Elements of Evolutionary Genetics

Author: Brian Charlesworth

Publisher: Roberts Publishers

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 734

View: 7716

Evolutionary genetics considers the causes of evolutionary change and the nature of variability in evolution. The methods of evolutionary genetics are critically important for the analysis and interpretation of the massive datasets on DNA sequence variation and evolution that are becoming available, as well for our understanding of evolution in general. This book shows readers how models of the genetic processes involved in evolution are made (including natural selection, migration, mutation, and genetic drift in finite populations), and how the models are used to interpret classical and molecular genetic data. The material is intended for advanced level undergraduate courses in genetics and evolutionary biology, graduate students in evolutionary biology and human genetics, and researchers in related fields who wish to learn evolutionary genetics. The topics covered include genetic variation, DNA sequence variability and its measurement, the different types of natural selection and their effects (e.g. the maintenance of variation, directional selection, and adaptation), the interactions between selection and mutation or migration, the description and analysis of variation at multiple sites in the genome, genetic drift, and the effects of spatial structure. The final two chapters demonstrate how the theory illuminates our understanding of the evolution of breeding systems, sex ratios and life histories, and some aspects of genome evolution.

Genes in Conflict

The Biology of Selfish Genetic Elements

Author: Austin BURT,Robert Trivers,Austin Burt

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674029119

Category: Science

Page: 632

View: 5411

Covering all species from yeast to humans, this is the first book to tell the story of selfish genetic elements that act narrowly to advance their own replication at the expense of the larger organism.

Evolutionary Quantitative Genetics

Author: Derek Roff

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461540801

Category: Science

Page: 494

View: 767

The impetus for this book arose out of my previous book, The Evolution of Life Histories (Roff, 1992). In that book I presented a single chapter on quanti tative genetic theory. However, as the book was concerned with the evolution of life histories and traits connected to this, the presence of quantitative genetic variation was an underlying theme throughout. Much of the focus was placed on optimality theory, for it is this approach that has proven to be extremely successful in the analysis of life history variation. But quantitative genetics cannot be ig nored, because there are some questions for which optimality approaches are inappropriate; for example, although optimality modeling can address the ques tion of the maintenance of phenotypic variation, it cannot say anything about genetic variation, on which further evolution clearly depends. The present book is, thus, a natural extension of the first. I have approached the problem not from the point of view of an animal or plant breeder but from that of one interested in understanding the evolution of quantitative traits in wild populations. The subject is large with a considerable body of theory: I generally present the assumptions underlying the analysis and the results, giving the relevant references for those interested in the intervening mathematics. My interest is in what quantitative genetics tells me about evolutionary processes; therefore, I have concentrated on areas of research most relevant to field studies.

Evolution and Selection of Quantitative Traits

Author: Bruce Walsh,Michael Lynch

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192566644

Category: Science

Page: 1504

View: 4799

Quantitative traits-be they morphological or physiological characters, aspects of behavior, or genome-level features such as the amount of RNA or protein expression for a specific gene-usually show considerable variation within and among populations. Quantitative genetics, also referred to as the genetics of complex traits, is the study of such characters and is based on mathematical models of evolution in which many genes influence the trait and in which non-genetic factors may also be important. Evolution and Selection of Quantitative Traits presents a holistic treatment of the subject, showing the interplay between theory and data with extensive discussions on statistical issues relating to the estimation of the biologically relevant parameters for these models. Quantitative genetics is viewed as the bridge between complex mathematical models of trait evolution and real-world data, and the authors have clearly framed their treatment as such. This is the second volume in a planned trilogy that summarizes the modern field of quantitative genetics, informed by empirical observations from wide-ranging fields (agriculture, evolution, ecology, and human biology) as well as population genetics, statistical theory, mathematical modeling, genetics, and genomics. Whilst volume 1 (1998) dealt with the genetics of such traits, the main focus of volume 2 is on their evolution, with a special emphasis on detecting selection (ranging from the use of genomic and historical data through to ecological field data) and examining its consequences.

