Earth System Science

From Biogeochemical Cycles to Global Changes

Author: Michael Jacobson,Robert J. Charlson,Henning Rodhe,Gordon H. Orians

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080530648

Category: Science

Page: 527

View: 3406

Over the last decade, the study of cycles as a model for the earth's changing climate has become a new science. Earth Systems Science is the basis for understanding all aspects of anthropogenic global change, such as chemically forced global climate change. The work is aimed at those students interested in the emerging scientific discipline. Earth Systems Science is an integrated discipline that has been rapidly developing over the last two decades. New information is included in this updated edition so that the text remains relevant. This volume contains five new chapters, but of special importance is the inclusion of an expanded set of student exercises. The two senior authors are leading scientists in their fields and have been awarded numerous prizes for their research efforts. * First edition was widely adopted * Authors are highly respected in their field * Global climate change, integral to the book, is now one of the most important issues in atmospheric sciences and oceanography

Earth: The Operators' Manual

Author: Richard B. Alley

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393083233

Category: Science

Page: 479

View: 3412

The book—companion to a PBS series—that proves humans are causing global warming and offers a path to the future. Since the discovery of fire, humans have been energy users and always will be. And this is a good thing-our mastery of energy is what separates us from the rest of the animal kingdom and has allowed us to be the dominant species on the planet. However, this mastery comes with a price: we are changing our environment in a profoundly negative way by heating it up. Using one engaging story after another, coupled with accessible scientific facts, world authority Richard B. Alley explores the fascinating history of energy use by humans over the centuries, gives a doubt-destroying proof that already-high levels of carbon dioxide are causing damaging global warming, and surveys the alternative energy options that are available to exploit right now. These new energy sources might well be the engines for economic growth in the twenty-first century.

Space-Time Integration in Geography and GIScience

Research Frontiers in the US and China

Author: Mei-Po Kwan,Douglas Richardson,Donggen Wang,Chenghu Zhou

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9401792054

Category: Science

Page: 412

View: 4816

Space-time analysis is a rapidly growing research frontier in geography, GIS, and GIScience. Advances in integrated GPS/GIS technologies, the availability of large datasets (over time and space), and increased capacity to manage, integrate, model and visualize complex data in (near) real time, offer the GIS and geography communities extraordinary opportunities to begin to integrate sophisticated space-time analysis and models in the study of complex environmental and social systems, from climate change to infectious disease transmission. This volume specifically focuses on research frontiers, comparative research, and research and application interactions in this field in the US and China, arguably the two most dynamic loci for this work today. The contributions to this book, by top researchers in China and the US, productively highlight the differences and similarities in approaches and directions for space-time analysis in the two countries. In light of the recent rapid progress in GIScience research on space-time integration in both countries, the book’s focus on research frontiers in these two countries will attract great interest in both countries and in other parts of the world as well as among related disciplines. In addition, the book also explores the impact of collaborative research and publications underway in this area between the US and China and will provide an overview of these collaborative efforts and programs. This book will not only be of interest to university-based GIS researchers and students, but also to those interested in this new area of research and applications like researchers and developers in business, internet mapping and GIS and location based services (LBS).

Estuarine Ecology

Author: John W. Day, Jr.,W. Michael Kemp,Alejandro Y??ez-Arancibia,Byron C. Crump

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118391918

Category: Science

Page: 568

View: 1586

Estuaries are among the most biologically productive ecosystems on the planet--critical to the life cycles of fish, other aquatic animals, and the creatures which feed on them. Estuarine Ecology, Second Edition, covers the physical and chemical aspects of estuaries, the biology and ecology of key organisms, the flow of organic matter through estuaries, and human interactions, such as the environmental impact of fisheries on estuaries and the effects of global climate change on these important ecosystems. Authored by a team of world experts from the estuarine science community, this long-awaited, full-color edition includes new chapters covering phytoplankton, seagrasses, coastal marshes, mangroves, benthic algae, Integrated Coastal Zone Management techniques, and the effects of global climate change. It also features an entriely new section on estuarine ecosystem processes, trophic webs, ecosystem metabolism, and the interactions between estuaries and other ecosystems such as wetlands and marshes

Understanding the Earth System

Global Change Science for Application

Author: Sarah E. Cornell,I. Colin Prentice,Joanna I. House,Catherine J. Downy

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139560549

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 5187

Explaining the what, the how and the why of climate science, this multidisciplinary new book provides a review of research from the last decade, illustrated with cutting-edge data and observations. A key focus is the development of analysis tools that can be used to demonstrate options for mitigating and adapting to increasing climate risks. Emphasis is given to the importance of Earth system feedback mechanisms and the role of the biosphere. The book explains advances in modelling, process understanding and observations, and the development of consistent and coherent studies of past, present and 'possible' climates. This highly illustrated, data-rich book is written by leading scientists involved in QUEST, a major UK-led research programme. It forms a concise and up-to-date reference for academic researchers or students in the fields of climatology, Earth system science and ecology, and also a vital resource for professionals and policymakers working on any aspect of global change.

