Language and Collective Mobilization analyzes the origins of communal conflict in five phases of Zanzibar's modern history. The first phase examines the implementation of British colonial control, focusing on the conversion of Zanzibar's subsistence farming economy to a cash-crop plantation complex.This first phase of colonial rule disrupted a variety of indigenous political and social institutions which traditionally promoted peace and stability. During subsequent phases of colonial rule, the British government devised political, economic and educational policies that promoted elite Arab rule at the expense of the majority Swahili- speaking population. Colonial authorities rendered illegal any attempts by Swahilis to organize political resistance, a rule which exacerbated anti-Arab animosity. Colonial rule ended in 1964, when Swahili-speaking Zanzibaris led a violent revolution against English command and Arab control. Having forced a variety of wealthy Arab and Indian communities off the island, Swahili revolutionaries allowed a small number of Indian merchants and a few Shirazi farmers to remain. Less than twenty years after the revolution, in this fifth phase of Zanzibar's political history, partisan conflict between the Shirazi and Swahili populations threatens to unleash a new rash of violence. The social climate mirrors the first phase of British rule, where economic stratification deepens and political tensions grow. The analysis offered in this book will find an audience in students, scholars, journalists, and policymakers interested in understanding so-called 'ethnic' conflict in Africa.
This fully revised and thoroughly updated sixth edition of the Rough Guide to Turkey is your ultimate handbook to this fascinating country.A full section introduces Turkey's highlights, from the markets of Istanbul to the rock churches of Cappadocia. There are informed accounts of the country's wide-ranging sights and incisive reviews of the best places to eat, sleep and drink in every price range. Throughout the guide there is practical advice on everything from bazaar shopping to chartering a yacht. The authors also provide expert background on Turkish history, literature, music and film and the guide comes complete with easy-to-read maps for every region. The Rough Guide to Turkey is your ultimate handbook to this fascinating country.
The Rough Guide to Turkeyis the ultimate insiders' handbook. Features include:-Full-coloursection introducing Turkey's highlights.-Informedaccounts of the country's wide-ranging sights, from the monuments and markets of Istanbul to the rock churches of Cappadocia.-Incisivereviews of the best places to eat, sleep and drink in every region and price range.-Practicaladvice on everything from bazaar-shopping to chartering a yacht.-Expertbackground of Turkish history, literature, music and film.-Maps and plansfor every region.
Here is a course in Gulf Arabic, the language of a region that encompasses Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The graded units of dialogues, culture notes, grammar, and exercises make it easy to study and then practice what's been learned.
The Rough Guide to Istanbul is the ultimate travel guide with clear maps and detailed coverage of the best attractions Istanbul has to offer. Discover the frenetic city of Istanbul from the top of the Galata Tower with its breathtaking views across Istanbul, or from the labyrinth Ottoman shopping complex of the Grand Bazaar. Packed with detailed, practical advice on what to see and do in Istanbul this guide provides reliable, up-to-date details of the best hotels in Istanbul for all budgets. Featuring detailed coverage on a full range of attractions; from the Topkapi Palace and Blue Mosque, to cruises up the Bosphorus, you'll find expert tips on exploring Istanbul's amazing attractions with an authoritative background on Istanbul's rich culture and history. Explore all corners of Istanbul with the clearest maps of any guide and practical Turkish language tips.