Author: United Nations Environment Programme. Division of Early Warning and Assessment
Publisher: United Nations Publications
This report is a sysnthesis of the findings of the MA on marine and coastal ecosystems, taken from the global and sub-global assessments. This synthesis report sets out to provide answers to a series of questions that all stakeholders not just decision makers may ask : what is at stake, what is the current status of marine and coastal ecosysytems, why should we care if we lose marine and coastal ecosystems, and what can be done to ensure that marine and coastal ecosystems and services are conserved.
Kanchan Ratna Chopra,Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (Program). Responses Working Group
Author: Carlos Corvalán,Simon Hales,Anthony J. McMichael,Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (Program),World Health Organization
Publisher: World Health Organization
This report synthesizes the findings from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) global and sub-global assessments of how ecosystem changes do or could affect human health and well-being. Over the past 50 years humans have changed natural ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than any comparable period in human history. The findings provide the strongest evidence so far of the ways in which pressures on ecosystems have resulted in the loss of vital ecosystem services which purify and replenish water soil and air resources essential to health and also keep many diseases in check. Loss of these ecosystem services in turn affect patterns of communicable and non-communicable disease distribution and transmission. In the future, still-increasing pressures on ecosystems could impact public health in a variety of ways that are unpredictable and potentially severe. Human exploitation of ecosystem services has indeed contributed to substantial net gains in well-being and development across much of the planet. Still not all regions and groups of people have benefited from this process and many have been harmed. Moreover the full costs associated with these gains are only now becoming apparent. Approximately 60% of the ecosystem services examined, from regulation of air quality to purification of water, are being degraded or used unsustainably. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment has worked to assess the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being and establish the scientific basis for actions needed to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of those systems so that they can continue to supply the services that underpin all aspects of human life. The assessment exercise has involved more than 1 300 experts worldwide and started in 2001.
Scenarios: Findings of the Scenarios Working Group
Author: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
Publisher: Island Press
Scenarios are an invaluable tool for analyzing complex systems and understanding possible outcomes. This second volume of the MA series explores the implications of four different approaches for managing ecosystem services in the face of growing human demand for them: The Global Orchestration approach, in which we emphasize equity, economic growth, and public goods, reacting to ecosystem problems when they reach critical stages. Order from Strength, which emphasizes security and economic growth. Adapting Mosaic, which emphasizes proactive management of ecosystems, local adaptation, and flexible governance. TechnoGarden, a globalized approach with an emphasis on green technology and a proactive approach to managing ecosystems. The Scenarios volume will help decision-makers and managers identify development paths that better maintain the resilience of ecosystems, and can reduce the risk of damage to human well-being and the environment.
Cheryl Desha,Charlie Hargroves,Michael Harrison Smith
Securing Our Common Future by Decoupling Economic Growth from Environmental Pressures
Author: Cheryl Desha,Charlie Hargroves,Michael Harrison Smith
Category: Business & Economics
Cents and Sustainability is a clear-sighted response to the 1987 call by Dr Gro Brundtland in Our Common Future to achieve a new era of economic growth that is 'forceful and at the same time socially and environmentally sustainable'. The Brundtland Report argued that not only was it achievable, but that it was an urgent imperative in order to achieve a transition to sustainable development while significantly reducing poverty and driving 'clean and green' investment. With some still arguing for significantly slowing economic growth in order to reduce pressures on the environment, this new book, Cents and Sustainability, shows that it is possible to reconcile the need for economic growth and environmental sustainability through a strategy to decouple economic growth from environmental pressures, combined with a renewed commitment to achieve significant environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Beginning with a brief overview of some of the most pressing environmental challenges of our time, the book then explains 'decoupling theory', overviews a number of factors that can undermine and even block efforts to decouple in both developed and developing countries, and then discusses a number of key considerations to assist the development of national 'decoupling strategies'. The book then focuses on presenting evidence to support greater action, not just on climate change, but also on decoupling economic growth from the loss of biodiversity and the deterioration of natural systems, freshwater extraction, waste production, and air pollution. In the lead up to the 2012 United Nations Earth Summit and beyond, Cents and Sustainability will be a crucial guide to inform and assist nations to develop strategies to significantly reduce environmental pressures, strengthen their economy, create jobs and reduce poverty. 'I commend the team from The Natural Edge Project and their partners for undertaking to develop a response to 'Our Common Future' to mark its 20th anniversary.' Dr Gro Brundtland. Sequel to The Natural Advantage of Nations Published with The Natural Edge Project