Genetics and the Origin of Species

Author: Theodosius Dobzhansky,Theodosius Grigorievich Dobzhansky

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231054751

Category: Science

Page: 364

View: 589

Featuring an introduction by Stephen Jay Gould, "Genetics and the Origin of Species" presents the first edition of Dobzhansky's groundbreaking and now classic inquiry into what has emerged as the most important single area of scientific inquiry in the twentieth century: biological theory of evolution. Genetics and the Origin of Species went through three editions (1937, 1941, and 1951) in which the importance accorded natural selection changed radically.

Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation

Author: Peter Hammerstein

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262083263

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 485

View: 1736

The latest interdisciplinary research on the evolutionary models of cooperation.

The Origins of Genome Architecture

Author: Michael Lynch

Publisher: Sinauer Associates Incorporated

ISBN: N.A

Category: Medical

Page: 494

View: 3503

The availability of genomic blueprints for hundreds of species has led to a transformation in biology, encouraging the proliferation of adaptive arguments for the evolution of genomic features, yet often sacrificing simpler, more compelling explanations. This textbook explains why the details matter and presents an explanatory framework for how the architectural diversity of eukarotic genomes and genes came to arise. Presented in non-technical fashion, it is compatible for use in an advanced Genetics course and as a professional reference.

Making Sense of Evolution

The Conceptual Foundations of Evolutionary Biology

Author: Massimo Pigliucci,Jonathan Kaplan

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226668355

Category: Science

Page: 236

View: 3547

Making Sense of Evolution explores contemporary evolutionary biology, focusing on the elements of theories—selection, adaptation, and species—that are complex and open to multiple possible interpretations, many of which are incompatible with one another and with other accepted practices in the discipline. Particular experimental methods, for example, may demand one understanding of “selection,” while the application of the same concept to another area of evolutionary biology could necessitate a very different definition. Spotlighting these conceptual difficulties and presenting alternate theoretical interpretations that alleviate this incompatibility, Massimo Pigliucci and Jonathan Kaplan intertwine scientific and philosophical analysis to produce a coherent picture of evolutionary biology. Innovative and controversial, Making Sense of Evolution encourages further development of the Modern Synthesis and outlines what might be necessary for the continued refinement of this evolving field.

Genetics and Evolution of Infectious Diseases

Author: Michel Tibayrenc

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128001534

Category: Medical

Page: 686

View: 9158

Genetics and Evolution of Infectious Diseases, Second Edition, discusses the constantly evolving field of infectious diseases and their continued impact on the health of populations, especially in resource-limited areas of the world. Students in public health, biomedical professionals, clinicians, public health practitioners, and decisions-makers will find valuable information in this book that is relevant to the control and prevention of neglected and emerging worldwide diseases that are a major cause of global morbidity, disability, and mortality. Although substantial gains have been made in public health interventions for the treatment, prevention, and control of infectious diseases during the last century, in recent decades the world has witnessed a worldwide human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic, increasing antimicrobial resistance, and the emergence of many new bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral pathogens. The economic, social, and political burden of infectious diseases is most evident in developing countries which must confront the dual burden of death and disability due to infectious and chronic illnesses. Takes an integrated approach to infectious diseases Includes contributions from leading authorities Provides the latest developments in the field of infectious disease

Principles of Evolutionary Genetics

Author: Roger Greer

Publisher: Syrawood Publishing House

ISBN: 9781682865958

Category: Science

Page: 241

View: 1795

Evolutionary genetics studies new mutations that still occur within a species. It derives its primary principles from evolutionary milestones that have been highlighted by the theory of natural selection. There are multiple micro-evolutionary changes that occur within the various groups of a species and they manifest as macro-evolutionary patterns across a period of time, resulting in varying individual and social behavioral actions. Evolutionary genetics has been applied in sub-fields such as ecological genetics, population genetics and quantitative genetics. This book strives to provide a fair idea about this discipline and to help develop a better understanding of the latest advances within this field. It will serve as a reference to a broad spectrum of readers.

Toward an Evolutionary Biology of Language

Author: Philip Lieberman

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674021846

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 427

View: 2065

In this forcefully argued book, the leading evolutionary theorist of language provides a framework for studying the evolution of human language and cognition. Philip Lieberman asserts that the widely influential theories of language's development are inconsistent with principles and findings of evolutionary biology and neuroscience. In his view, the human language ability is the confluence of a succession of separate evolutionary developments, jury-rigged by natural selection to work together for an evolutionarily unique ability.

