This monograph contains a selection of over 250 propositions which are equivalent to AC. The first part on set forms has sections on the well-ordering theorem, variants of AC, the law of the trichotomy, maximal principles, statements related to the axiom of foundation, forms from algebra, cardinal number theory, and a final section of forms from topology, analysis and logic. The second part deals with the axiom of choice for classes - well-ordering theorem, choice and maximal principles.
Classic undergraduate text acquaints students with fundamental concepts and methods of mathematics. Topics include axiomatic method, set theory, infinite sets, groups, intuitionism, formal systems, mathematical logic, and much more. 1965 second edition.
AC, the axiom of choice, because of its non-constructive character, is the most controversial mathematical axiom. It is shunned by some, used indiscriminately by others. This treatise shows paradigmatically that disasters happen without AC and they happen with AC. Illuminating examples are drawn from diverse areas of mathematics, particularly from general topology, but also from algebra, order theory, elementary analysis, measure theory, game theory, and graph theory.
This book provides a self-contained introduction to modern set theory and also opens up some more advanced areas of current research in this field. The first part offers an overview of classical set theory wherein the focus lies on the axiom of choice and Ramsey theory. In the second part, the sophisticated technique of forcing, originally developed by Paul Cohen, is explained in great detail. With this technique, one can show that certain statements, like the continuum hypothesis, are neither provable nor disprovable from the axioms of set theory. In the last part, some topics of classical set theory are revisited and further developed in the light of forcing. The notes at the end of each chapter put the results in a historical context, and the numerous related results and the extensive list of references lead the reader to the frontier of research. This book will appeal to all mathematicians interested in the foundations of mathematics, but will be of particular use to graduates in this field.
This is an introductory undergraduate textbook in set theory. In mathematics these days, essentially everything is a set. Some knowledge of set theory is necessary part of the background everyone needs for further study of mathematics. It is also possible to study set theory for its own interest--it is a subject with intruiging results anout simple objects. This book starts with material that nobody can do without. There is no end to what can be learned of set theory, but here is a beginning.
Proceedings of the 1963 International Symposium at Berkeley
Author: J.W. Addison,Leon Henkin,Alfred Tarski
Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics: The Theory of Models covers the proceedings of the International Symposium on the Theory of Models, held at the University of California, Berkeley on June 25 to July 11, 1963. The book focuses on works devoted to the foundations of mathematics, generally known as "the theory of models." The selection first discusses the method of alternating chains, semantic construction of Lewis's systems S4 and S5, and continuous model theory. Concerns include ordered model theory, 2-valued model theory, semantics, sequents, axiomatization, formulas, axiomatic approach to hierarchies, alternating chains, and difference hierarchies. The text also ponders on Boolean notions extended to higher dimensions, elementary theories with models without automorphisms, and applications of the notions of forcing and generic sets. The manuscript takes a look at a hypothesis concerning the extension of finite relations and its verification for certain special cases, theories of functors and models, model-theoretic methods in the study of elementary logic, and extensions of relational structures. The text also reviews relatively categorical and normal theories, algebraic theories, categories, and functors, denumerable models of theories with extra predicates, and non-standard models for fragments of number theory. The selection is highly recommended for mathematicians and researchers interested in the theory of models.
L.E.J. Brouwer: Collected Works, Volume 1: Philosophy and Foundations of Mathematics focuses on the principles, operations, and approaches promoted by Brouwer in studying the philosophy and foundations of mathematics. The publication first ponders on the construction of mathematics. Topics include arithmetic of integers, negative numbers, measurable continuum, irrational numbers, Cartesian geometry, similarity group, characterization of the linear system of the Cartesian or Euclidean and hyperbolic space, and non-Archimedean uniform groups on the one-dimensional continuum. The book then examines mathematics and experience and mathematics and logic. Topics include denumerably unfinished sets, continuum problem, logic of relations, consistency proofs for formal systems independent of their interpretation, infinite numbers, and problems of space and time. The text is a valuable reference for students, mathematicians, and researchers interested in the contributions of Brouwer in the studies on the philosophy and foundations of mathematics.
The twenty-three papers collected in tbis volume represent an important part of my published work up to the date of this volume. I have not arranged the paper chronologically, but under four main headings. Part I contains five papers on methodology concerned with models and measurement in the sciences. This part also contains the first paper I published, 'A Set of Independent Axioms for Extensive Quantities', in Portugaliae Mathematica in 1951. Part 11 also is concerned with methodology and ineludes six papers on probability and utility. It is not always easy to separate papers on probability and utility from papers on measurement, because of the elose connection between the two subjects, but Artieles 6 and 8, even though they have elose relations to measurement, seem more properly to belong in Part 11, because they are concerned with substantive questions about probability and utility. The last two parts are concerned with the foundations of physics and the foundations of psychology. I have used the term foundations rather than philosophy, because the papers are mainly concerned with specific axiomatic formulations for particular parts of physics or of psychology, and it seems to me that the termfoundations more appropriately describes such constructive axiomatic ventures. Part 111 contains four papers on the foundations of physics. The first paper deals with foundations of special relativity and the last three with the role ofprobability in quantum mechanics.