Wissenschaftlicher Beirat der Bundesregierung Globale Umweltveränderungen (WBGU)
Author: Wissenschaftlicher Beirat der Bundesregierung Globale Umweltveränderungen (WBGU)
Verteilungskämpfe in und zwischen Ländern – um Wasser, um Land, um die Bewältigung von Flüchtlingsbewegungen. Gewalt und Destabilisierung könnten die (inter)nationale Sicherheit in naher Zukunft in einem bisher unbekannten Ausmaß bedrohen. Aktuell und interdisziplinär schildert der "Wissenschaftliche Beirat der Bundesregierung Globale Umweltveränderungen" (WBGU) die Chance: das gemeinsame, energische und weltweite Gegensteuern des Staatenbundes.
Author: James Aronson,Suzanne J. Milton,James N. Blignaut
Publisher: Island Press
How can environmental degradation be stopped? How can it be reversed? And how can the damage already done be repaired? The authors of this volume argue that a two-pronged approach is needed: reducing demand for ecosystem goods and services and better management of them, coupled with an increase in supply through environmental restoration. Restoring Natural Capital brings together economists and ecologists, theoreticians, practitioners, policy makers, and scientists from the developed and developing worlds to consider the costs and benefits of repairing ecosystem goods and services in natural and socioecological systems. It examines the business and practice of restoring natural capital, and seeks to establish common ground between economists and ecologists with respect to the restoration of degraded ecosystems and landscapes and the still broader task of restoring natural capital. The book focuses on developing strategies that can achieve the best outcomes in the shortest amount of time as it: • considers conceptual and theoretical issues from both an economic and ecological perspective • examines specific strategies to foster the restoration of natural capital and offers a synthesis and a vision of the way forward Nineteen case studies from around the world illustrate challenges and achievements in setting targets, refining approaches to finding and implementing restoration projects, and using restoration of natural capital as an economic opportunity. Throughout, contributors make the case that the restoration of natural capital requires close collaboration among scientists from across disciplines as well as local people, and when successfully executed represents a practical, realistic, and essential tool for achieving lasting sustainable development.
Looks at the bigger picture, and the future trends that are going to affect the global business world over the next few years. The author analyses traditional themes such as technology and sustainability but also takes into consideration the effects of developments in other areas such as health, education and demographics
In an age of accelerating biodiversity loss, this timely and critical volume summarizes recent advances in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research and explores the economics of biodiversity and ecosystem services. The book starts by summarizing the development of the basic science and provides a meta-analysis that quantitatively tests several biodiversity and ecosystem functioning hypotheses. It then describes the natural science foundations of biodiversityand ecosystem functioning research including: quantifying functional diversity, the development of the field into a predictive science, the effects of stability and complexity, methods to quantifymechanisms by which diversity affects functioning, the importance of trophic structure, microbial ecology, and spatial dynamics. Finally, the book takes research on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning further than it has ever gone into the human dimension, describing the most pressing environmental challenges that face humanity and the effects of diversity on: climate change mitigation, restoration of degraded habitats, managed ecosystems, pollination, disease, and biological invasions.
Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Life Sciences,Committee on Ecological Impacts of Climate Change
Publisher: National Academies Press
The world's climate is changing, and it will continue to change throughout the 21st century and beyond. Rising temperatures, new precipitation patterns, and other changes are already affecting many aspects of human society and the natural world. In this book, the National Research Council provides a broad overview of the ecological impacts of climate change, and a series of examples of impacts of different kinds. The book was written as a basis for a forthcoming illustrated booklet, designed to provide the public with accurate scientific information on this important subject.
