Energy and Urban Built Form contains the papers that were presented at the International Seminar on Urban Built Form and Energy Analysis, held at Darwin College in Cambridge on June 26 and 27, 1986. The seminar focused on energy use in the built environment at an intermediate scale, between individual buildings and cities, where urban and architectural factors interact. It also covers the simulation and analysis of the performance of groups of buildings, from city blocks and industrial developments to mixed-use urban developments, housing estates, and stocks of buildings such as schools and houses. Organized into four parts encompassing 13 chapters, this volume describes techniques for calculating and minimizing energy consumption in groups of buildings, cities or entire regions. It first provides an overview of mathematical models, as well as approaches to the computation of the energy demand or energy-related properties of housing designs or groups of buildings. It then explores the politics of energy and the built environment, the mechanisms by which technical developments may be translated into effective action, and the energy efficiency of the urban built form. The reader is also introduced to passive solar scenarios for the UK domestic sector, intermediate-scale energy initiatives in the United Kingdom, thermal efficiency of building clusters, and glazed courtyards as an element of the low-energy city. This book is a valuable resource for city planners and engineers, scientists, and anyone interested in energy conservation.
Author: Elizabeth Burton,Mike Jenks,Katie Williams
Category: Political Science
Achieving Sustainable Urban Form represents a major advance in the sustainable development debate. It presents research which defines elements of sustainable urban form - density, size, configuration, detailed design and quality - from macro to micro scale. Case studies from Europe, the USA and Australia are used to illustrate good practice within the fields of planning, urban design and architecture.
Energy, Cooling and Urban Form: The Asian Perspective
Author: Ali Cheshmehzangi,Chris Butters
Category: Social Science
This edited book surveys the major sustainability challenges facing Asian cities, in particular those related to urban energy and city cooling. The book discusses the key concepts and issues involved, addressing the three levels of micro (individual buildings), meso (neighbourhoods/districts) and macro (whole or large parts of cities). It illustrates different paradigms of urban development and explores how to create cooler cities by applying integrated sustainable design and planning on all three levels, bridging the gap between specialist approaches by highlighting both built projects, processes, and research. It also raises questions about prevalent paradigms of urban development as well as topics relating to urban district cooling solutions, sustainable construction materials, and processes towards effective delivery of sustainable cities. Providing cutting edge insights into hot climate cities in Asia, this text is also pertinent for the study of cities in other world regions, notably in developing countries, and of broad relevance to sustainable urban planning in all contexts.
Author: Matheos Santamouris,Demosthenes N. Asimakopoulos
The comprehensively updated and expanded new edition of this no-nonsense student and practice primer equips the contemporary architect to deal with the profession's most important challenge: designing buildings for sustainability. Brian Edwards' book pull
Energy use in buildings in the EU represents about 40% of the total annual energy consumption. With greater awareness of the need to reduce energy consumption comes a growth of interest in passive cooling, particularly as an alternative to air-conditioning. This book describes the fundamentals of passive cooling together with the principles and formulae necessary for its successful implementation. The material is comprised largely of information and results compiled under the SAVE European Research Programme.
This book explores sustainable development and green design in relation to urban structure and built form. The subject matter of this book is the pattern or structure of the city: it concentrates particularly on the organisation of the public realm. The book aims to relate the main component of urban design to a general theory or urban structuring with a strong design emphasis but within the general field of sustainable city development. Any discussion of urban design that does not address environmental issues has little meaning at a time of declining resources, ozone layer destruction and fears of the greenhouse effect. The book therefore discusses built form, street block, quarter, city centres and city structure in terms of energy conservation and sustainability. This book will be valuable in raising awareness and generating debate as well as providing useful reference material. It not only observes and documents the roots and growth of green design but will influence design, transport and policy for the future.
