The International library of Criminology, Criminal Justice and Penology is an important publishing initiative that brings together the most significant contemporary published journal essays in current criminology, criminal justice and penology.
Covering criminal justice history on a cross-national basis, this book surveys criminal justice in Western civilization and American life chronologically from ancient times to the present. It is an introduction to the historical problems of crime, law enforcement and penology, set against the background of major historical events and movements. Integrating criminal justice history into the scope of European, British, French and American history, this text provides the opportunity for comparisons of crime and punishment over boundaries of national histories. The text concludes with a chapter that addresses terrorism and homeland security. * Spans all of western history, and examines the core beliefs about human nature and society that informed the development of criminal justice systems. The fifth edition gives increased coverage of American law enforcement, corrections, and legal systems * Each chapter is enhanced with supplemental "Timeline," "Time Capsule," and "Featured Outlaw" boxes as well as discussion questions, notes and problems * Contains discussion questions, notes, learning objectives, key terms lists, biographical vignettes of key historical figures, and "History Today" exercises to engage the reader and encourage critical thinking
Globalization and attendant modernization has increased both the supply and the demand for drugs around the world. Drug abuse is no longer the concern of only the developed world. Countries without histories of drug use, particularly developing countries, are now reporting problems of abuse because they have become transit points for international drug trafficking. Because the problem is now worldwide, a global strategy is needed for identifying, analyzing and developing strategies to deal with drug abuse and the associated problems for health and safety. This volume reviews the international status of drug abuse. Specific topics covered include drug abuse in the developing world, emerging drugs and poly drug use; gateway drugs, cultural views of drug use and state of the art methodologies employed in research on drug abuse.
Ever since the Shanghai convention in 1909, the threat posed to human well-being by drug abuse has led countries around the world to take action to deal with their drug problems. There are wide variations in the policies pursued, but most countries try to reduce both the supply of and the demand for drugs. Unfortunately, there is little research consensus on the respective merits of these two approaches or about the best ways to pursue them. Consequently, control and prevention policies are mostly driven by political considerations, economic realities and cultural expectations, though research has played an important part in formulating and evaluating treatments for drug addiction. This volume reviews studies on drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies under five main areas: 1. Reducing supply - strategies to control the flow of drugs from production to retail distribution; 2. Reducing demand - prevention of drug use at all stages of involvement and consumption levels; 3. Reducing harm - promoting situational risk reduction practices for regular users, addicts and recreational users; 4. Reducing addiction - drug treatment options for various groups in various settings; and 5. Drug policies and prescriptions - focused on debates about prohibition and legalization.
The International library of Criminology, Criminal Justice and Penology is an important publishing initiative that brings together the most significant contemporary published journal essays in current criminology, criminal justice and penology. The series
Darnell Felix Hawkins,Samuel L. Myers,Randolph N. Stone
Author: Darnell Felix Hawkins,Samuel L. Myers,Randolph N. Stone
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
Category: Social Science
This collection examines the perennial tension between society's need to protect its citizens from crime, while assuring that the crime control and reduction measures that it enacts do not deny basic rights or exacerbate the socioeconomic inequality that gives rise to disparate rates of offending. Focusing largely on developments in criminal justice policies and practices enacted during the last few decades, the essays in this volume explore the delicate balance between governmental crime control efforts and professed goals of promoting social justice and protecting civil liberties.
At the outset of the twenty-first century, more than 9 million people are held in custody in over 200 countries around the world. --from the essay "Prisons and Jails" by Ron King The first comparative study of this increasingly integral social subject, International Handbook of Penology and Criminal Justice provides a comprehensive and balanced review of the philosophy and practicality of punishment. Drawn from the expertise of scholars and researchers from around the world, this book covers the theory, practice, history, and empirical evidence surrounding crime prevention, identification, retribution, and incarceration. It analyzes the efficacy of both traditional methods and thinking as well as novel concepts and approaches. Beginning with a study of the changing attitude of penal practice in Florida from one of offender transformation to one of risk-management, imprisonment, surveillance, and control, this volume embarks on an objective and sober appraisal of every aspect of the field. Contributions consider the sociology of incarcerated prisoners including the increasing prevalence of prison suicides. The book evaluates arguments regarding the world-wide abolition of capitol punishment from moral, utilitarian, and practical positions. It examines non-incarcerative and alternative punishments such as financial restoration and restrictions of liberty, as well as the positive effects of Victim Offender Mediation. It also considers several methods aimed at achieving measurable crime prevention including identifying at-risk juveniles and minimizing crimes of opportunity, as well as the pros and cons of employing the coercive power of police. Further essays consider subjects such as international policing, the roles of prosecution and defense attorneys, current discretionary sentencing practices, and the role and treatment of victims. The volume concludes with two chapters of case studies that provide a "hands-on" feel for the interplay of the concepts discussed. This volume is the first in a three-part trilogy. See also The International Handbook of Victimology and The International Handbook of Criminology.
Author: Cindy J. Smith,Sheldon X. Zhang,Rosemary Barberet
Category: Social Science
The Routledge Handbook of International Criminology brings together the latest thinking and findings from a diverse group of both senior and promising young scholars from around the globe. This collaborative project articulates a new way of thinking about criminology that extends existing perspectives in understanding crime and social control across borders, jurisdictions, and cultures, and facilitates the development of an overarching framework that is truly international. The book is divided into three parts, in which three distinct yet overlapping types of crime are analyzed: international crime, transnational crime, and national crime. Each of these perspectives is then articulated through a number of chapters which cover theory and methods, international and transnational crime analyses, and case studies of criminology and criminal justice in relevant nations. In addition, questions placed at the end of each chapter encourage greater reflection on the issues raised, and will encourage young scholars to move the field of inquiry forward. This handbook is an excellent reference tool for undergraduate and graduate students with particular interests in research methods, international criminology, and making comparisons across countries.