The world is on the brink of the greatest crisis it has ever faced: a spiraling lack of fresh water. Groundwater is drying up, even as water demands for food production, for energy, and for manufacturing are surging. Water is already emerging as a headline geopolitical issue—and worsening water security will soon have dire consequences in many parts of the global economic system. Directed by UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon at the 2008 Davos Annual Meeting, the World Economic Forum assembled the world’s foremost group of public, private, non-governmental-organization and academic experts to examine the water crisis issue from all perspectives. The result of their work is this forecast—a stark, non-technical overview of where we will be by 2025 if we take a business-as-usual approach to (mis)managing our water resources. The findings are shocking. Perhaps equally stunning are the potential solutions and the recommendations that the group presents. All are included in this landmark publication. Water Security contains compelling commentary from leading decision-makers, past and present. The commentary is supported by analysis from leading academics of how the world economy will be affected if world leaders cannot agree on solutions. The book suggests how business and politics need to manage the energy-food-water-climate axis as leaders negotiate the details of the climate regime that replace Kyoto Protocols.
This volume "contributes to the deliberations on addressing sustainable development challenges with a focus on three important cross-sectoral issues identified for action and follow up at the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development: sustainable cities, food security and energy transformation."--Page four of cover.
Academics and practitioners from across Asia and beyond revisit the issues and impact of climate change in Asia. They examine the preconditions for good governance regarding climate change, and the role of state and non-state actors in climate change governance, and explore different political-legal frameworks.
Author: Michael Begon,Robert W. Howarth,Colin R. Townsend
Dieses Ökologie-Lehrbuch führt in leicht verständlicher Weise in die Grundlagen – von den theoretischen Fundamenten bis zu Ihren praktischen Anwendungen - ein. Durchgehend farbige Abbildungen, einfache didaktische Elemente und eine Fülle an Beispielen machen dieses Buch zu einem idealen Einstieg in die Ökologie für Studierende aller Studienabschnitte. Neu in der 3. Auflage sind zusätzliche Erläuterungen in Form von Sprechblasen in den Abbildungen und die neue Gliederung des Textes in 5 Abschnitte. Ökosystem und Biogeochemie werden ausführlicher behandelt und hunderte neuer Studien sowohl für die grundlegenden als auch für die angewandten Aspekte der Ökologie werden einbezogen.
Over the past four decades, the prevalence of autism, asthma, ADHD, obesity, diabetes, and birth defects have grown substantially among children around the world. Not coincidentally, more than 80,000 new chemicals have been developed and released into the global environment during this same period. Today the World Health Organization attributes 36% of all childhood deaths to environmental causes. Children's environmental health is a new and expanding discipline that studies the profound impact of chemical and environmental hazards on child health. Amid mounting evidence that children are exquisitely sensitive to their environment-and that exposure during their developmental "windows of susceptibility" can trigger cellular changes that lead to disease and disability in infancy, childhood, and across the life span-there is a compelling need for continued scientific study of the relationship between children's health and environment. The Textbook of Children's Environmental Health codifies the knowledge base and offers an authoritative and comprehensive guide to this important new field. Edited by two internationally recognized pioneers in the area, this volume presents up-to-date information on the chemical, biological, physical, and societal hazards that confront children in today's world: pesticides, indoor and outdoor air pollution, lead, arsenic, phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants, ionizing radiation, electromagnetic fields, and the built environment. It presents carefully documented data on rising rates of disease in children, offers a critical summary of new research linking pediatric disease with environmental exposures, and explores the cellular, molecular, and epigenetic mechanisms underlying diseases of environmental origin. With this volume's emphasis upon integrating theory and practice, readers will find practical approaches to channeling scientific findings into evidence-based strategies for preventing and identifying the environmental hazards that cause disease in children. It is a landmark work that will serve as the field's benchmark for years to come.