Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
Category: Political Science
This major new text by two leading authorities in the field provides a state-of-the-art assessment of what we know about voting behaviour and the character, consequences and significance of elections in democratic states. It shows how patterns of electoral behaviour have evolved over time and vary in different countries.
Russia, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic, 1990-1999
Author: Joshua A. Tucker
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Political Science
This study demonstrates that in a time of massive change characterized by the emergence of entirely new political systems and a fundamental reorganization of economic life, systematic patterns of economic conditions affecting election results at the aggregate level can in fact be identified during the first decade of post-communist elections in five post-communist countries: Russia, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic. A variety of theoretical arguments concerning the conditions in which these effects are more or less likely to be present are also proposed and tested. Analysis is conducted using an original data set of regional level economic, demographic, and electoral indicators, and features both broadly based comparative assessments of the findings across all twenty elections as well as more focused case study analyses of pairs of individual elections.
Electoral systems matter. They are a crucial link in the chain connecting the preferences of citizens to the policy choices made by governments. They are chosen by political actors and, once in existence, have political consequences for those actors. They are an important object of study for anyone interested in the political process, and in this book we subject them to systematic analysis. In addition to some comparative chapters, the book contains full accounts of the operation of electoral systems in 22 countries: France, the UK, Germany, Italy, Israel, Spain, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, The Netherlands, Ireland, Hungary, Russia, Australia, Canada, India, the USA, Japan, New Zealand, Chile, and South Africa. The book provides detailed analyses of the operation of a diverse set of electoral systems in their national context. Each chapter explains how the electoral system really works in the given country, examining the strategic incentives the system provides to voters, candidates, and parties. All country chapters have a common format and structure. Successive sections analyse: the institutional context; how each electoral system was chosen historically; how the current electoral system operates (the rules, mechanics, and ballot structure); and the political consequences of the current system (the impact on the party system, the internal life of parties, and the impact on parliament and government formation). Each country chapter then contains a final section which focuses on the politicization of electoral institutions. In recent years many countries have changed their electoral systems, either entirely or in part so there is a strong focus on the processes of electoral reform, both historically and prospectively. The book concentrates on the real world 'politics', as well as the 'political science' of electoral systems. The book will be of interest to those concerned with the practical political business of electoral reform. The book contains a wealth of evidence about the performance of various kinds of proportional representation and of non-PR systems. This will be invaluable for anyone interested in the question: 'What would be the best electoral system for my country?'
Electoral Systems and Their Political Consequences
Author: Vernon Bogdanor,David Butler
Publisher: CUP Archive
Category: Political Science
This 1983 book analyses the main electoral systems of modern democracies, and places them in their institutional and historical context. A distinguished group of contributors provide interpretations of the electoral systems of the EEC countries and Japan, and assess how different electoral systems affect the political practice of each country.
Based on extensive data sets from national election studies in nine major democracies, this book brings together leading experts to assess the impact of political leaders on voting patterns. This is the first major book-length treatment of the importance of leaders' personality on the outcome of democratic elections.
The Decline of Participatory Democracy and the Emergence of Modern American Politics
Author: Mark L. Kornbluh
Publisher: NYU Press
Public involvement in the electoral process has all but disappeared. Not since World War I has even half the electorate cast ballots in an off-year election. Even at the presidential level, voting has plummeted dismally. Nonvoting is, quite simply, systemic in American politics. It was not always this way. With the integration of America's mass electorate into the electoral system in the 1830s, eligible voters were intensely participatory and remained highly mobilized throughout the nineteenth century. The turning point in American politics came during the first two decades of this century when, from unmatched heights in the 1890s, voter turnouts fell repeatedly election after election. Examining mass political behavior in twenty successive national elections, Why America Stopped Voting is the first work to combine political analysis with social analysis, resulting in a truly interdisciplinary book that places electoral participation within the larger context of American culture and society. A milestone in the evolution of our understanding of electoral politics, Why America Stopped Voting shows that the enduring decline of voter mobilization was gradual, rather than drastic and not attributable to particular political events or simply the notion that "a happy citizenry is politically apathetic." Rather, Kornbluh shows that fundamental social changes that restructured virtually every aspect of American life at the turn of the century were at the heart of the decline in voter participation.