Essential Briefings on Prevention and Health Promotion
Author: Linda Ewles
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Key Topics is a short, easy-to-read text that provides basic information about twelve key topics in public health, such as diabetes, cancer, smoking and teenage pregnancy, and how prevention and health promotion should be tackled at community and one-to-one levels. The twelve topics are the 'must-dos' of public health action. They have been selected because they are those addressed in current national public health strategies such as Saving Lives: our healthier nation , and comparable strategies in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Many are the subject of National Service Frameworks and other national policies and plans; they are often accompanied by targets which health workers are expected to meet. Accessible and useful, in clear plain English. Provides a foundation for further study, planning a work programme, or planning a strategy to meet targets. Practical focus: on health inequalities and how to tackle them, and on help for practitioners who work at a community and one-to-one level. Explicit links to national current public health policy and targets. Reflects recommendations based on best practice and evidence of effectiveness. Focuses on a topic framework (except for the last two chapters) in contrast to other frameworks for health promotion and public health. Attractive layout making full use of bullet points and boxes. Simple line diagrams or tables to illustrate each chapter.
Punishment in contemporary China has experienced dramatic shifts over the last seven decades or so. This book focuses on the evolution, development and change of punishment in the Maoist (1949-1977), reform (1978-2001) and post-reform eras (2002-) of China to understand the shaping and transformation of punishment within the context of a range of socio-cultural changes across different historical periods. It aims to fill the gap of existing research by developing a distinctive theoretical framework for the China’s penality, exploring it as a separate and complex legal-social system to observe the impact social foundations, political-economic genesis, cultural significance and meanings have exerted on penal form, discourse and force in contemporary China. It sheds light on the sociology of punishment in this socialist Party-state by investigating law reform, penal policy, social control, crime prevention and sentencing as interconnected elements in the criminal justice and penal system. This book will be of great interest to those who study Chinese criminal law, penal and policing system, as well as to law academics, criminologists and sociologists whose research interests lie in the fields of comparative criminology and criminal justice.
Children of almost any age can break the law, but at what age should children first face the possibility of criminal responsibility for their alleged crimes? This work is the first global analysis of national minimum ages of criminal responsibility (MACRs), the international legal obligations that surround them, and the principal considerations for establishing and implementing respective age limits. Taking an international children's rights approach, with a rich theoretical framework and the vitality of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, this work maintains a critical perspective, such as in challenging the assumptions of many children's rights scholars and advocates. Compiling the age limits and statutory sources for all countries, this book explains the broad historical origins behind most of them, identifying the recurring practical challenges that affect every country and providing the first comprehensive evidence that a general principle of international law requires all nations, regardless of their treaty ratifications, to establish respective minimum age limits.
Written for students of criminal justice, Comparative Criminal Justice Systems: Global and Local Perspectives examines the nature of crime and justice in varying countries and cultures in North America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Using a topical approach, it compares different systems of crime and justice in terms of their differences from, and similarities to, the laws and institutions of modern criminal justice, focusing on the United States as a standard of comparison. By examining different criminal justice systems in terms of their local peculiarities and understanding their change and continuity, readers will gain a well-rounded international perspective of the world's varying systems of criminal justice. Key Features: -Explores the rise of modern criminology and the criminal justice system in the nineteenth century. It is critical for students to understand the history of modern systems to fully comprehend the varying nature of today's main legal systems, focusing on the United States as a standard of comparison. -Employs a topical approach to examine the criminal justice systems in varying countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, and Latin America, including comparative views on law enforcement, judicial systems, corrections, due process of law, and search and seizures. -Includes discussions on comparative processes of criminalization and decriminalization on such issues as domestic violence, child abuse, homosexuality, and sexual harassment. -Discusses new global crimes and their impact on modern and traditional criminal justice systems, including human smuggling, global sex trade, global illegal drug trade, illegal trafficking of conventional military weapons, money laundering, cybercrime, and global terrorism. -Discussion questions ensure that student's grasp the core theoretical concepts.
Part of the series entitled International Library of Criminology, Criminal Justice and Penology, this text covers such topics as the patterns of street crime and their explanation and gangs, subcultures and crime.
With contributions from leading academics, The Oxford Handbook of Criminology provides an authoritative collection of chapters covering the topics studied on criminology courses. Each chapter details relevant theory, recent research, policy developments, and current debates, and includes extensive references to aid further research.
Recent years have witnessed an increase in the attention given to the later stages of criminal careers. Research upon this topic has charted the main factors associated with the termination of criminal careers, outlined some of the possible reasons behind these relationships and started to develop theoretical explanations for such relationships. Collected together for the first time are some of the most important contributions to this field of research. The collection focuses upon the initial explorations into this topic, the most commonly observed findings, the cessation of offending by specific offender-types and theoretical matters. An introductory essay by the editor provides a thorough overview of the work in this area and highlights the reasons why the termination of criminal careers will become increasingly important to criminologists and criminal justice policy makers alike.
Race, Crime and Justice brings together influential British and American articles on the involvement of minority ethnic groups with crime and criminal justice. After reviewing empirical and theoretical issues, the volume presents key facts about racial imbalances in prison populations, and addresses the question of whether these are the result of discrimination by the criminal justice systems of the United Kingdom and the United States, or whether they can be explained by higher crime rates among certain racial groups. Articles included cover possible discrimination by the police and the courts and the effects of particular criminal justice strategies are addressed.