The study of genetic exchange resulting from natural hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, and viral recombination has long been marked by controversy between researchers holding different conceptual frameworks. Those subscribing to a doctrine of 'species purity' have traditionally been reluctant to recognise inferences suggesting anything other than a marginal role for non-allopatric divergence leading to gene transfer between different lineages. However, an increasing number of evolutionary biologists now accept that there is a growing body of evidence indicating the existence of non-allopatric diversification across many lineages and all domains of biological diversity. Divergence with Genetic Exchange investigates the mechanisms associated with evolutionary divergence and diversification, focussing on the role played by the exchange of genes between divergent lineages, a process recently termed 'divergence-with-gene-flow'. Although the mechanisms by which such divergent forms of life exchange genomic material may differ widely, the outcomes of interest - adaptive evolution and the formation of new hybrid lineages - do not. Successive chapters cover the history of the field, detection methodologies, outcomes, implications for conservation programs, and the effects on the human lineage associated with the process of genetic transfer between divergent lineages. This research level text is suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate level students taking related courses in departments of genetics, ecology and evolution. It will also be of relevance and use to professional evolutionary biologists and systematists seeking a comprehensive and authoritative overview of this rapidly expanding field.
Throughout, the Grants show how the laboratory tools of developmental biology and molecular genetics can be combined with observations and experiments on birds in the field to gain deeper insights into why the world is so biologically rich and diverse."--BOOK JACKET.
More and more data indicate that evolution has resulted in lineages consisting of mosaics of genes derived from different ancestors. It is therefore becoming increasingly clear that the tree is an inadequate metaphor of evolutionary change. In this book, Arnold promotes the 'web-of-life' metaphor as a more appropriate representation of evolutionary change in all lifeforms.
Our ever-increasing knowledge of whole genome sequences is unveiling a variety of structures and mechanisms that impinge on current evolutionary theory. The origin of species, the evolution of form, and the evolutionary impact of transposable elements are just a few of the many processes that have been revolutionised by ongoing genome studies. These novelties, among others, are examined in this book in relation to their general significance for evolution, emphasising their human relevance. The predominance of non-coding DNA in the human genome, the long-term adaptive role of so called "junk DNA" in the evolution of new functions, and the key evolutionary differences that define our humanity are just some of the controversial issues that this book examines in the context of Darwinian evolution. The author's principle intention is to show that whilst genomics is revealing new and previously unanticipated mechanisms and sources of variability that must be incorporated into evolutionary theory, there is no reason to dismiss the role of natural selection as the mechanism that sorts out these potentialities. In other words, this genome potential provides new possibilities (and also constraints) for evolution, but the realization of this potential is driven by natural selection.
Eldredge Bermingham,Christopher W. Dick,Craig Moritz
Author: Eldredge Bermingham,Christopher W. Dick,Craig Moritz
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Synthesizing theoretical and empirical analyses of the processes that help shape these unique ecosystems, Tropical Rainforests looks at the effects of evolutionary histories, past climate change, and ecological dynamics on the origin and maintenance of tropical rainforest communities. Featuring recent advances in paleoecology, climatology, geology, molecular systematics, biogeography, and community ecology, the volume also offers insights from those fields into how rainforests will endure the impact of anthropogenic change. With more than sixty contributors, Tropical Rainforests will be of great interest to students and professionals in tropical ecology and conservation.
Christine M. Schonewald-Cox,Christine M. Schonewald
Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson's The Theory of Island Biogeography, first published by Princeton in 1967, is one of the most influential books on ecology and evolution to appear in the past half century. By developing a general mathematical theory to explain a crucial ecological problem--the regulation of species diversity in island populations--the book transformed the science of biogeography and ecology as a whole. In The Theory of Island Biogeography Revisited, some of today's most prominent biologists assess the continuing impact of MacArthur and Wilson's book four decades after its publication. Following an opening chapter in which Wilson reflects on island biogeography in the 1960s, fifteen chapters evaluate and demonstrate how the field has extended and confirmed--as well as challenged and modified--MacArthur and Wilson's original ideas. Providing a broad picture of the fundamental ways in which the science of island biogeography has been shaped by MacArthur and Wilson's landmark work, The Theory of Island Biogeography Revisited also points the way toward exciting future research.