Gary Jacobson’s classic text provides students with a comprehensive introduction to congressional elections and the electoral process. Based on the latest data from the National Election Study, the Cooperative Congressional Elections Study, and the Federal Election Commission, the Ninth Edition has been brought completely up to date, including coverage and analysis of the 2012 and 2014 elections. New coauthor, Professor Jamie L. Carson of the University of Georgia, brings to bear new insights into the changing roles of voters, Congress, political parties, and the media. Pairing historical data analysis and original research with fundamental concepts of representation and responsibility, The Politics of Congressional Elections presents students with the tools to evaluate representative government, as well as their own role in the electoral process.
In many developed countries, democratic political systems have demonstrated significant shortcomings.Malfunctioning Democracy in Japan: Quantitative Analysis in a Civil Society, by Yoshiaki Kobayashi, investigates the causes of these problems via quantitative analysis, using Japan as a particular case study.
"Postdemokratie": Dieser Begriff des Politikwissenschaftlers Colin Crouch wurde nach dem Erscheinen der Originalausgabe seines Buches zum Kristallisationspunkt der Debatte um Politikverdrossenheit, Sozialabbau und Privatisierung. Crouch hat dabei ein politisches System im Auge, dessen demokratische Institutionen zwar weiterhin formal existieren, das von Bürgern und Politikern aber nicht länger mit Leben gefüllt wird. Der polemische Essay, der in Italien und Großbritannien bereits als Klassiker der Gegenwartsdiagnose gilt, liegt nun endlich auch in deutscher Übersetzung vor.
Electoral Systems, Political Parties, and Representation in Russia
Author: Robert G. Moser
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre
Category: Political Science
Can democratization be promoted by “getting the institutions right?” In Unexpected Outcomes, Robert G. Moser offers a compelling analysis of the extent to which institutions can be engineered to promote desired political outcomes. The introduction of democracy in Eastern Europe and the former USSR has enabled scholars to bring new perspectives to the debate about electoral systems. Russia is arguably the most important of the postcommunist states and its mixed electoral system provides an interesting controlled experiment for testing the impact of different electoral systems. Moser examines the effects of electoral systems on political parties and representation in Russia during the 1990s. Moser's study is not only a highly original contribution to our understanding of contemporary Russian politics, but also a significant step forward in the comparative study of electoral systems. Through his comprehensive empirical analysis of Russian elections, Moser provides the most detailed examination of a mixed electoral system to date. This system was introduced in Russia to encourage party formation and benefit reformist parties allied with President Yeltsin. However, the effects were contrary to what the creators of the system expected and also defied the most well-established hypotheses in electoral studies. Parties proliferated under both the PR and plurality halves of the election and patterns of women and minority representation ran counter to prevailing theory and international experience. With an epilogue that updates the study through the December 1999 elections, Unexpected Outcomes makes an important and timely contribution to the ongoing debate over the ability and inability of elites to fashion preferred political outcomes through institutional design.
English summary: It was Anthony Downs' objective to create a model dealing with voter and government behavior. In order to do so, he established goals which governments, parties and lobbyists as well as the voters can pursue. To motivate all those concerned, he introduced the self-interest axiom and called for rationality in order to attain these goals. With the help of marginal analysis, each voter determines his/her party differential, which will help to determine each voter's choice at the ballot box and to decide which party's rule will give him/her greater utility in the future. Downs describes how crucial the concept of ideology is to his theory. He maintains that a two-party democracy could not provide stable and effective government unless there is a large measure of ideological consensus amongst its citizens, and that political parties encouraged voters to be irrational by remaining vague and ambiguous. German description: Anthony Downs' inzwischen klassisches Demokratie-Modell des Wahler- und Regierungsverhaltens orientiert sich an der okonomischen Theorie. Er nimmt an, dass politische Parteien und Wahler in der Verfolgung bestimmter, deutlich spezifizierter Ziele optimal handeln. So treffen die Wahler unter Ungewissheit uber den Wahlvorgang und die zukunftige Regierungsbildung ihre Wahl nach dem mutmasslichen Nutzen. Die Regierung versucht, mit Hilfe der Manipulation des Budgets ihre Wiederwahl zu erreichen.Ideologien der Parteien auf der einen Seite, Interessengruppen auf der anderen stellen den Wahlern bzw. der Regierung Informationen zur rationalen Entscheidungsfindung zur Verfugung. Dabei wird deutlich, dass Mehrparteiensysteme und Verhaltniswahlrecht jedes Wahl-Kalkul unlosbar werden lassen. Auf die weiteren Folgerungen fur Demokratie-Forschung und -Verstandnis geht Downs im letzten Teil seines Werkes ausfuhrlich ein.
