Handbook of Environmental Health, Fourth Edition, Volume II

Pollutant Interactions in Air, Water, and Soil

Author: Herman Koren

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 904

View: 236

The Handbook of Environmental Health-Pollutant Interactions in Air, Water, and Soil includes Nine Chapters on a variety of topics basically following a standard chapter outline where applicable with the exception of Chapters 8 and 9. The outline is as follows: 1. Background and status 2. Scientific, technological and general information 3. Statement of the problem 4. Potential for intervention 5. Some specific resources 6. Standards, practices, and techniques 7. Modes of surveillance and evaluation 8. Various controls 9. Summary of the chapter 10. Research needs for the future Chapter 1, Air Quality Management discusses various clean air acts, toxic air pollutants, the various types of pollutants, the composition of the atmosphere, global warming, ozone depletion, various atmospheric regions, air currents and movement, air temperature, inversions, urban and topographic effects, weather, physical properties of gases including various laws, psychometric properties of air, particulate matter, settling velocity of particles, particle retention in lungs, alteration and transportation of particulate matter, bubble concept. It also discusses various regulated air pollutants including nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, a range of hydrocarbons both aliphatic and aromatic, photochemical oxidants, organic gaseous discharges, simplified reactions in the atmosphere, ozone, methyl bromide, lead, asbestos, beryllium, cadmium, mercury, fluorides, odors. Air pollutants from incinerators, cement kilns, backyard burning, external combustion, internal combustion, attrition, evaporation, incineration, pulp and paper mills, iron and steel mills, petroleum refineries, metallurgical industries, chemical manufacturers, power plants, food and agricultural industries are also included. Air toxics and hazardous air pollutants are of considerable significance. Major source categories of air pollutants are discussed. There is a significant amount of material on disease and injury potential from air pollutants and a discussion of the respiratory system, the eye, systemic effect, digestive system. Economic effects are discussed including problems of visibility, acid deposition, global atmospheric changes. The latest standards, practices and techniques used for all of the air pollutants discussed as well as modes of surveillance and evaluation are in the text. Air pollution controls and state-of-the-art graphics are utilized to better understand how to control various air pollutants. Chapter 2, Solid and Hazardous Waste Management discusses residential waste, commercial waste, municipal waste, institutional and research laboratory waste, infectious and medical waste, industrial waste, food waste, yard waste, food processing waste, metal waste, paper, plastics, glass, wood, aluminum, chemical waste, rubber, radioactive waste, mining waste, agricultural waste, recreational waste, abandoned automobiles, packaging materials, refuse-derived fuels, heavy metals, toxic releases. It also discusses in detail pollution prevention and waste minimization, municipal solid waste reduction, Hazardous Waste and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, solid waste storage systems, on-site volume reduction systems, central volume reduction systems. Various collections systems, individual, community, industrial, agricultural are included. Sanitary landfills and the attendant problems are discussed in detail. Other concerns include types and properties of solid waste, hydrology and climatology, soils and geology, planning and design of landfills, site selection, types of soils, equipment, converting landfill gas and electricity. Incineration of various types are discussed including air emissions, general design of equipment, residue analysis and, incinerator process water, special waste handling. Composting and biological treatment includes physical and chemical processes, biological processes, different compost systems, innovative uses of compost. Pyrolysis includes pyrolysis oils, carbon black, reclamation and recycling. The disposal of solid waste includes the problems of land pollution, water pollution, air pollution, spread of disease through the waste and by means of insects and rodents. Chemical hazards in the human environment include endocrine disruptors, dioxins, other hazardous waste, injuries and occupational hazards. Types of hazardous waste include ignitable, corrosive, reactive, toxic waste. Hazardous waste transportation, waste discharge hazards, underground storage tanks are also discussed. Toxics release inventory, material handling technologies are significant. Redeveloping Brownfields are important. Standards, practices, and techniques are available for all forms of solid and hazardous waste disposal. The Superfund and the various acts related to it, are discussed. Study and evaluation techniques as well as controls and treatment techniques are an essential part of the material. Employee protection programs as well as other solid and hazardous waste programs and integrated techniques of disposal are part of the material. Chapter 3, Private and Public Water Supplies discusses the most recent laws and water quality. It also discusses the hydrologic cycle, human impact on the water cycle, hydrogeology, geographic information system, EnviroMapper, global positioning system. There is an extensive discussion of water treatment including chemical reactions, dosage and concentration terminology, environmental concerns, water distribution, wells, ponds or lakes, springs, rivers. Water treatment plants include state-of-the-art graphics of water intake, aeration, sedimentation, filtration, chlorination, storage including reservoirs where discussions of hypochlorination of water, ozone, aeration, chlorine, chlorine dioxide are described. Water supply problems include physical problems, chemical hazards, radiological hazards, groundwater and surface water relationships, groundwater contamination, public water system contamination by injection wells, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, gasoline. There is a discussion of risk assessment and risk management of water supplies. Biological factors include waterborne disease outbreaks, E. Coli 0157: H7 and Campylobacter outbreaks. Standards, practices, and procedures are established for safe drinking water. There’s a discussion and state-of-the-art graphics of dug or bored wells, driven wells, plumbing, drilled wells, well construction, well pumps, storage of well water, well testing, well disinfection, chlorination equipment, filters. Water treatment plant surveys, mapping programs for groundwater supplies, waterborne disease investigation are essential. Appropriate survey forms and US EPA studies and techniques are included. New technologies in water treatment are important. Chapter 4, Swimming Areas discusses water treatment, sources of water supply, pool hydraulic system, disinfection, swimming pool chemistry, chemistry of ozone in water, swimming pool calculations, therapeutic pools, bathing beaches and microbiological characteristics, recent outbreaks of disease, potential safety problems, current standards, practices and techniques, pool plans