken geplagt, ist Wallace am Ende so ausgezehrt, dass er nur mit der Hilfe der Einheimischen überlebt. Die aber trinken den Alkohol, mit dem eigentlich die Fundstücke konserviert werden sollten; und Horden von Ameisen machen sich über die Sammlung her. Auf dem Rückweg setzt Wallace alles auf eine Karte: Er selbst, seine Aufzeichnungen und Zigtausende Sammlungsstücke treten auf dem Zweimaster Helen die Heimreise an. Auf hoher See bricht an Bord ein Feuer aus. Die Besatzung kann sich auf Beiboote retten. Doch für Wallace’ Sammlung, auch für die lebenden Affen und Vögel, die in England an Zoos und Sammler verkauft werden sollten, gibt es keine Rettung. Nur einen einzigen Papagei kann Wallace lebend aus dem Wasser fischen. Der gesamte Ertrag seiner Reise versinkt in den Fluten des Ozeans. Zurück in England, rekonstruiert Wallace seine Erlebnisse anhand von wenigen Notizen und Erinnerungen. Seinen Reisebericht, sowohl Abenteuerroman, Forschungsgeschichte und frühes Zeugnis der Suche nach dem Ursprung der Arten, gab es auf Deutsch nur 1855 in einer stark verstümmelten Fassung – nun, nach über 150 Jahren, wird er endlich für die deutschsprachige Leserschaft erschlossen!