**Author**: H. Rubin

**Publisher:** Elsevier

**ISBN:**

**Category:** Mathematics

**Page:** 321

**View:** 842

This monograph contains a selection of over 250 propositions which are equivalent to AC. The first part on set forms has sections on the well-ordering theorem, variants of AC, the law of the trichotomy, maximal principles, statements related to the axiom of foundation, forms from algebra, cardinal number theory, and a final section of forms from topology, analysis and logic. The second part deals with the axiom of choice for classes - well-ordering theorem, choice and maximal principles.

This book provides a self-contained introduction to modern set theory and also opens up some more advanced areas of current research in this field. The first part offers an overview of classical set theory wherein the focus lies on the axiom of choice and Ramsey theory. In the second part, the sophisticated technique of forcing, originally developed by Paul Cohen, is explained in great detail. With this technique, one can show that certain statements, like the continuum hypothesis, are neither provable nor disprovable from the axioms of set theory. In the last part, some topics of classical set theory are revisited and further developed in the light of forcing. The notes at the end of each chapter put the results in a historical context, and the numerous related results and the extensive list of references lead the reader to the frontier of research. This book will appeal to all mathematicians interested in the foundations of mathematics, but will be of particular use to graduates in this field.

AC, the axiom of choice, because of its non-constructive character, is the most controversial mathematical axiom, shunned by some, used indiscriminately by others. This treatise shows paradigmatically that: - Disasters happen without AC: Many fundamental mathematical results fail (being equivalent in ZF to AC or to some weak form of AC). - Disasters happen with AC: Many undesirable mathematical monsters are being created (e.g., non measurable sets and undeterminate games). - Some beautiful mathematical theorems hold only if AC is replaced by some alternative axiom, contradicting AC (e.g., by AD, the axiom of determinateness). Illuminating examples are drawn from diverse areas of mathematics, particularly from general topology, but also from algebra, order theory, elementary analysis, measure theory, game theory, and graph theory.

This text for the first or second year undergraduate in mathematics, logic, computer science, or social sciences, introduces the reader to logic, proofs, sets, and number theory. It also serves as an excellent independent study reference and resource for instructors. Adapted from Foundations of Logic and Mathematics: Applications to Science and Cryptography © 2002 Birkhӓuser, this second edition provides a modern introduction to the foundations of logic, mathematics, and computers science, developing the theory that demonstrates construction of all mathematics and theoretical computer science from logic and set theory. The focuses is on foundations, with specific statements of all the associated axioms and rules of logic and set theory, and provides complete details and derivations of formal proofs. Copious references to literature that document historical development is also provided. Answers are found to many questions that usually remain unanswered: Why is the truth table for logical implication so unintuitive? Why are there no recipes to design proofs? Where do these numerous mathematical rules come from? What issues in logic, mathematics, and computer science still remain unresolved? And the perennial question: In what ways are we going to use this material? Additionally, the selection of topics presented reflects many major accomplishments from the twentieth century and includes applications in game theory and Nash's equilibrium, Gale and Shapley's match making algorithms, Arrow's Impossibility Theorem in voting, to name a few. From the reviews of the first edition: "...All the results are proved in full detail from first principles...remarkably, the arithmetic laws on the rational numbers are proved, step after step, starting from the very definitions!...This is a valuable reference text and a useful companion for anybody wondering how basic mathematical concepts can be rigorously developed within set theory." —MATHEMATICAL REVIEWS "Rigorous and modern in its theoretical aspect, attractive as a detective novel in its applied aspects, this paper book deserves the attention of both beginners and advanced students in mathematics, logic and computer sciences as well as in social sciences." —Zentralblatt MATH

This introductory graduate text covers modern mathematical logic from propositional, first-order and infinitary logic and Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems to extensive introductions to set theory, model theory and recursion (computability) theory. Based on the author's more than 35 years of teaching experience, the book develops students' intuition by presenting complex ideas in the simplest context for which they make sense. The book is appropriate for use as a classroom text, for self-study, and as a reference on the state of modern logic.

Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this treatment examines the basic paradoxes and history of set theory and advanced topics such as relations and functions, equipollence, more. 1960 edition.

This text covers the parts of contemporary set theory relevant to other areas of pure mathematics. After a review of "naïve" set theory, it develops the Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms of the theory before discussing the ordinal and cardinal numbers. It then delves into contemporary set theory, covering such topics as the Borel hierarchy and Lebesgue measure. A final chapter presents an alternative conception of set theory useful in computer science.

The gap between the rote, calculational learning mode of calculus and ordinary differential equations and the more theoretical learning mode of analysis and abstract algebra grows ever wider and more distinct, and students' need for a well-guided transition grows with it. For more than six years, the bestselling first edition of this classic text has helped them cross the mathematical bridge to more advanced studies in topics such as topology, abstract algebra, and real analysis. Carefully revised, expanded, and brought thoroughly up to date, the Elements of Advanced Mathematics, Second Edition now does the job even better, building the background, tools, and skills students need to meet the challenges of mathematical rigor, axiomatics, and proofs. New in the Second Edition: Expanded explanations of propositional, predicate, and first-order logic, especially valuable in theoretical computer science A chapter that explores the deeper properties of the real numbers, including topological issues and the Cantor set Fuller treatment of proof techniques with expanded discussions on induction, counting arguments, enumeration, and dissection Streamlined treatment of non-Euclidean geometry Discussions on partial orderings, total ordering, and well orderings that fit naturally into the context of relations More thorough treatment of the Axiom of Choice and its equivalents Additional material on Russell's paradox and related ideas Expanded treatment of group theory that helps students grasp the axiomatic method A wealth of added exercises