The CityForm consortium’s latest book, Dimensions of the Sustainable City, is the first book to report on an empirical multi-disciplinary study specifically designed to address urban sustainability. Drawing together the various dimensions of sustainability – economic, social, transport, energy and ecological – the book examines their relationships both to each other and to urban form. The book investigates the sustainability dimensions of cities through a series of projects based on a common list of elements of urban form, and which draw on the consortium’s latest research to review the sustainability issues of each dimension. The elements of urban form include density, land use, location, accessibility, transport infrastructure and characteristics of the built environment. The book also addresses issues such as adapting cities, psychological and ecological benefits of green space and sustainable lifestyles, each presenting a critical review of the relevant literature followed by an empirical analysis presenting the key results. Based on studies across five UK cities, the book draws out findings of relevance to sustainable cities worldwide. As well as an invaluable reference to researchers in sustainable planning and urban design, the book will provide a useful text for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses and for policy makers dealing with these issues. The CityForm consortium is a multi-disciplinary group of researchers from five universities funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Science Research Council from 2003-07.
Throughout the world, there is an increasing interest in ecological design of buildings, and natural ventilation has proved to be the most efficient low-energy cooling technique. Its practical application, however, is hindered by the lack of information on the complex relationship between the building and its urban environment. In this book, a team of experts provide first-hand information and tools on the efficient use of natural ventilation in urban buildings. Key design principles are explained, enabling readers to decide on the best solution for natural ventilation of buildings, taking into account climate and urban context.In the initial sketches, architects need answers to open problems such as 'what kind of solution to adopt' and 'how to modify existing strategies to exploit the potential of the site'. This book formalizes the multi-criteria analysis of candidate solutions based on quantitative and qualitative estimation of the driving forces (wind and buoyancy), as well as of the barriers induced by the urban environment (wind speed reduction, noise and pollution) and gives a methodology for optimal design of openings. The book is accompanied by a FREE CD, containing software for assessing the potential of a given site, estimating wind speed and dimensioning the openings for natural ventilation. The methodologies and tools are tested, self-contained and user friendly.About the editorsThe editors, Cristian Ghiaus and Francis Allard, are affiliated with the University of La Rochelle, France. The authors and reviewers combine expertise from universities, research institutions and industry in Belgium, France, Great Britain, Greece, Portugal and Switzerland.
The idea of creating New Towns, in its modern form, was emerged in Iran for the first time in the early 20th century, when the process of industrialisation and modernisation began in the country and the urban population increased dramatically. Nowadays the New Towns are being considered as important strategic responses to the emerging Megacities with various urban problems such as pollution, poverty and traffic by the government. The developments in the new towns are in fact building the city from the very first step, so it gives a proper opportunity whereas make it decisive that the concept of sustainability in all its terms and dimensions—social, physical and economical—is followed in the designs and planning strategies in the city. The few researches on the sustainability of built environment in the Hashtgerd New Town mainly focus on either the scale and dimension of architecture or the scale of the city. Although in achieving energy efficiency, the architecture of the complex plays an important role, the urban configurations at the lower resolutions of scale impact the efficiency of architectural designs by filtering the synoptic climates too. So, this text emphasises on the role of the urban geometry as a parameter which influences the sustainability in the city and tries to figure out how efficiently the conventional urban pattern in Hashtgerd New Town act in comparison to the other patterns. The dimension of sustainability which has been focused is the building energy consumption.
Reconfiguring the Built Environment for Sustainability
Author: Mark Urizar
Publisher: Xlibris Corporation
Society seems to be tied irrevocably to long-term patterns of resource use, and to producing unassimilatable waste, emissions, and ongoing environmental degradation. There also are seemingly irresolvable dilemmas between humanity and nature, society and ecology, and utility and beauty, where each decision we make seems to cause some harm. To change from our present path and resolve these, we must have the courage to break from traditions and use our knowhow to progressively and creatively enhance the existing built form so a new built reality emerges, one that enriches people and possibly enables a sustainable future. This alternate path necessitates a holistic approach, one that can more effectively merge and better utilise the disciplines of architecture, engineering, art, sciences and business to integrate the many different parts within the built environment, and produce a vibrant, viable new whole. With this approach, we could begin to transform the built environment into an entity that virtually replicates and functions as a natural sustainable system. Every decision we make is important. What practices, processes, technologies are applied, to how built elements are designed, placed, structured, configured and interfaced, are all important. These determine what eventuates; the built form, architecture, and the ultimate appropriateness of the resulting outcome. By determining what is appropriate, this book provides a retrospective view of the semi-static present built environment with its many in-place processes, issues, constraints, and opportunities, and postulates what is required by visualising the possible alternatives for the always growing built environment. These provide a useful insight into how the built form and urban life can be enhanced, and thereby also how humanity can use architecture to live in a more equitable balance, possibly in harmony and sustainably with nature.