review, pool equipment, filtration systems, chemical feed, water testing, inspection techniques all accompanied by appropriate state-of-the-art graphics. Chapter 5, Plumbing discusses basic principles of plumbing related to environmental health, principles of hydraulics, cross connections, black flow, plumbing problems of public health significance, interceptors, separators, backwater valves, indirect and special waste, water supply and distribution systems, drainage systems, liquid medical waste, geothermal heat pump systems, tests and maintenance, means of preventing backflow, uniform plumbing code. Chapter 6, Private and Public Sewage Disposal and Soils discusses sources of sewage, appearance and composition of sewage, dissolved gases, biological composition of sewage, oxygen demand in sewage, chemical changes in sewage composition, decomposition of organic matter in sewage, biological sludges, sewage disposal concepts, sewage contaminants in groundwater, holding tank concept, sewage system infrastructure, primary treatment, secondary sewage treatment techniques including trickling filter systems, activated sludge process, rotating biological contactors, contact aeration process, intermittent sand filters, stabilization ponds, chlorination of sewage. Sludge digestion, treatment, and disposal techniques are discussed in depth. Advanced water treatment techniques, suspended solids removal, adsorption, oxidation, foam separation, distillation, electrodialysis, freezing, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, phosphate removal, nitrate removal are discussed. Package treatment plants are included. There is a substantial discussion of the topic of soils including soil profile, soil formation and composition, properties and qualities of soils, soil texture, permeability, soil structure, shrink-swell potential, classification and naming of soils, characteristic used to differentiate soils, effluents from septic tanks and soils, reduction of sewage effluent by soil, evapotranspiration and climate, soil-clogging effects of septic tank effluents, soil cleaning technologies, soil surveys. Equipment and systems are described in depth including septic tanks, aerobic tank systems, dosing tanks, soil absorption systems, and all forms of municipal treatment systems. State-of-the-art graphics is used throughout the chapter to highlight the information. Chapter 7, Water Pollution and Water Quality Controls discusses all of the federal laws related to water, water pollution, water quality and clean water. It also discusses wetlands, coastal waters, estuaries, the ocean, the effects of heat, acidity and alkalinity, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand-biological oxygen demand-dissolved oxygen relationships, solids and water pollution, nutrients and water pollution, water resource problems, pollutants and their sources, municipal waste, ocean pollution, National Eutrophication Study, non-point source pollution of all types, pesticides. There is a substantial discussion of the major point sources of pollution, techniques used to measure the levels of pollution and appropriate controls. The type of pollutants include oxygen-depleting wastes, toxic and hazardous wastes, waste causing physical damage, waste producing tastes and odors, waste containing inorganic dissolved solids, plant nutrients, radioactive wastes, corrosive wastes, pathogenic wastes, thermal pollution, dredging waste, sedimentation wastes, oil, mining drainage, feedlot pollution, waste from watercraft, irrigation. Public health aspects of water pollution include a large variety of biological hazards, bacterial, viral, protozoa, helminths, microorganisms in shellfish and microorganisms in wastewater aerosols. Chemical hazards include a large number of chemical substances potentially hazardous to humans through either drinking water or the food chain. They are trihalomethanes, MTBE and other airborne volatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, other organic compounds, potential mutagens in wastewater and sludge, toxic organics from homes, organics found in raw municipal wastewater, organics found in raw municipal sludge, organics found in soil and groundwater, heavy metals in sludge, detergents. Standards, practices and techniques related to fish and wildlife areas, swimming areas are included. Public water supplies are discussed in Chapter 3. There is a significant presentation on proper sludge disposal as well as land application of sewage sludge. Wastewater treatment techniques are provided for biological waste and chemical waste. Chapter 8, Terrorism and Environmental Health Emergencies discusses the nature of terrorism, various types of terrorist acts including biological, chemical, nuclear, radiological, electrical systems, agricultural, cyber. The Strategic Plan for Preparedness and Response and the National Strategy for Combating Terrorism which was published December 15, 2000 is discussed in detail. Also included is the Strategic Plan of the Centers for Disease Control from the year 2000 as well as US Government Interagency Domestic Terrorism Concept of Operations Plan of January 2001. In addition disasters and how best to deal with them including earthquakes, floods, forest fires, hurricanes, landslides, radiological spills, tornadoes and windstorms are part of the chapter. There is a discussion of the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Law, Federal Emergency Management Agency, emergency management at the state level, National Disaster Medical System, disaster response guidelines for ambulance providers, community disaster plans, hospital disaster plans, emergency vehicles and emergency communications systems, environmental response teams, mental health needs and disasters. Specific environmental health measures are established for housing, food, water, insect and rodent control, sewage, solid and hazardous waste, radiation. Chapter 9, Major Instrumentation for Environmental Evaluation of Ambient Air, Water, and Soil discusses techniques for collecting soil samples, water samples, air samples for particulates, air samples for gases and vapors, remote monitoring of gases, vapors, and particulates, stack sampling for gases, vapors and particulates. Sample analysis techniques are presented for soil and water samples. State of the art graphics are utilized to help understand sampling techniques. A large and current bibliography by chapter is included at the end of the book. The state-of-the-art computerized graphics produced by internationally acclaimed artist, can be found throughout the book. A comprehensive index of both volume II and volume I is at the end of the book to aid the reader in easily finding necessary information. The reader is referred to volume I when appropriate. The book is user-friendly to a variety of individuals including generalists professionals as well as specialists, industrial hygiene personnel, health and medical personnel, the media, supervisors and managers of environmental health and occupational health areas, and students. Individuals can easily gain appropriate and applicable standards, rules and regulations to help the individual increase knowledge in a given area or solve actual problems. The book is utilized to help individuals also prepare for registration examinations. The book is co–published with the National Environmental Health Association.

