The Psychological and Social Impact of Illness and Disability, 6th Edition

Author: Mark A. Stebnicki, PhD, LCP, DCMHS, CRC, CCM,Irmo Marini, PhD, DSc, CRC, CLCP

Publisher: Springer Publishing Company

ISBN: 0826106560

Category: Psychology

Page: 568

View: 7558

"This edition...adds an important international perspective on illness and disability. The personal narratives help bring the real world of people who are suffering to the forefront of the scientific discourse."--Doody's Medical Reviews Now in its sixth edition, this best-selling textbook continues to be the most comprehensive and diverse text available on the psychosocial aspects of disability. It examines current thought and treatment approaches to working with individuals with disabilities through the contributions of expert thinkers and practitioners in the disability field. Abundant and insightful narratives by disabled individuals offer a bridge between theory and practice for students in rehabilitation psychology and counseling courses. In addition to completely updated and reorganized material, this edition contains insightful new section introductions, empirically based research articles, and the contributions of international researchers presenting a more global and richer perspective on the psychosocial aspects of disability and illness. It also contains an increased focus on the negative impact of societal attitudes and treatment of disabled individuals on their psychological adjustment to disability. The addition of objectives at the beginning of each chapter and review questions and personal perspectives at the end of each chapter further facilitate in-depth learning. Key Features: Presents the most comprehensive and diverse coverage of psychosocial aspects of disability topics of any textbook available Examines contemporary thinking and treatment approaches in working with individuals with disabilities Provides a bridge between theory and practice through the narratives of individuals with disabilities Establishes a historical understanding of societal attitudes toward disability and treatment past and present of persons with disabilities Analyzes barriers to enabling persons with disabilities and improving social consciousness and quality of life for this population Facilitates course planning through inclusion of objectives and review questions/personal perspectives in each chapter

Disability and Social Theory

New Developments and Directions

Author: D. Goodley,B. Hughes,L. Davis

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137023007

Category: Social Science

Page: 348

View: 7655

This comprehensive, interdisciplinary collection, examines disability from a theoretical perspective, challenging views of disability that dominate mainstream thinking. Throughout, social theories of disability intersect with ideas associated with sex/gender, race/ethnicity, class and nation.

The Dynamics of Disability

Measuring and Monitoring Disability for Social Security Programs

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on National Statistics,Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Care Services,Committee to Review the Social Security Administration's Disability Decision Process Research

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309169370

Category: Medical

Page: 368

View: 6764

The Society Security disability program faces urgent challenges: more people receiving benefits than ever before, the prospect of even more claimants as baby boomers age, changing attitudes culminating in the Americans With Disabilities Act. Disability is now understood as a dynamic process, and Social Security must comprehend that process to plan adequately for the times ahead. The Dynamics of Disability provides expert analysis and recommendations in key areas: Understanding the current social, economic, and physical environmental factors in determining eligibility for disability benefits. Developing and implementing a monitoring system to measure and track trends in work disability. Improving the process for making decisions on disability claims. Building Social Security’s capacity for conducting needed research. This book provides a wealth of detail on the workings of the Social Security disability program, recent and emerging disability trends, issues and previous experience in researching disability, and more. It will be of primary interest to federal policy makers, the Congress, and researchersâ€"and it will be useful to state disability officials, medical and rehabilitation professionals, and the disability community.

Handbook of Applied Disability and Rehabilitation Research

Author: Kristofer J. Hagglund, PhD, ABPP,Allen W. Heinemann, PhD, ABPP

Publisher: Springer Publishing Company

ISBN: 9780826132567

Category: Psychology

Page: 312

View: 4719

Now, more than ever, the field of rehabilitation psychology is growing. This book--one of the few that focuses solely on rehabilitation psychology research--provides the reader with the most up-to-date look at researchand practice within the field of rehabilitation psychology. It offers recommendations for future research programs, policy changes, and clinical interventions from the various perspectives within rehabilitation psychology research and practice, and seeks to demonstrate how much the field can evolve with the implementation of these changes. Topics covered include: Assistive technology Health policy Cultural diversity Employment Future of rehabilitation research Community integration Health disparities

Disability and Equity at Work

Author: Jody Heymann,Michael Ashley Stein,Gonzalo Moreno

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019998123X

Category: Medical

Page: 352

View: 8645

Despite international and national guarantees of equal rights, there remains a great deal to be done to achieve global employment equality for individuals with disabilities. In OECD countries, the employment rate of persons with disabilities was just over 40%, compared to 75% for persons without a disability; in many low- and middle-income countries, the employment rates are even lower. There are numerous reasons why persons with disabilities fare poorly in the labor market; Disability and Equity at Work is the first book to document what can be done to improve this imbalance. Chapters in this volume address all relevant facets of this topic and include: ? Extensive examination of the factors contributing to inequitable access to work among persons with disability ? Analysis of the economic benefits of increasing employment equity ? Successful employment strategies at every stage of a worker's career ? Evidence-based recommendations and in-depth case studies of innovative policies and programs around the world Chapter contributors include leaders from international organizations, government, civil society, and academia, including experts from UN agencies, leaders in nongovernmental advocacy and research organizations, and senior academics in the field. Disability and Equity at Work fills a needed gap that will appeal to those interested in and engaged in public policy, global health, equal rights, business, labor, and other fields.