Relics of Eden

The Powerful Evidence of Evolution in Human DNA

Author: Daniel J. Fairbanks

Publisher: Prometheus Books

ISBN: 1615920099

Category: Science

Page: 281

View: 2080

Since the publication in 1859 of Darwin’s Origin of Species, debate over the theory of evolution has been continuous and often impassioned. In recent years, opponents of "Darwin’s dangerous idea" have mounted history’s most sophisticated and generously funded attack, claiming that evolution is "a theory in crisis." Ironically, these claims are being made at a time when the explosion of information from genome projects has revealed the most compelling and overwhelming evidence of evolution ever discovered. Much of the latest evidence of human evolution comes not from our genes, but from so-called "junk DNA," leftover relics of our evolutionary history that make up the vast majority of our DNA. Relics of Eden explores this powerful DNA-based evidence of human evolution. The "relics" are the millions of functionally useless but scientifically informative remnants of our evolutionary ancestry trapped in the DNA of every person on the planet. For example, the analysis of the chimpanzee and Rhesus monkey genomes shows indisputable evidence of the human evolutionary relationship with other primates. Over 95 percent of our genome is identical with that of chimpanzees and we also have a good deal in common with other animal species. Author Daniel J. Fairbanks also discusses what DNA analysis reveals about where humans originated. The diversity of DNA sequences repeatedly confirms the archeological evidence that humans originated in sub-Saharan Africa (the "Eden" of the title) and from there migrated through the Middle East and Asia to Europe, Australia, and the Americas. In conclusion, Fairbanks confronts the supposed dichotomy between evolution and religion, arguing that both science and religion are complementary ways to seek truth. He appeals to the vast majority of Americans who hold religious convictions not to be fooled by the pseudoscience of Creationists and Intelligent Design advocates and to abandon the false dichotomy between religion and real science. This concise, very readable presentation of recent genetic research is completely accessible to the nonspecialist and makes for enlightening and fascinating reading.

Mutation-Driven Evolution

Author: Masatoshi Nei

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191637823

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 4549

The purpose of this book is to present a new mechanistic theory of mutation-driven evolution based on recent advances in genomics and evolutionary developmental biology. The theory asserts, perhaps somewhat controversially, that the driving force behind evolution is mutation, with natural selection being of only secondary importance. The word 'mutation' is used to describe any kind of change in DNA such as nucleotide substitution, gene duplication/deletion, chromosomal change, and genome duplication. A brief history of the principal evolutionary theories (Darwinism, mutationism, neo-Darwinism, and neo-mutationism) that preceded the theory of mutation-driven evolution is also presented in the context of the last 150 years of research. However, the core of the book is concerned with recent studies of genomics and the molecular basis of phenotypic evolution, and their relevance to mutation-driven evolution. In contrast to neo-Darwinism, mutation-driven evolution is capable of explaining real examples of evolution such as the evolution of olfactory receptors, sex-determination in animals, and the general scheme of hybrid sterility. In this sense the theory proposed is more realistic than its predecessors, and gives a more logical explanation of various evolutionary events. Mutation-Driven Evolution is suitable for graduate level students as well as professional researchers (both empiricists and theoreticians) in the fields of molecular evolution and population genetics. It assumes that the readers are acquainted with basic knowledge of genetics and molecular biology.

Population Genetics

A Concise Guide

Author: John H. Gillespie

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9781421401706

Category: Science

Page: 232

View: 8542

This book is indispensable for students working in a laboratory setting or studying free-ranging populations.

Human Population Genetics

Author: John H. Relethford

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470464674

Category: Science

Page: 296

View: 903

"Human Population Genetics will provide an introduction to mathematical population genetics, along with relevant examples from human (and some non-human primate) populations, and will also present concepts and methods of population genetics that are specific to the study of human populations. The purpose of this book is to provide a basic background text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students interesting in the mechanisms of human microevolution"--

Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128004266

Category: Science

Page: 2132

View: 1170

Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology is the definitive go-to reference in the field of evolutionary biology. It provides a fully comprehensive review of the field in an easy to search structure. Under the collective leadership of fifteen distinguished section editors, it is comprised of articles written by leading experts in the field, providing a full review of the current status of each topic. The articles are up-to-date and fully illustrated with in-text references that allow readers to easily access primary literature. While all entries are authoritative and valuable to those with advanced understanding of evolutionary biology, they are also intended to be accessible to both advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Broad topics include the history of evolutionary biology, population genetics, quantitative genetics; speciation, life history evolution, evolution of sex and mating systems, evolutionary biogeography, evolutionary developmental biology, molecular and genome evolution, coevolution, phylogenetic methods, microbial evolution, diversification of plants and fungi, diversification of animals, and applied evolution. Presents fully comprehensive content, allowing easy access to fundamental information and links to primary research Contains concise articles by leading experts in the field that ensures current coverage of each topic Provides ancillary learning tools like tables, illustrations, and multimedia features to assist with the comprehension process

The Evolution of the Genome

Author: T. Ryan Gregory

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080470528

Category: Science

Page: 768

View: 3608

The Evolution of the Genome provides a much needed overview of genomic study through clear, detailed, expert-authored discussions of the key areas in genome biology. This includes the evolution of genome size, genomic parasites, gene and ancient genome duplications, polypoidy, comparative genomics, and the implications of these genome-level phenomena for evolutionary theory. In addition to reviewing the current state of knowledge of these fields in an accessible way, the various chapters also provide historical and conceptual background information, highlight the ways in which the critical questions are actually being studied, indicate some important areas for future research, and build bridges across traditional professional and taxonomic boundaries. The Evolution of the Genome will serve as a critical resource for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and established scientists alike who are interested in the issue of genome evolution in the broadest sense. Provides detailed, clearly written chapters authored by leading researchers in their respective fields Presents a much-needed overview of the historical and theoretical context of the various areas of genomic study Creates important links between topics in order to promote integration across subdisciplines, including descriptions of how each subject is actually studied Provides information specifically designed to be accessible to established researchers, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students alike

Chance in Evolution

Author: Grant Ramsey,Charles H. Pence

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022640191X

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 1858

Humans, however much we would care to think otherwise, do not represent the fated pinnacle of ape evolution. The diversity of life, from single-celled organisms to multicellular animals and plants, is the result of a long, complex, and highly chancy history. But how profoundly has chance shaped life on earth? And what, precisely, do we mean by chance? Bringing together biologists, philosophers of science, and historians of science, Chance in Evolution is the first book to untangle the far-reaching effects of chance, contingency, and randomness on the evolution of life. The book begins by placing chance in historical context, starting with the ancients and moving through Darwin and his contemporaries, documenting how the understanding of chance changed as Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection developed into the modern synthesis, and how the acceptance of chance in Darwinian theory affected theological resistance to it. Subsequent chapters detail the role of chance in contemporary evolutionary theory—in particular, in connection with the concepts of genetic drift, mutation, and parallel evolution—as well as recent empirical work in the experimental evolution of microbes and in paleobiology. By engaging in collaboration across biology, history, philosophy, and theology, this book offers a comprehensive and synthetic overview both of the history of chance in evolution and of our current best understanding of the impact of chance on life on earth.

Evolution

Components and Mechanisms

Author: David Zeigler

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128004177

Category: Science

Page: 206

View: 6138

Evolution: Components and Mechanisms introduces the many recent discoveries and insights that have added to the discipline of organic evolution, and combines them with the key topics needed to gain a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of evolution. Each chapter covers an important topic or factor pertinent to a modern understanding of evolutionary theory, allowing easy access to particular topics for either study or review. Many chapters are cross-referenced. Modern evolutionary theory has expanded significantly within only the past two to three decades. In recent times the definition of a gene has evolved, the definition of organic evolution itself is in need of some modification, the number of known mechanisms of evolutionary change has increased dramatically, and the emphasis placed on opportunity and contingency has increased. This book synthesizes these changes and presents many of the novel topics in evolutionary theory in an accessible and thorough format. This book is an ideal, up-to-date resource for biologists, geneticists, evolutionary biologists, developmental biologists, and researchers in, as well as students and academics in these areas and professional scientists in many subfields of biology. Discusses many of the mechanisms responsible for evolutionary change Includes an appendix that provides a brief synopsis of these mechanisms with most discussed in greater detail in respective chapters Aids readers in their organization and understanding of the material by addressing the basic concepts and topics surrounding organic evolution Covers some topics not typically addressed, such as opportunity, contingency, symbiosis, and progress