Handbook of Environmental Health, Fourth Edition

Biological, Chemical, and Physical Agents of Environmentally Related Disease

Author: Herman Koren

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 824

View: 607

The Handbook of Environmental Health-Biological, Chemical and Physical Agents of Environmentally Related Disease, Volume 1, Fourth Edition includes twelve chapters on a variety of topics basically following a standard chapter outline where applicable with the exception of chapters 1, 2 and 12. The outline is as follows: 1. Background and status 2. Scientific, technological and general information 3. Statement of the problem 4. Potential for intervention 5. Some specific resources 6. Standards, practices, and techniques 7. Modes of surveillance and evaluation 8. Various controls 9. Summary of the chapter 10. Research needs for the future Chapter 1, Environment and Humans discusses ecosystems, energy technologies and environmental problems, important concepts of chemistry, transport and alteration of chemicals in the environment, environmental economics, risk-benefit analysis, environmental health law, environmental impact statements, competencies for the environmental health practitioner. Chapter 2, Environmental Problems and Human Health has a general discussion of people and disease followed by a brief discussion of physiology including the human cell, blood, lymphatic system, tissue membranes, nervous system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal system and urinary system. There is a discussion of toxicological principles including toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. There is a discussion of carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, reproductive toxicity and teratogenesis and the role of environmental contaminants in causing disease. Medical surveillance techniques utilized to measure potential toxicity are included. Basic concepts of microbiology are discussed followed by principles of communicable diseases and emerging infectious diseases. There’s an explanation of epidemiological principles including epidemiological investigations and environmental health and environmental epidemiology. The chapter concludes with a discussion of risk assessment and risk management. Chapter 3, Food Protection discusses food microbiology, reproduction and growth of microorganisms, environmental effects on bacteria, detergents and disinfectants, sources of foodborne disease exposure, FoodNet, various foodborne infections, bacterial food poisoning, chemical poisoning, poisonous plants and fungi, allergic reactions, parasitic infections, chronic aftereffects of foodborne disease, vessel sanitation programs, food quality protection acts, plans review, food service facilities, food storage, inspection techniques, preparation and serving of food, cleaning and sanitizing equipment and utensils, insect and rodent control, flow systems, epidemiological study techniques, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Inspection, food protection controls, food service training programs, national food safety initiative. Chapter 4, Food Technology discusses emerging or reemerging foodborne pathogens, chemistry of foods, food additives and preservatives, food spoilage, pesticides and fertilizers in food, antibiotics in food, heavy metals and the food chain, use of recycled plastics in food packaging, environmental problems in milk processing, poultry processing, egg processing, meat processing, fish and shellfish processing, produce processing, and imported foods. National standards, practices and techniques are provided for milk, ice cream, poultry, eggs, meat, produce and seafood. Current modes of surveillance and evaluation as well as appropriate control measures are provided for each of the above areas. Chapter 5, Insect Control discusses scientific, technological, and general information about various insects of public health significance including fleas, flies, lice, mites, mosquitoes, and roaches. There is a substantial discussion of the many diseases transmitted by insects including African Bite Fever, Bubonic Plague, Chagas Disease, Colorado Tick Fever, Dengue Fever, Ehrlichioses, Encephalitis, Lyme Disease, Malaria, Rickettsial Pox, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Scabies, Scrub Typhus, Tularemia, Typhus Fever, Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers, Yellow Fever. Included in the text are the national standards, practices, and techniques utilized to conduct surveys, methods of prevention and controls of the insects. Further there is a discussion of emerging and reemerging insect borne diseases including why this is occurring. Integrated pest management is a special topic. Chapter 6, Rodent Control discusses the characteristics and behavior of murine rodents and deer mice, how they affect humans and the various diseases that they cause. National standards, practices and techniques are established for rodent poisoning and trapping, food and harborage removal, and rodent proofing. A special feature is the discussion of an actual working community rodent control program. Chapter 7, Pesticides discusses current issues, current