Three broad sectors of the economy are generally recognized as key to a low carbon future: energy, construction and transportation. Of these, carbon management in the built environment remains the least well-studied. This much-needed book brings together the latest developments in the field of climate change science, building design, materials science, energy and policy in a form readily accessible to both students of the built environment and practitioners. Although several books exist in the broad area of carbon management, this is the first to bring together carbon management technology, technique and policy as they apply to the building sector. Clear and succinct sections on the overarching principles, policies, approaches and technologies are combined with case studies and more in-depth coverage of the most relevant topics. It explains how to produce a simple carbon footprint calculation, while also being an informative guide for those developing or implementing more advanced approaches. This easy to read book is the ideal primer for anyone needing to get to grips with carbon management in the built environment.
This book brings together a dozen of Philip Steadman�s essays and papers on the geometry of architectural and urban form, written over the last twelve years. New introductions link the papers and set them in context. There are two large themes: a morphological approach to the history of architecture, and studies of possibility in built form. Within this framework the papers cover the geometrical character of the building stock as a whole; histories of selected building types; analyses of density and energy in relation to urban form; and systematic methods for enumerating building plans and built forms. They touch on a range of key topics of debate in architectural theory and building science. Illustrated with over 200 black and white images, this collection provides an accessible and coherent guide to this important work.
Architecture is energy. Lines drawn on paper to represent architectural intentions also imply decades and sometimes centuries of associated energy and material flows. Form Follows Energy is about the relationship between energy and the form of our built environment. It examines the optimisation of energy flows in building and urban design and the implications for form and configuration. It speaks to both architectural and engineering audiences and offers for the first time a truly interdisciplinary overview on the subject, explaining the complex relationships between energy and architecture in an easy to follow manner and using simple diagrams to show how energy design strategies can be used to maximize the energy performance of our built environment, while at the same time leading to new aesthetic qualities and radically new forms in architecture and urban design. Case studies are used to illustrate the theory. The books philosophy is based on the guiding principles underlying nearly 30 years work in practice, research and teaching. It is relatively easy to make something simple seem complicated. To make a complex topic seem simple and easily understandable is far more of a challenge and this is the aim of this book.
Winner of the Planning Institute of Australia's 2015 Cutting Edge Research and Teaching Award! Australians from all walks of life have begun to realise the nation’s cities cannot sustain profligate growth indefinitely. Dwindling water supplies, failing food bowls, increased energy costs, more severe bushfires, severe storms, flooding, coastal erosion, rising transport expenses, housing shortages and environmental pollution are now daily news headlines. Australia’s cities may have reached their ecological limits: a new model for planning the places we live is needed. Understanding the natural cycles of the city is just as important to planning our cities as knowledge of local ordinances, indeed much more so. A profound knowledge of environmental processes is critical for successful planning in today’s world. Environmental planners take as their guiding principle the concept of designing with nature, approaching cities as living organisms that consume water, energy and raw materials, and produce waste. This metabolic view of cities means we can find new solutions to old problems, and steer our cities towards a more sustainable form of planning. Written specifically for students and professionals working in city planning in Australia, this ground-breaking new book enables Australian planners, architects and developers to get a better understanding of the fundamental principles of environmental planning for cities, showing how land, water, air, energy, wildlife and people shape our built environments, and how in turn environmental processes must be better understood if we are to make informed decisions about developing cities that are more sustainable. The book’s coverage is comprehensive: from an overview of the concepts and theories of environmental planning, through analysis of governance systems and urban environmental processes to agendas and policies for the future, all the key topics are covered in depth, with recommendations for supporting reading and an unrivalled selection of additional materials. Ideal for students, essential for professionals, Australian Environmental Planning is vital reading for more sustainable cities in a more sustainable world.
