A Collection of Early Christian Creeds and Creed-related Texts
Author: Wolfram Kinzig
Publisher: Oxford Early Christian Texts
This collection of all creeds and credal formulae of the early Church in Greek and Latin covers the period from the writings of the New Testament down to the early Middle Ages. The source texts are taken from the most up-to-date critical editions available and newly found texts have been added. They are accompanied by English translations and, where applicable, introduced individually by brief remarks on their authorship, date, and provenance.
The Apostles' Creed is an expression of Christian theology that was formed in a period of fascinating and creative debate. The creed is not simply a dogmatic, static, and cryptic symbol of Christian faith, but, on the contrary, a lively narrative that can still inspire imagination, critical reflection, and faith. In The Apostle's Creed, the ancient debates that led to the formulation of its twelve pronouncements are examined. The richness of early Christian thought is explored by looking at the ideas behind each creedal pronouncement and tracing the theological debates that inspired each statement. Early Christian theology is not treated as 'unanimous,' but as pluralistic. The polyphony of theological opinion, which characterized the Christianity of this period, is therefore highlighted and celebrated. In explaining the context that gave birth to the creed, this study refers to the testimony of various 'witnesses' of those theological arguments. This includes opponents of the apostolic and church Fathers: the Gnostics, 'heretics,' and Jewish and pagan critics of Christian faith.
In Debates over the Resurrection of the Dead, Outi Lehtipuu highlights the striking observation that in many early texts the way that belief in resurrection is formulated is used as a sign of inclusion and exclusion, not only in relation to non-Christians but vis-à-vis other Christians. Those who teach otherwise have deviated from the truth, are not true Christians, and do the works of the devil. Using insights from the sociological study of deviance, Dr Lehtipuu demonstrates that labelling was used as a tool for marking boundaries between those who belonged and those who did not. This was extremely important in the fluid conditions where the small Christian minority groups found themselves. In a situation where there were no universally accepted structures that defined what constituted the true Christian belief, several competing interpretations and their representatives struggled for recognition of their views based on what they believed to be the apostolic tradition. The most hotly-debated aspect of resurrection was whether it would entail the body of flesh and blood or not. When resurrection would take place was closely related to this. Controversies died since the scriptural legacy was ambiguous enough to allow different hermeneutical solutions. The battle over resurrection was closely related to the question of how scriptures were to be understood as well as to what constituted the human self that would survive death. To demonstrate this a wide variety of texts are studied, from theological treatises (including relevant Nag Hammadi texts) to apocryphal acts and martyrologies. Acknowledging the complexity and diversity of the early Christian movement, this volume views early Christian discourse as part of the broader ancient discursive world where similar debates were going on among both Jews and the majority population.
Studies in Christian Ecclesiality and Ecumenism in Honor of J. Robert Wright
Author: John Robert Wright
Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
Foreword by Frank T. Griswold One Lord, One Faith, One Baptism gathers twenty-one articles from distinguished church historians, literary historians, and ecumenists -- all written in honor of the Reverend Canon J. Robert Wright, St. Mark's Professor of Ecclesiastical History at The General Theological Seminary of the Episcopal Church, who has been an inspiration to a generation of students and colleagues. The Most Reverend Frank T. Griswold, Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church, has written a foreword that complements the work of contributors such as S. W. Sykes, Richard A. Norris Jr., and George Tavard, among others. Though these articles differ in individual subject, they cohere in their relation to Dr. Wright's expertise as a theologian, a historian, a medievalist, an ecumenist, and above all a man of the church. Contributors: Victor Lee Austin Walter R. Bouman Joseph Britton Marsha L. Dutton E. Rozanne Elder C. Christopher Epting John V. Fleming R. William Franklin Patrick Terrell Gray Petra Heldt Joanne McWilliam Robert Bruce Mullin Jon Nilson Richard A. Norris Jr. Robert W. Prichard Michael Root William G. Rusch S. W. Sykes Mary Tanner George Tavard Ellen K. Wondra
Provides an elucidation of the Apostles' Creed, examining the theological and practical significance of each line and exploring such fundamental questions to Christianity as belief, faith, and the nature of Christ and of the Trinity.