laws and the effects of pesticides on groundwater, surface water, land, food, air and people. The various categories of pesticides and current allowable usage of inorganic insecticides and petroleum compounds, chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, carbamates, biolarvicides, and insect growth regulators are discussed. Chapter 8, Indoor Environment discusses indoor air pollution, housing, health and the housing environment, human illness, monitoring environmental disease, residential wood combustion, environmental tobacco smoke, carbon monoxide, radon gas, volatile organic compounds, asbestos, molds, bacteria and other biological contaminants, environmental lead hazards, noise, accidents and injuries. National standards, practices, and techniques are provided for all areas of the indoor environment, and survey techniques and housing studies are included. Chapter 9-Institutional Environment discusses the complex environment and potential for disease in nursing and convalescent homes, old-age homes, schools, colleges, and universities, prisons and hospitals. There are in-depth discussions on the potential for spread of disease through air, water, fomites, surfaces, people, food, laundry, insects and rodents, laboratories and biohazards, and surgical suites. Within the hospital setting there are extended discussions of heating, air conditioning, and laminar flow, housekeeping, laundry, solid and hazardous waste, maintenance, plumbing, food, hazardous chemicals, insects and rodents, radioactive materials, water supply, emergency medical services, fire safety and patient safety programs. Handwashing and hospital environmental control is explained in depth including the various microorganisms that may be transmitted by hands. There is a special discussion on laboratories and bio hazards including bacterial agents, fungal agents, parasitic agents, prions, rickettsial agents, viral agents, arborviruses and related zoological viruses. There are additional discussions on human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, tuberculosis, resistant organisms. Emerging and reemerging infection problems are of great significance. Hospital acquired infection and routes of transmission are significant problems. Occupational health and safety problems in the hospital are analyzed. The most recent CDC guidelines for all these areas are included. A significant number of inspection and survey forms are included in order for the reader to get a better understanding of specific problems in a specific institution. Chapter 10-Recreational Environment includes problems and solutions to problems in water quality, water supply, sewage, plumbing, shelter, food, solid waste, fish handling, stables, swimming and boating. Chapter 11-Occupational Environment includes a discussion of the interrelated challenges of various pressures in the environment. It includes physical agents such as sound, non-ionizing radiation, ionizing radiation, hot and cold temperature extremes. It also includes discussions of chemical agents such as toxic chemicals, flammable chemicals, corrosive chemicals, reactive agents. It includes discussions of biological agents. Ergonomics is an essential part of the chapter. The occupational health controls of substitution, isolation, ventilation, personal protective equipment, housekeeping, and education for control of physical agents, chemical agents, biological agents and ergonomic factors are also discussed. Chapter 12-Major Instrumentation for Environmental Evaluation of Occupational, Residential, and Public Indoor Settings discusses instantaneous or real-time monitoring, integrated or continuous monitoring, personal monitoring and area monitoring. Techniques and equipment are discussed for various airborne particulates and gaseous agents. Integrated or continuous monitoring of sound as well as instantaneous or real-time monitoring of sound is explained. Evaluation of air temperature factors are discussed. Evaluations of the illumination, microwave radiation, electric and magnetic fields, ionizing radiation, air pressure, velocity and flow rate are presented. Excellent graphics help the reader understand the principles of instrumentation. A large and current bibliography by chapter is included at the end of the book. This state-of-the-art computerized graphics can be found throughout the book. A comprehensive index of both Volume I and Volume II is at the end of the book to aid the reader in easily finding necessary information. The reader is referred to the Volume II when appropriate. The book is user-friendly to a variety of individuals including generalalist professionals as well as specialists, industrial hygiene personnel, health and medical personnel, the media, supervisors and managers of environmental health and occupational health areas, and students. Individuals can easily gain appropriate and applicable standards, rules and regulations to help the individual increase knowledge in a given area or solve actual problems. The book is utilized to help individuals also prepare for registration examinations. The book is co-published with the National Environmental Health Association.