The headlines about cities celebrating their resurgence—with empty nesters and Millennials alike investing in our urban areas, moving away from car dependence, and demanding walkable, transit-oriented neighborhoods. But, in reality, these changes are taking place in a scattered and piecemeal fashion. While areas of a handful of cities are booming, most US metros continue to follow old patterns of central city decline and suburban sprawl. As demographic shifts change housing markets and climate change ushers in new ways of looking at settlement patterns, pressure for change in urban policy is growing. More and more policy makers are raising questions about the soundness of policies that squander our investment in urban housing, built environment, and infrastructure while continuing to support expansion of sprawling, auto-dependent development. Changing these policies is the central challenge facing US cities and metro regions, and those who manage them or plan their future. In America's Urban Future, urban experts Tomalty and Mallach examine US policy in the light of the Canadian experience, and use that experience as a starting point to generate specific policy recommendations. Their recommendations are designed to help the US further its urban revival, build more walkable, energy-efficient communities, and in particular, help land use adapt better to the needs of the aging population. Tomalty and Mallach show how Canada, a country similar to the US in many respects, has fostered healthier urban centers and more energy- and resource-efficient suburban growth. They call for a rethinking of US public policies across those areas and look closely at what may be achievable at federal, state, and local levels in light of both the constraints and opportunities inherent in today's political systems and economic realities.
Containing over 3,100 entries on all aspects of both human and physical geography, this best-selling dictionary is the most authoritative single-volume reference work of its kind. It includes coverage of cartography, surveying, meteorology, climatology, ecology, population, industry, and development. Worked examples and diagrams are provided for many entries, including 15 new illustrations. All existing entries have been fully revised and updated for this new edition, and there is now expanded coverage of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and glacial geomorphology, as well as the inclusion of more international examples within definitions, broadening its coverage considerably. The dictionary includes more than 400 new entries, including economies of scope, marginalization, rurality, and tax havens and offshore financial centres. Recommended web links are suggested for many entries, accessible and kept up to date via the Dictionary of Geography companion website. Packed with clear, concise, and authoritative information, this A-Z reference is an essential companion for all students and teachers of geography.
In The Death and Life of Great American Cities durchleuchtet Jane Jacobs 1961 die fragwürdigen Methoden der Stadtplanung und Stadtsanierung in Amerika, der "New Yorker" nannte es das unkonventionellste und provozierendste Buch über Städtebau seit langem. Die deutsche Ausgabe wurde schnell auch im deutschsprachigem Raum zu einer viel gelesenen und diskutierten Lektüre. Sie ist jetzt wieder in einem Nachdruck zugänglich, mit einem Vorwort von Gerd Albers (1993), das nach der Aktualität dieser Streitschrift fragt.
Solar thermal is now a proven technology in terms of reliability, cost-benefit, and low environmental impact. The integration of solar thermal systems and installations into the design of buildings can provide a clean, efficient and sustainable low-energy solution for heating and cooling, whilst, taken in a wider context, contributing to climate protection. This book covers the state of the art in the application of solar thermal technologies for buildings. This is the first book in the BEST (Buildings, Energy and Solar Technology) Series. This series presents high-quality theoretical and application-oriented material on solar energy and energy-efficient technologies. Leading international experts cover the strategies and technologies that form the basis of high-performance, sustainable buildings, crucial to enhancing our built and urban environment.
Wie orientieren wir uns in einer Stadt? Woher rühren unsere ganz fest umrissenen visuellen Vorstellungen? Um diese Fragen beantworten zu können, studierte Kevin Lynch die Erfahrungen von Menschen und zeigt damit, wie man das Bild der Stadt wieder lebendiger und einprägsamer machen könnte.