An important thinker in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century period, English writer and philosopher Edward Carpenter was blessed with a seemingly insatiable intellectual curiosity. In this wide-ranging analysis of early religions and folk beliefs, Carpenter offers a deft and often poetic take on ancient rituals and deities.
A Christological Study of the Apostles' Creed and Its Implication to Christian Teaching and Preaching in Africa
Author: Elikana Asheri Lova,Elia Shabani Mligo
Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
The Apostles' Creed is one of the most prominent creeds in Christianity, perhaps even the most recited creed by normal believers in church services. However, the creed holds a clause that seems controversial to Christian mission in some contexts, especially African contexts. The clause, "He descended into Hell," is the main concern of this book. In African context, where ancestral cult is prominent in both people's worldview and practice, this clause poses a tangible problem of religious syncretism. The phrase suggests a life after immediate death, that a person can continue to live in a certain realm soon after death. Since the clause depicts Jesus descending into hell after death and burial, and preaching to the other souls of the dead in hell, it suggests the possibility of hearing a message of salvation after death, a doctrine hardly held by Christianity. The doctrine therefore becomes good news for those Africans who hold firm the ancestral cult, and those whose relatives had died in sin on earth. Therefore, this book critically examines the origin and use of this doctrine in the church and its validity in an African context.
Documents Illustrating the History of the Church to AD 337
Author: J. Stevenson,W. H. C. Frend
Publisher: Baker Books
This sourcebook of primary texts illustrates the history of Christianity from the first century to the death of Constantine. It covers all major persons and topics in early Christian life and thought and includes Gnostic texts and anti-Christian polemic. Now available to a wider North American audience, it remains a standard after fifty years in print.
Professor Pollard attempts to show how the early Church interpreted the Gospel of John and its witness to the person of Christ. The two paradoxes implicit in John's theology - the distinction between the Father and the Son in the unity of the Godhead, and the divinity and humanity of Jesus Christ - were developed in varying ways and the resultant heresies arose from attempts to deny one element or the other in each paradox. In their refutation of the heresies, on the other hand, the Fathers struggled to keep both elements of the paradoxes in equipoise. The different traditions came into conflict in the controversy which raged around the figure of Arius and his supporters in the fourth century, of which the climax came in the debate about the views of Marcellus of Ancyra.
The Blackwell Companion to Jesus features a comprehensive collection of essays that explore the diverse ways in which Jesus has been imagined or portrayed from the beginnings of Christianity to the present day. Considers portrayals of Jesus in the New Testament and beyond, Jesus in non-Christian religions, philosophical and historic perspectives, modern manifestations, and representations in Christian art, novels, and film Comprehensive scope of coverage distinguishes this work from similar offerings Examines both Christian and non-Christian perspectives on Jesus, including those from ethnic and sexual groups, as well as from other faiths Offers rich and rewarding insights which will shape our understanding of this influential figure and his enduring legacy
Historical and Theological Guide to Creeds and Confessions of Faith in the Christian Tradition
Author: Jaroslav Pelikan
Publisher: Yale University Press
One of the world's leading theologians offers important insights into the history and significance of Christian creeds. "A work of keen insight, great learning, and ecumenical generosity."--Robert Louis Wilken, First Things "[Pelikan's] book is learned, indeed massively so, yet because of the lucidity of its prose it is accessible to the general reader."--Luke Timothy Johnson,Washington Post Book World "Indispensable. . . . An achievement unlikely to be surpassed."--Donald K.McKim, Theological Studies
This is a refreshing and contemporary take on what makes the Catholic Church Catholic. What ?marks? it as such? In addition to the four traditional ?marks?: one, holy, catholic, and apostolic, Madges and Daley recognize many more. Thus they invited over forty authors and theologians to reflect on additional and contemporary ?marks? such as catechetical, biblical, ecological, charismatic, prayerful, intellectual, and sacramental. Authors include: Diane Bergant, Mary C. Boys, Cardinal Avery Dulles, Robert Ellsberg, Thomas Groome, Thomas J. Gumbleton, and Monika K. Hellwig. Highly recommended for parish leaders and staffs, DREs, catechists, and all parish ministers.