Handbook of Environmental Health, Fourth Edition, Two Volume Set

Author: Herman Koren

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 1722

View: 843

The two-volume Handbook of Environmental Health, Fourth Edition provides a comprehensive but concise discussion of important environmental health areas, including energy, ecology and people, environmental epidemiology, risk assessment and risk management, environmental law, air quality management, food protection, insect control, rodent control, pesticides, chemical environment, environmental economics, human disease and injury, occupational health and safety, noise, radiation, recreational environment, indoor environments, medical care institutions, schools and universities, prisons, solid and hazardous waste management, water supply, plumbing, swimming areas, sewage disposal, soils, water pollution control, environmental health emergencies, and nuisance complaints. The handbook presents background material that gives students and professionals an understanding of the areas under discussion and describes common problems and potential solutions. Each volume includes illustrative graphs, graphs, computerized drawings, inspection sheets, and flowcharts that consolidate or clarify textual material. These books are neither engineering texts nor comprehensive texts in each area of study. Their purpose is to provide a solid working knowledge of each environmental health area with sufficient detail for practitioners and students. The text can be used in basic courses in environmental health, environmental pollution, and ecology. For general areas of study, the instructor can omit specific details, such as resources, standards, practices and techniques, and modes of surveillance and evaluation. Practitioners in a variety of environmental health and occupational health and safety fields will find these volumes handy references for resolving current problems and for obtaining a better understanding of unfamiliar areas. Practitioners and administrators in other areas, such as food processing, water-quality control, occupational health and safety, and solid and hazardous waste management, will also find these reference books useful. High school teachers often must introduce environmental health topics in their classes and yet have no specific background in this area. They can be used as a text in graduate education courses for high school teachers as well as a reference, the material divides easily into two separate courses. In Volume I readers are introduced to the underlying problems, basic concerns, and basic philosophy of environmental health. The ecological, economic, and energy bases provided help individuals understand their relationship to the ecosystem and to the real world of economic and energy concerns. It also provides an understanding of the role of government and the environmental health practitioner in helping to resolve environmental and ecological dilemmas created by humans. Chapter 2 on human health helps the reader understand the relationship between biological, physical, and chemical agents, and disease and injury causation. Volume II discusses the many varied facets of terrorism and environmental emergencies, nuisances, and special problems. Students may refer to other chapters of the text to obtain a complete idea of each of the problems and the potential solutions.