This book focuses on drosophila as an especially useful model organism for exploring questions of evolutionary biology in the full range of evolutionary studies: population genetics, ecology, ecological genetics, speciation, phylogenetics, genome evolution, molecular evolution, and development. The author presents an integrated view of evolutionary biology as elucidated in this single organism. Special effort is made to point out holes in our knowledge and areas particularly ripe for new investigation.
p”Ein auch heute noch bedeutsamer Klassiker“ Daily Express Sind wir Marionetten unserer Gene? Nach Richard Dawkins ́ vor über 30 Jahren entworfener und heute noch immer provozierender These steuern und dirigieren unsere von Generation zu Generation weitergegebenen Gene uns, um sich selbst zu erhalten. Alle biologischen Organismen dienen somit vor allem dem Überleben und der Unsterblichkeit der Erbanlagen und sind letztlich nur die "Einweg-Behälter" der "egoistischen" Gene. Sind wir Menschen also unserem Gen-Schicksal hilflos ausgeliefert? Dawkins bestreitet dies und macht uns Hoffnung: Seiner Meinung nach sind wir nämlich die einzige Spezies mit der Chance, gegen ihr genetisches Schicksal anzukämpfen.
This volume describes features of autonomy and integrates them into the recent discussion of factors in evolution. In recent years ideas about major transitions in evolution are undergoing a revolutionary change. They include questions about the origin of evolutionary innovation, their genetic and epigenetic background, the role of the phenotype and of changes in ontogenetic pathways. In the present book, it is argued that it is likewise necessary to question the properties of these innovations and what was qualitatively generated during the macroevolutionary transitions. The author states that a recurring central aspect of macroevolutionary innovations is an increase in individual organismal autonomy whereby it is emancipated from the environment with changes in its capacity for flexibility, self-regulation and self-control of behavior. The first chapters define the concept of autonomy and examine its history and its epistemological context. Later chapters demonstrate how changes in autonomy took place during the major evolutionary transitions and investigate the generation of organs and physiological systems. They synthesize material from various disciplines including zoology, comparative physiology, morphology, molecular biology, neurobiology and ethology. It is argued that the concept is also relevant for understanding the relation of the biological evolution of man to his cultural abilities. Finally the relation of autonomy to adaptation, niche construction, phenotypic plasticity and other factors and patterns in evolution is discussed. The text has a clear perspective from the context of systems biology, arguing that the generation of biological autonomy must be interpreted within an integrative systems approach.
Genomes and Genomics of Nitrogen-fixing Organisms This is Volume 3 of a seven-volume series on all aspects of Nitrogen Fixation. The series aims to be the definitive authority in the field and to act as a benchmark for some years to come. Rather than attempting to cram the whole field into a single volume, the subject matter is divided among seven volumes to allow authors the luxury of writing in depth with a comprehensive reference base. All authors are recognized practicing scientists in the area of their contribution, which ensures the high quality, relevance, and readability of the chapters. In establishing the rationale for, and the organization of, this book, we realized the need to divide it into two sections. The first section should be organism based and should review our current knowledge of the genomes of nitrogen-fixing organisms and what these nucleotide sequences tell us. The second section should then be technology based. It should review what technologies are available to mine the data inherent in the nucleotide sequences and how they are now being used to produce gene-function data from differential gene expression.
Advances in Gram-Negative Bacteria Research and Treatment / 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Gram-Negative Bacteria. The editors have built Advances in Gram-Negative Bacteria Research and Treatment / 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Gram-Negative Bacteria in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Advances in Gram-Negative Bacteria Research and Treatment / 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.
Selective Sweep deals with the theory and practice of detection of recent adaptive evolution at the genomic level from the patterns of DNA polymorphism. Recent advances in genomic sequencing provide the background for analysis of polymorphic sites in large chromosomal regions or even in whole genome, thus providing the tool for effective identification of loci that are under strong pressure of positive selection. For this reason, the studies of selective sweep, which formerly were of interest mostly to evolutionists, have become widely recognized and appreciated by the large biological community involved in identification of the targets of selection during speciation, host/pathogen interactions, and resistance to chemical agents.
The accumulation of archaeal genomes has lagged significantly behind the Bacteria; however, in the last several years the coverage of the major phyla of Archaea has been significantly improved. There are now multiple genomes in several important genera such as Pyrobaculum, Sulfolobus, Thermococcus/Pyrococcus, Halobacterium, Methanosarcina, Methanopyrus and Methanocaldococcus. Comparative genomic studies are now under way, and in many cases there are several consortial multilaboratory groups, such as the SulfoSys community, which have started to break into new systems biology initiatives. At the same time, access to streamlined genetic approaches in the genera Sulfolobus, Thermococcus, Methanosarcina, and Halobacterium/Haloferax has improved significantly and is leveraging the genomic information in the Archaea. The result has been that genome-driven studies of metabolism, DNA replication and repair, transcription and translation, and posttranslational processing have become more detailed and that basic research findings are burgeoning. The areas of global gene regulation, the roles of small RNAs and mechanisms of transcription and DNA replication will be focus areas in the guidelines of this Research Topic. Recently, insights into the unique characteristics of archaeal transcription and the ability to study the effects of mutation in vivo following knock-in gene replacement have resulted in incisive findings.