Biogeochemistry

An Analysis of Global Change

Author: William H. Schlesinger,Emily S. Bernhardt

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123858747

Category: Nature

Page: 672

View: 8053

"Biogeochemistry considers how the basic chemical conditions of the Earth-from atmosphere to soil to seawater-have been and are being affected by the existence of life. Human activities in particular, from the rapid consumption of resources to the destruction of the rainforests and the expansion of smog-covered cities, are leading to rapid changes in the basic chemistry of the Earth. This expansive text pulls together the numerous fields of study encompassed by biogeochemistry to analyze the increasing demands of the growing human population on limited resources and the resulting changes in the planet's chemical makeup. The book helps students extrapolate small-scale examples to the global level, and also discusses the instrumentation being used by NASA and its role in studies of global change. With extensive cross-referencing of chapters, figures and tables, and an interdisciplinary coverage of the topic at hand, this updated edition provides an excellent framework for courses examining global change and environmental chemistry, and is also a useful self-study guide."--Publisher's website.

Governance of Earth Systems

Science and Its Uses

Author: R. Boardman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230281958

Category: Political Science

Page: 243

View: 5832

Science and politics are closely connected in today's global environmental issues. This book focuses on these links in relation to climate change, the threats to wildlife species, and natural hazards and disasters. Study of these reveals the need for more effective international cooperation and the limits of global governance.

Global-Regional Linkages in the Earth System

Author: Peter D. Tyson,Roland Fuchs,Congbin Fu,Louis Lebel,Hermine Vloemans,Eric Odada,John Perry,Will Steffen,Hassan Virji

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642562280

Category: Science

Page: 198

View: 6139

Global environmental change occupies a central niche in the pantheon of modern sciences. There is an urgent need to know and understand the way in which global biogeochemical cycles have changed over different time scales in the past and are likely to do so in the future. Equally important, it is necessary to determine the extent to which natural variability and that induce by anthropogenic activities are bringing about change. A number of international co-operative scientific programmes ad dress these issues. Chief among them are the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and the Inter national Human Dimensions Programme (IHDP) for global change. This book is one of a series of IGBP syntheses drawing together findings in global environmental change over the past decade or so. One focus of IGBP activities is the System for Analysis, Research and Training (START). Co-sponsored by the WCRP and IHDP, START establishes regional research networks for global change science in developing countries, stimulates and carries out global change research in developing regions of the world, and builds capacity to undertake such research at personal, institutional and regional levels. Several regional global change networks have been established, and much regional research has been accomplished in the last five years or so. In this book, work relating to four of the older START regions, Southern Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia, will be used as case studies to illustrate regional-global linkages in Earth System Science.

Global Change and the Earth System

A Planet Under Pressure

Author: Will Steffen,Regina Angelina Sanderson,Peter D. Tyson,Jill Jäger,Pamela A. Matson,Berrien Moore III,Frank Oldfield,Katherine Richardson,Hans Joachim Schellnhuber,Billie L. Turner,Robert J. Wasson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540266070

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 4408

Global Change and the Earth System describes what is known about the Earth system and the impact of changes caused by humans. It considers the consequences of these changes with respect to the stability of the Earth system and the well-being of humankind; as well as exploring future paths towards Earth-system science in support of global sustainability. The results presented here are based on 10 years of research on global change by many of the world's most eminent scholars. This valuable volume achieves a new level of integration and interdisciplinarity in treating global change.

Biogeochemical Cycles

A Computer-interactive Study of Earth System Science and Global Change

Author: W. L. Chameides,Edward M. Perdue

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195092790

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 2389

Providing the basic framework for investigating global change and its implications for life on Earth, Biogeochemical Cycles is a comprehensive and accessible examination of this complex and fascinating subject. The opening chapters present the scientific and mathematical fundamentals needed for the study of biogeochemical cycles, such as chemical thermodynamics and differential equations. The remaining chapters investigate the global cycles of the five key nutrient elements -- P, C, N, S, and O -- and examine their mathematical and computer model simulations. The text emphasizes techniques for finding and organizing data on the distribution of elements in the Earth system (including the estimation of missing data), the rational development of box models of biogeochemical cycles, and the uses and limitations of linear numerical models to simulate inherently nonlinear biogeochemical cycles. To give student hands-on experience, the authors have developed a DOS-based computer program entitled BOXES. This program, included with the book, offers a user-friendly environment for constructing numerical models of biogeochemical cycles and avoids detailed numerics. An invaluable teaching tool, BOXES allows students and professors to work interactively in the classroom as each of the cycles is explored, and gives students the opportunity to develop their own scenarios for global change outside the classroom.

The Earth System

Author: Lee R. Kump,James F. Kasting,Robert G. Crane

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780321733283

Category: Gaia hypothesis

Page: 420

View: 8114

The first textbook of its kind that addresses the issues of global change from a true Earth systems perspective, 'The Earth System' offers a solid emphasis on lessons from Earth's history that may guide decision-making in the future.