Handbook of Environmental Health, Fourth Edition, Volume I

Biological, Chemical, and Physical Agents of Environmentally Related Disease

Author: Michael S. Bisesi

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 824

View: 619

The Handbook of Environmental Health-Biological, Chemical and Physical Agents of Environmentally Related Disease, Volume 1, Fourth Edition includes twelve chapters on a variety of topics basically following a standard chapter outline where applicable with the exception of chapters 1, 2 and 12. The outline is as follows: 1. Background and status 2. Scientific, technological and general information 3. Statement of the problem 4. Potential for intervention 5. Some specific resources 6. Standards, practices, and techniques 7. Modes of surveillance and evaluation 8. Various controls 9. Summary of the chapter 10. Research needs for the future Chapter 1, Environment and Humans discusses ecosystems, energy technologies and environmental problems, important concepts of chemistry, transport and alteration of chemicals in the environment, environmental economics, risk-benefit analysis, environmental health law, environmental impact statements, competencies for the environmental health practitioner. Chapter 2, Environmental Problems and Human Health has a general discussion of people and disease followed by a brief discussion of physiology including the human cell, blood, lymphatic system, tissue membranes, nervous system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal system and urinary system. There is a discussion of toxicological principles including toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. There is a discussion of carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, reproductive toxicity and teratogenesis and the role of environmental contaminants in causing disease. Medical surveillance techniques utilized to measure potential toxicity are included. Basic concepts of microbiology are discussed followed by principles of communicable diseases and emerging infectious diseases. There�s an explanation of epidemiological principles including epidemiological investigations and environmental health and environmental epidemiology. The chapter concludes with a discussion of risk assessment and risk management. Chapter 3, Food Protection discusses food microbiology, reproduction and growth of microorganisms, environmental effects on bacteria, detergents and disinfectants, sources of foodborne disease exposure, FoodNet, various foodborne infections, bacterial food poisoning, chemical poisoning, poisonous plants and fungi, allergic reactions, parasitic infections, chronic aftereffects of foodborne disease, vessel sanitation programs, food quality protection acts, plans review, food service facilities, food storage, inspection techniques, preparation and serving of food, cleaning and sanitizing equipment and utensils, insect and rodent control, flow systems, epidemiological study techniques, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Inspection, food protection controls, food service training programs, national food safety initiative. Chapter 4, Food Technology discusses emerging or reemerging foodborne pathogens, chemistry of foods, food additives and preservatives, food spoilage, pesticides and fertilizers in food, antibiotics in food, heavy metals and the food chain, use of recycled plastics in food packaging, environmental problems in milk processing, poultry processing, egg processing, meat processing, fish and shellfish processing, produce processing, and imported foods. National standards, practices and techniques are provided for milk, ice cream, poultry, eggs, meat, produce and seafood. Current modes of surveillance and evaluation as well as appropriate control measures are provided for each of the above areas. Chapter 5, Insect Control discusses scientific, technological, and general information about various insects of public health significance including fleas, flies, lice, mites, mosquitoes, and roaches. There is a substantial discussion of the many diseases transmitted by insects including African Bite Fever, Bubonic Plague, Chagas Disease, Colorado Tick Fever, Dengue Fever, Ehrlichioses, Encephalitis, Lyme Disease, Malaria, Rickettsial Pox, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Scabies, Scrub Typhus, Tularemia, Typhus Fever, Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers, Yellow Fever. Included in the text are the national standards, practices, and techniques utilized to conduct surveys, methods of prevention and controls of the insects. Further there is a discussion of emerging and reemerging insect borne diseases including why this is occurring. Integrated pest management is a special topic. Chapter 6, Rodent Control discusses the characteristics and behavior of murine rodents and deer mice, how they affect humans and the various diseases that they cause. National standards, practices and techniques are established for rodent poisoning and trapping, food and harborage removal, and rodent proofing. A special feature is the discussion of an actual working community rodent control program. Chapter 7, Pesticides discusses current issues, current laws and the effects of pesticides on groundwater, surface water, land, food, air and people. The various categories of pesticides and current allowable usage of inorganic insecticides and petroleum compounds, chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, carbamates, biolarvicides, and insect growth regulators are discussed. Chapter 8, Indoor Environment discusses indoor air pollution, housing, health and the housing environment, human illness, monitoring environmental disease, residential wood combustion, environmental tobacco smoke, carbon monoxide, radon gas, volatile organic compounds, asbestos, molds, bacteria and other biological contaminants, environmental lead hazards, noise, accidents and injuries. National standards, practices, and techniques are provided for all areas of the indoor environment, and survey techniques and housing studies are included. Chapter 9-Institutional Environment discusses the complex environment and potential for disease in nursing and convalescent homes, old-age homes, schools, colleges, and universities, prisons and hospitals. There are in-depth discussions on the potential for spread of disease through air, water, fomites, surfaces, people, food, laundry, insects and rodents, laboratories and biohazards, and surgical suites. Within the hospital setting there are extended discussions of heating, air conditioning, and laminar flow, housekeeping, laundry, solid and hazardous waste, maintenance, plumbing, food, hazardous chemicals, insects and rodents, radioactive materials, water supply, emergency medical services, fire safety and patient safety programs. Handwashing and hospital environmental control is explained in depth including the various microorganisms that may be transmitted by hands. There is a special discussion on laboratories and bio hazards including bacterial agents, fungal agents, parasitic agents, prions, rickettsial agents, viral agents, arborviruses and related zoological viruses. There are additional discussions on human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, tuberculosis, resistant organisms. Emerging and reemerging infection problems are of great significance. Hospital acquired infection and routes of transmission are significant problems. Occupational health and safety problems in the hospital are analyzed. The most recent CDC guidelines for all these areas are included. A significant number of inspection and survey forms are included in order for the reader to get a better understanding of specific problems in a specific institution. Chapter 10-Recreational Environment includes problems and solutions to problems in water quality, water supply, sewage, plumbing, shelter, food, solid waste, fish handling, stables, swimming and boating. Chapter 11-Occupational Environment includes a discussion of the interrelated challenges of various pressures in the environment. It includes physical agents such as sound, non-ionizing radiation, ionizing radiation, hot and cold temperature extremes. It also includes discussions of chemical agents such as toxic chemicals, flammable chemicals, corrosive chemicals, reactive agents. It includes discussions of biological agents. Ergonomics is an essential part of the chapter. The occupational health controls of substitution, isolation, ventilation, personal protective equipment, housekeeping, and education for control of physical agents, chemical agents, biological agents and ergonomic factors are also discussed. Chapter 12-Major Instrumentation for Environmental Evaluation of Occupational, Residential, and Public Indoor Settings discusses instantaneous or real-time monitoring, integrated or continuous monitoring, personal monitoring and area monitoring. Techniques and equipment are discussed for various airborne particulates and gaseous agents. Integrated or continuous monitoring of sound as well as instantaneous or real-time monitoring of sound is explained. Evaluation of air temperature factors are discussed. Evaluations of the illumination, microwave radiation, electric and magnetic fields, ionizing radiation, air pressure, velocity and flow rate are presented. Excellent graphics help the reader understand the principles of instrumentation. A large and current bibliography by chapter is included at the end of the book. This state-of-the-art computerized graphics can be found throughout the book. A comprehensive index of both Volume I and Volume II is at the end of the book to aid the reader in easily finding necessary information. The reader is referred to the Volume II when appropriate. The book is user-friendly to a variety of individuals including generalalist professionals as well as specialists, industrial hygiene personnel, health and medical personnel, the media, supervisors and managers of environmental health and occupational health areas, and students. Individuals can easily gain