From Kosovo to Kabul, the last decade witnessed growing interest in ?electoral engineering?. Reformers have sought to achieve either greater government accountability through majoritarian arrangements or wider parliamentary diversity through proportional formula. Underlying the normative debates are important claims about the impact and consequences of electoral reform for political representation and voting behavior. The study compares and evaluates two broad schools of thought, each offering contracting expectations. One popular approach claims that formal rules define electoral incentives facing parties, politicians and citizens. By changing these rules, rational choice institutionalism claims that we have the capacity to shape political behavior. Alternative cultural modernization theories differ in their emphasis on the primary motors driving human behavior, their expectations about the pace of change, and also their assumptions about the ability of formal institutional rules to alter, rather than adapt to, deeply embedded and habitual social norms and patterns of human behavior.
Shamit Saggar,Professor of Political Science Shamit Saggar
Electoral Politics and Ethnic Pluralism in Britain
Author: Shamit Saggar,Professor of Political Science Shamit Saggar
Publisher: Manchester University Press
Category: Political Science
The central concern of this study is the political integration of Britain's ethnic minorities. It provides a comparison between the voting behaviour of ethnic minorities and the electorate as a whole, featuring the results of the 1997 ethnic minority election study.
The First Legislative Election in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
Author: Hsin-chi Kuan
Publisher: Chinese University Press
Category: Political Science
This book provides an in-depth analysis of the election of the Hong Kong Legislative Council in May 1998, which was the first general election in Hong Kong since the change of sovereignty to China in 1997. The election was conducted in the wake of the government's mismanagement of health policy and other aspects of public concern and amid widespread hardships inflicted by the Asian financial crisis. Nevertheless, the election still had the highest turnout rate in Hong Kong's entire history. The elected legislature replaced the Provisional Legislative Council, which was a product of the Sino-British conflict before the change-over. However, as a result of institutional design and electoral outcome, this duly-elected Legislative Council has been fragmented and weak in its legislative and supervisory powers; and therefore there are long-term implications for the governance of Hong Kong in general and for the executive-legislative relations in particular. Contributors to this volume are renowned scholars in Hong Kong studies. The various aspects of the 1998 legislative election are critically examined to ascertain their exact meanings and to clarify doubts. Questions such as the following are properly addressed Did the transfer of sovereignty have any impact on the systems of election, representation, and authority? What was the impact of institutional change on the conduct of electoral campaigns? Did the end of colonialism and the advent of "one country, two systems" help to activate Hong Kong voters who were once dubbed "attentive spectators"? Did the "China factor" which had been influential in the 1991 and 1995 elections give way to other electoral divisions?Did the mass media properly perform their roles during the election? Does the emergence of class and economic issues during the election signify a new era of "political normalization"? Will the now legitimately constituted Legislative Council have political clout? What is in store for the future?
Lessons from the Past and Scenarios for the Future
Author: Wouter van der Brug,C. van der Eijk
Category: Political Science
This book analyzes how the behavior of voters, parties, and the mass media in European Parliament elections affects domestic politics and how, in turn, domestic politics affects those behaviors. The contributors discuss election turnout and party choice, the contract between the European Parliament and national elections, the importance of citizens' attitudes toward European integration, the relationship between political parties' domestic policies and their stances on European integration, and the ways in which the mass media and election campaigns affect electoral outcomes. On the basis of this information, the authors present possible scenarios for future European elections and their relationship to the domestic politics of the EU member-states. The product of superb empirical research, European Elections and Domestic Politics is based on a unique combination of data from voter surveys, party manifestos, and mass media reports across all members of the European Union. This book will be essential for anyone interested in the future of the EU. "The definitive analysis of elections to the European Parliament, by a first-rate line-up of scholars, this study provides a masterclass on understanding the way that European elections, national politics, and the process of EU integration interact in complex and unexpected ways. An invaluable study for those interested in elections and voting behavior, European democracy, comparative politics, political communications, and political parties." --Pippa Norris, Director, Democratic Governance Group, United Nations Development Program and John f. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University "This book represents the best of the intersection on EU studies and the study of comparative European politics. This sort of scholarship is the cornerstone of those interested in the domestic politics of European integration ... a work of the first order of quality." --Paul Taggart, University of Sussex "This is the most comprehensive book ever written on European Parliament elections. For the first time, the latest research on voter turnout, voting behavior, party manifestos, election outcomes, the effect of the elections on national politics, and media coverage of European Parliament elections has been brought together in a single volume." --Simon Hix, London School of Economics