Amazonia and Global Change

Author: Michael Keller,Mercedes Bustamante,John Gash,Pedro Silva Dias

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118671511

Category: Science

Page: 565

View: 2599

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 186. Amazonia and Global Change synthesizes results of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) for scientists and students of Earth system science and global environmental change. LBA, led by Brazil, asks how Amazonia currently functions in the global climate and biogeochemical systems and how the functioning of Amazonia will respond to the combined pressures of climate and land use change, such as Wet season and dry season aerosol concentrations and their effects on diffuse radiation and photosynthesis Increasing greenhouse gas concentration, deforestation, widespread biomass burning and changes in the Amazonian water cycle Drought effects and simulated drought through rainfall exclusion experiments The net flux of carbon between Amazonia and the atmosphere Floodplains as an important regulator of the basin carbon balance including serving as a major source of methane to the troposphere The impact of the likely increased profitability of cattle ranching. The book will serve a broad community of scientists and policy makers interested in global change and environmental issues with high-quality scientific syntheses accessible to nonspecialists in a wide community of social scientists, ecologists, atmospheric chemists, climatologists, and hydrologists.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

A 21st Century Perspective

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123918537

Category: Science

Page: 904

View: 1658

The book represents all the knowledge we currently have on ocean circulation. It presents an up-to-date summary of the state of the science relating to the role of the oceans in the physical climate system. The book is structured to guide the reader through the wide range of world ocean circulation experiment (WOCE) science in a consistent way. Cross-references between contributors have been added, and the book has a comprehensive index and unified reference list. The book is simple to read, at the undergraduate level. It was written by the best scientists in the world who have collaborated to carry out years of experiments to better understand ocean circulation. Presents in situ and remote observations with worldwide coverage Provides theoretical understanding of processes within the ocean and at its boundaries to other Earth System components Allows for simulating ocean and climate processes in the past, present and future using a hierarchy of physical-biogeochemical models

Preview

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Prospecting

Page: N.A

View: 2418

Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle

Author: Brian J. McPherson,Eric T. Sundquist

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118671791

Category: Science

Page: 359

View: 3582

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 183. For carbon sequestration the issues of monitoring, risk assessment, and verification of carbon content and storage efficacy are perhaps the most uncertain. Yet these issues are also the most critical challenges facing the broader context of carbon sequestration as a means for addressing climate change. In response to these challenges, Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle presents current perspectives and research that combine five major areas: The global carbon cycle and verification and assessment of global carbon sources and sinks Potential capacity and temporal/spatial scales of terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage Assessing risks and benefits associated with terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage Predicting, monitoring, and verifying effectiveness of different forms of carbon storage Suggested new CO2 sequestration research and management paradigms for the future. The volume is based on a Chapman Conference and will appeal to the rapidly growing group of scientists and engineers examining methods for deliberate carbon sequestration through storage in plants, soils, the oceans, and geological repositories.

Directory of Graduate Research

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Chemistry

Page: N.A

View: 7771

Faculties, publications and doctoral theses in departments or divisions of chemistry, chemical engineering, biochemistry and pharmaceutical and/or medicinal chemistry at universities in the United States and Canada.

Mission to Planet Earth

Space Science in the Twenty-First Century -- Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015

Author: Task Group on Earth Sciences,Space Science Board,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309535611

Category: Science

Page: 108

View: 6775

The Future of the World's Climate

Author: Ann Henderson-Sellers,K. McGuffie

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 012386917X

Category: Science

Page: 650

View: 6194

The study of climate today seems to be dominated by global warming, but these predictions of climatic models must be placed in their geological, paleo-climatic, and astronomical context to create a complete picture of the Earth's future climate. The Future of the World's Climate presents that perspective with data and projections that have emerged from more technologically advanced and accurate climate modeling. The book is comprised of 18 new and revised chapters that feature reviews of current climate science. The authors are drawn from all over the world and from the highest regarded peer-reviewed groups. Each chapter has undergone major revisions and new content has been added throughout. Authored by the world's leading climate scientists, most of whom are also contributing authors to the IPCC Assessment Reports. More than 200 tables, diagrams, illustrations, and photographs Climate modeling technology is more advanced and precise than it was 15 years ago-a major implication featured in this new edition.

Global biogeochemical cycles

Author: Butcher

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080954707

Category: Science

Page: 376

View: 6234

Global biogeochemical cycles

Ocean Biogeochemistry

The Role of the Ocean Carbon Cycle in Global Change

Author: Michael J.R. Fasham

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642558445

Category: Science

Page: 301

View: 3440

Oceans account for 50% of the anthropogenic CO2 released into the atmosphere. During the past 15 years an international programme, the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), has been studying the ocean carbon cycle to quantify and model the biological and physical processes whereby CO2 is pumped from the ocean's surface to the depths of the ocean, where it can remain for hundreds of years. This project is one of the largest multi-disciplinary studies of the oceans ever carried out and this book synthesises the results. It covers all aspects of the topic ranging from air-sea exchange with CO2, the role of physical mixing, the uptake of CO2 by marine algae, the fluxes of carbon and nitrogen through the marine food chain to the subsequent export of carbon to the depths of the ocean. Special emphasis is laid on predicting future climatic change.