Living with the Earth, Fourth Edition

Concepts in Environmental Health Science

Author: Gary S. Moore

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Nature

Page: 582

View: 732

Shelving Guide; Environmental Science This is a groundbreaking and innovative book now in its fourth edition. The first edition won the CHOICE award for outstanding Academic Book while editions two and three became bestsellers on their own right. This fourth edition is packed with new updates on current world events associated with environmental issues and related health concerns. The author maintains traditional concepts and merges them with new and controversial issues. The book has been revised to include up-to-date topics with and a revised Web site with updated links. So what Coverage of emergency preparedness for environmental health practitioners Discussion of population dynamics especially with regard to overpopulation and underpopulation around the world and their respective influences on social, economic, and environmental concerns. The mechanisms of environmental disease, emphasizing genetic disease and its role in developmental disorders and cancer. Human behaviors and pollution are presented along with respect to their roles in cancer risk. The ever increasing issues surrounding emerging and re-emerging diseases around the earth and the introduction of an increasing number of emerging diseases. The growing problems of asthma and other health effects associated with air pollution. An exploration of the mechanisms of toxicity with special reference to the immune system and endocrine disruption. The ongoing issues of the creation and disposal of hazardous waste along with the controversies surrounding disposal are presented. The issues and benefits of recycling are explored. The use of HACCP in assuring food quality, food safety issues, and the Food Quality Protection Act are discussed. Numerous technical illustrations, charts, graphs, and photographs are included What on the Web? Test bank and study questions giving a complete review of the concepts covered. Search tools for online journals and databases covering useful, up-to-date information in health and environmental topics Subject specific links by chapter as well as Federal, state, and organization sites with relevant information Downloadable PowerPoint files for each Chapter providing the instructor with ready-made presentation materials that can be modified as needed. Downloadable and printable test questions and answers for each chapter available to instructors

Environmental Health

Author: Dade W. Moeller

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Nature

Page: 518

View: 844

This new edition of Environmental Health emphasizes the challenges students will face in the field: the local and global implications of environmental health initiatives, their short- and long-range effects, their importance to both developing and developed nations, and the roles individuals can play in helping to resolve these problems.

