Globalization and attendant modernization has increased both the supply and the demand for drugs around the world. Drug abuse is no longer the concern of only the developed world. Countries without histories of drug use, particularly developing countries, are now reporting problems of abuse because they have become transit points for international drug trafficking. Because the problem is now worldwide, a global strategy is needed for identifying, analyzing and developing strategies to deal with drug abuse and the associated problems for health and safety. This volume reviews the international status of drug abuse. Specific topics covered include drug abuse in the developing world, emerging drugs and poly drug use; gateway drugs, cultural views of drug use and state of the art methodologies employed in research on drug abuse.
Ever since the Shanghai convention in 1909, the threat posed to human well-being by drug abuse has led countries around the world to take action to deal with their drug problems. There are wide variations in the policies pursued, but most countries try to reduce both the supply of and the demand for drugs. Unfortunately, there is little research consensus on the respective merits of these two approaches or about the best ways to pursue them. Consequently, control and prevention policies are mostly driven by political considerations, economic realities and cultural expectations, though research has played an important part in formulating and evaluating treatments for drug addiction. This volume reviews studies on drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies under five main areas: 1. Reducing supply - strategies to control the flow of drugs from production to retail distribution; 2. Reducing demand - prevention of drug use at all stages of involvement and consumption levels; 3. Reducing harm - promoting situational risk reduction practices for regular users, addicts and recreational users; 4. Reducing addiction - drug treatment options for various groups in various settings; and 5. Drug policies and prescriptions - focused on debates about prohibition and legalization.
Essential Briefings on Prevention and Health Promotion
Author: Linda Ewles
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Key Topics is a short, easy-to-read text that provides basic information about twelve key topics in public health, such as diabetes, cancer, smoking and teenage pregnancy, and how prevention and health promotion should be tackled at community and one-to-one levels. The twelve topics are the 'must-dos' of public health action. They have been selected because they are those addressed in current national public health strategies such as Saving Lives: our healthier nation , and comparable strategies in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Many are the subject of National Service Frameworks and other national policies and plans; they are often accompanied by targets which health workers are expected to meet. Accessible and useful, in clear plain English. Provides a foundation for further study, planning a work programme, or planning a strategy to meet targets. Practical focus: on health inequalities and how to tackle them, and on help for practitioners who work at a community and one-to-one level. Explicit links to national current public health policy and targets. Reflects recommendations based on best practice and evidence of effectiveness. Focuses on a topic framework (except for the last two chapters) in contrast to other frameworks for health promotion and public health. Attractive layout making full use of bullet points and boxes. Simple line diagrams or tables to illustrate each chapter.
At the outset of the twenty-first century, more than 9 million people are held in custody in over 200 countries around the world. --from the essay "Prisons and Jails" by Ron King The first comparative study of this increasingly integral social subject, International Handbook of Penology and Criminal Justice provides a comprehensive and balanced review of the philosophy and practicality of punishment. Drawn from the expertise of scholars and researchers from around the world, this book covers the theory, practice, history, and empirical evidence surrounding crime prevention, identification, retribution, and incarceration. It analyzes the efficacy of both traditional methods and thinking as well as novel concepts and approaches. Beginning with a study of the changing attitude of penal practice in Florida from one of offender transformation to one of risk-management, imprisonment, surveillance, and control, this volume embarks on an objective and sober appraisal of every aspect of the field. Contributions consider the sociology of incarcerated prisoners including the increasing prevalence of prison suicides. The book evaluates arguments regarding the world-wide abolition of capitol punishment from moral, utilitarian, and practical positions. It examines non-incarcerative and alternative punishments such as financial restoration and restrictions of liberty, as well as the positive effects of Victim Offender Mediation. It also considers several methods aimed at achieving measurable crime prevention including identifying at-risk juveniles and minimizing crimes of opportunity, as well as the pros and cons of employing the coercive power of police. Further essays consider subjects such as international policing, the roles of prosecution and defense attorneys, current discretionary sentencing practices, and the role and treatment of victims. The volume concludes with two chapters of case studies that provide a "hands-on" feel for the interplay of the concepts discussed. This volume is the first in a three-part trilogy. See also The International Handbook of Victimology and The International Handbook of Criminology.
The International library of Criminology, Criminal Justice and Penology is an important publishing initiative that brings together the most significant contemporary published journal essays in current criminology, criminal justice and penology. The series
Recent years have witnessed an increase in the attention given to the later stages of criminal careers. Research upon this topic has charted the main factors associated with the termination of criminal careers, outlined some of the possible reasons behind these relationships and started to develop theoretical explanations for such relationships. Collected together for the first time are some of the most important contributions to this field of research. The collection focuses upon the initial explorations into this topic, the most commonly observed findings, the cessation of offending by specific offender-types and theoretical matters. An introductory essay by the editor provides a thorough overview of the work in this area and highlights the reasons why the termination of criminal careers will become increasingly important to criminologists and criminal justice policy makers alike.