The gap between the rote, calculational learning mode of calculus and ordinary differential equations and the more theoretical learning mode of analysis and abstract algebra grows ever wider and more distinct, and students' need for a well-guided transition grows with it. For more than six years, the bestselling first edition of this classic text has helped them cross the mathematical bridge to more advanced studies in topics such as topology, abstract algebra, and real analysis. Carefully revised, expanded, and brought thoroughly up to date, the Elements of Advanced Mathematics, Second Edition now does the job even better, building the background, tools, and skills students need to meet the challenges of mathematical rigor, axiomatics, and proofs. New in the Second Edition: Expanded explanations of propositional, predicate, and first-order logic, especially valuable in theoretical computer science A chapter that explores the deeper properties of the real numbers, including topological issues and the Cantor set Fuller treatment of proof techniques with expanded discussions on induction, counting arguments, enumeration, and dissection Streamlined treatment of non-Euclidean geometry Discussions on partial orderings, total ordering, and well orderings that fit naturally into the context of relations More thorough treatment of the Axiom of Choice and its equivalents Additional material on Russell's paradox and related ideas Expanded treatment of group theory that helps students grasp the axiomatic method A wealth of added exercises
This text covers the parts of contemporary set theory relevant to other areas of pure mathematics. After a review of "naïve" set theory, it develops the Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms of the theory before discussing the ordinal and cardinal numbers. It then delves into contemporary set theory, covering such topics as the Borel hierarchy and Lebesgue measure. A final chapter presents an alternative conception of set theory useful in computer science.
Tamara J. Lakins
General -- Instructional exposition (textbooks, tutorial papers, etc.)
Category: General -- Instructional exposition (textbooks, tutorial papers, etc.)
This accessible textbook gives beginning undergraduate mathematics students a first exposure to introductory logic, proofs, sets, functions, number theory, relations, finite and infinite sets, and the foundations of analysis. The book provides students with a quick path to writing proofs and a practical collection of tools that they can use in later mathematics courses such as abstract algebra and analysis. The importance of the logical structure of a mathematical statement as a framework for finding a proof of that statement, and the proper use of variables, is an early and consistent theme used throughout the book.
The first part of this book concerns the present state of the theory of chains (= total or linear orderings), in connection with some refinements of Ramsey's theorem, due to Galvin and Nash-Williams. This leads to the fundamental Laver's embeddability theorem for scattered chains, using Nash-Williams' better quasi-orderings, barriers and forerunning. The second part (chapters 9 to 12) extends to general relations the main notions and results from order-type theory. An important connection appears with permutation theory (Cameron, Pouzet, Livingstone and Wagner) and with logics (existence criterion of Pouzet-Vaught for saturated relations). The notion of bound of a relation (due to the author) leads to important calculus of thresholds by Frasnay, Hodges, Lachlan and Shelah. The redaction systematically goes back to set-theoretic axioms and precise definitions (such as Tarski's definition for finite sets), so that for each statement it is mentioned either that ZF axioms suffice, or what other axioms are needed (choice, continuum, dependent choice, ultrafilter axiom, etc.).
On the Computable and Reverse Mathematics of Combinatorial Principles
Author: Denis R Hirschfeldt
Publisher: World Scientific
This book is a brief and focused introduction to the reverse mathematics and computability theory of combinatorial principles, an area of research which has seen a particular surge of activity in the last few years. It provides an overview of some fundamental ideas and techniques, and enough context to make it possible for students with at least a basic knowledge of computability theory and proof theory to appreciate the exciting advances currently happening in the area, and perhaps make contributions of their own. It adopts a case-study approach, using the study of versions of Ramsey's Theorem (for colorings of tuples of natural numbers) and related principles as illustrations of various aspects of computability theoretic and reverse mathematical analysis. This book contains many exercises and open questions. Contents:Setting Off: An IntroductionGathering Our Tools: Basic Concepts and NotationFinding Our Path: König's Lemma and ComputabilityGauging Our Strength: Reverse MathematicsIn Defense of DisarrayAchieving Consensus: Ramsey's TheoremPreserving Our Power: ConservativityDrawing a Map: Five DiagramsExploring Our Surroundings: The World Below RT22Charging Ahead: Further TopicsLagniappe: A Proof of Liu's Theorem Readership: Graduates and researchers in mathematical logic. Key Features:This book assumes minimal background in mathematical logic and takes the reader all the way to current research in a highly active areaIt is the first detailed introduction to this particular approach to this area of researchThe combination of fully worked out arguments and exercises make this book well suited to self-study by graduate students and other researchers unfamiliar with the areaKeywords:Reverse Mathematics;Computability Theory;Computable Mathematics;Computable Combinatorics
Hailed by the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society as "undoubtedly a major addition to the literature of mathematical logic," this volume examines the essential topics and theorems of mathematical reasoning. No background in logic is assumed, and the examples are chosen from a variety of mathematical fields. Starting with an introduction to symbolic logic, the first eight chapters develop logic through the restricted predicate calculus. Topics include the statement calculus, the use of names, an axiomatic treatment of the statement calculus, descriptions, and equality. Succeeding chapters explore abstract set theory—with examinations of class membership as well as relations and functions—cardinal and ordinal arithmetic, and the axiom of choice. An invaluable reference book for all mathematicians, this text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Numerous exercises make it particularly appropriate for classroom use.
Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this treatment examines the basic paradoxes and history of set theory and advanced topics such as relations and functions, equipollence, more. 1960 edition.