Environmental and Occupational Medicine

Author: William N. Rom

Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 1884

View: 714

PROPOSAL DESCRIPTION: Now in its updated Fourth Edition, this classic text provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of occupational and environmental medicine. The book offers accurate, current information on the history, causes, prevention, and treatment of a wide range of environmental and occupational diseases and includes numerous case studies.This edition includes more information on gene-environment interactions. The section on air pollution has been completely reorganized. Other Fourth Edition highlights include expanded coverage of government responses to the field and a new chapter on children's environmental health. Now in its updated Fourth Edition, this classic text provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of occupational and environmental medicine. The book offers accurate, current information on the history, causes, prevention, and treatment of a wide range of environmental and occupational diseases and includes numerous case studies. This edition includes more information on gene-environment interactions. The section on air pollution has been completely reorganized. Other Fourth Edition highlights include expanded coverage of government responses to the field and a new chapter on children's environmental health.

Environmental Health Sourcebook

Basic Consumer Health Information about the Environment and Its Effects on Human Health ...

Author: Keith Jones

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Electronic books

Page:

View: 786

Environmental Health Sourcebook, 4th Edition, provides information about the effects of the environment on human health. It discusses specific populations in which the effects of environmental exposures are especially harmful and, in some cases, can have a lasting impact that extends to future generations. Information is given on airborne, waterborne, foodborne, and chemical hazards, and facts are presented about environmental triggers that may be associated with cancer, respiratory problems, infertility, autism, and other diseases.

CURRENT Occupational & Environmental Medicine: Fourth Edition

Author: Joseph LaDou

Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 860

View: 470

Up-to-the-minute, thorough, clinical coverage of common and important occupational and environmental diseases, injuries, and exposures Complete, yet concise, this clinically focused guide offers the definitive overview of common occupational and environmental illnesses, covering their diagnosis and treatment-plus preventive and remedial measures in the workplace and community. With its practical format and emphasis on fundamental topics, CURRENT Occupational and Environmental Medicine is just as essential for students and residents as it is for practicing physicians. You can count on the new fourth edition to deliver the bottom-line answers you need to stay on track in this complex, fast-breaking field. Features: The latest OSHA/NIOSH guidelines for occupational exposure standards Detailed diagnostic checklist for major diseases, injuries, and exposure that help expedite diagnosis and treatment The most clinically relevant perspectives on disability prevention-required reading for the occupational physician Skill-building insights on the importance of ergonomics in the workplace A step-by-step review of how to effectively manage an occupational health and safety program Details on substance abuse and employee assistance programs, health risk analysis, and the legal aspects of occupational and environmental medicine Preventive approaches to terrorist attacks on industry Information-packed primer on epidemiology and biostatistics for the occupational and environmental health specialist Up-to-date references with PMID numbers and peer-reviewed websites

McGraw-Hill Education ASVAB with DVD, Fourth Edition

Author: Janet E. Wall

Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional

ISBN:

Category: Study Aids

Page:

View: 890

The updated, complete guide for preparing for the ASVAB, the required entrance exam for all branches of the U.S. Armed Forces Each year one million people take the ASVAB exam. Sponsored by the Department of Defense, the exam is administered year-round in high schools and at recruiting centers nationwide. ASVAB scores are used to measure aptitude for a variety of careers in the military. They are also used to determine whether or not potential military recruits qualify for enlistment and which military jobs are best for each recruit. McGraw-Hill Education's ASVAB with Downloadable Tests, Fourth Edition includes reviews of all subjects tested, tips and strategies for answering specific question types, sample exams modeled on the real exam, an answer key with complete explanations for every question, and inside information on ASVAB testing, scoring, and pursuing a military career. Author Dr. Janet E. Wall, a former key member of the Defense Department's ASVAB team, will guide you through every step of the military entrance process. • 4 full-length ASVAB practice tests • Downloadable interactive tests modeled on the real exam • Extensive review and practice for the challenging Assembling Objects section • In-depth review of all test subjects, from algebra to shop tools • Proven strategies for the ASVAB subtests that determine eligibility for enlistment and job training programs • The latest information from the Department of Defense and the military • Answers to common questions about military enlistment and jobs