Issues in Disability, Rehabilitation, Wound Treatment, and Disease Management: 2011 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464964580

Category: Medical

Page: 1409

View: 2984

Issues in Disability, Rehabilitation, Wound Treatment, and Disease Management: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Disability, Rehabilitation, Wound Treatment, and Disease Management. The editors have built Issues in Disability, Rehabilitation, Wound Treatment, and Disease Management: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Disability, Rehabilitation, Wound Treatment, and Disease Management in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Disability, Rehabilitation, Wound Treatment, and Disease Management: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

International Views on Disability Measures

Moving Toward Comparative Measurement

Author: Barbara Mandell Altman,Sharon N. Barnartt

Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing

ISBN: 0762312823

Category: Medical

Page: 290

View: 5168

Disability policy has become an increasingly important issue in countries around the world. More and more, as populations are exposed to war and civil conflicts, natural disasters, environmental poisons along with the effects of normal aging, accidents and poverty, disability has become a growing public health and civil rights problem. In order to develop reasonable policy solutions, countries need accurate, reliable estimates of the size and make up of their disabled population. Comparisons of policy solutions cross-nationally require that the data that is used as the basis for the policy decisions is comparable. At the same time that the world has determined an important need for data on populations with disability, the data that is available is still haphazard and not comparable. The UN has begun to address this need with a publication, the "Guidelines and Principles for the Development of Disability Statistics in 2001," and through the authorization of the formation of the Washington Group, an informal, temporary organization in the mode of a City Group. As a voluntary organization of National Statistical Office representatives, the purpose of the Washington Group is to address selected problems in statistical methods associated with the measurement of disability internationally. The papers in this volume reflect a sampling of the work done to this point by the Washington Group to address this important public health problem. The collection describes the background of disability measurement as the work of the group started from an international perspective and identifies other work being done in this area. It also provides snapshots of the data that is currently available and inuse along with how the data is used in a variety of countries. Finally, a section on methodological issues identifies some insight as well as suggested solutions to key problems that will need to be addressed if the Group is to accomplish its task. *Volume includes papers that examine the statistical problems associated with the measurement of disability internationally *Looks at country specific issues as well as overarching methodologies *An important contribution to disability and public policy

Disabled People and Employment

A Review of Research and Development Work

Author: Barnes, Helen,Thornton, Patricia,Sue Maynard Campbell

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 1861341210

Category: Political Science

Page: 68

View: 9519

This review of research and development initiatives intended to help disabled people get (or stay in) work, takes views of disabled people as a yardstick by which to assess good practice. It pinpoints gaps in existing research, and highlights the varying requirements of disabled people, employers and service providers as users of research.

Demography of Aging

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Population

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309050855

Category: Social Science

Page: 424

View: 5271

As the United States and the rest of the world face the unprecedented challenge of aging populations, this volume draws together for the first time state-of-the-art work from the emerging field of the demography of aging. The nine chapters, written by experts from a variety of disciplines, highlight data sources and research approaches, results, and proposed strategies on a topic with major policy implications for labor forces, economic well-being, health care, and the need for social and family supports.

Universal Design as a Rehabilitation Strategy

Design for the Ages

Author: Jon A. Sanford, M.Arch

Publisher: Springer Publishing Company

ISBN: 0826125530

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 7027

A unique resource for rehabilitation engineers, design and building professionals, rehabilitation counselors, gerontologists, psychologists, and other health and mental health professionals, this volume covers the significance and impact of universal design as a change agent for social and health movements. With a focus that is both practical and visionary, it emphasizes how the use of universal design can promote increased performance and participation for the aging population and people with disabilities, while mitigating the stigma and segregation that often characterize traditional rehabilitation design strategies. Written by one of the few architecturally trained researchers engaged in environmental issues related to accessibility and design for aging, the book stresses that universal design is not solely for people with disabilities, but is about usability and inclusion for people of all levels of ability. It examines key social ecological models in rehabilitation for aging and disability, and sheds new light on health and disability at both the individual and population level. Particular attention is paid to the medical, functional, and environmental implications of disability, health care and disability systems, and the psychosocial and cultural issues pertinent to rehabilitation counseling. Key Features: Examines the medical, functional, and environmental implications of disability Addresses health care and disability systems Discusses psychosocial and cultural issues pertinent to rehabilitation counseling Rooted in the concepts of social equity and inclusivity through participation of older adults and disabled individuals in community and societal roles Provides a visionary yet practical paradigm that transcends traditional design problem-solving

Community-Oriented Health Services

Practices Across Disciplines

Author: Elias Mpofu, PhD, DEd, CRC

Publisher: Springer Publishing Company

ISBN: 082619818X

Category: Medical

Page: 384

View: 6081

Grounded in a transdisciplinary approach, this groundbreaking text provides extensive, evidence-based information on the value of communities as the primary drivers of their own health and well-being. It describes foundational community health concepts and procedures and presents proven strategies for engaging communities as resources for their own health improvementñan important determinant of individual well-being. It is based on recommendations by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and on the premise that healthy communities are those with populations that participate in their own health promotion, maintenance, and sustenance. The book is unique in its integration of environmental and social justice issues as they significantly affect the advancement of community health. The text focuses on community-oriented health interventions informed by prevention, inclusiveness, and timeliness that both promote better health and are more cost effective than individually focused interventions. It addresses the foundations of community-oriented health services including their history, social determinants, concepts, and policies as well as the economics of community-oriented health services and health disparities and equity. It covers procedures for designing, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating sustainable community health coalitions along with tools for measuring their success. Detailed case studies describe specific settings and themes in U.S. and international community health practice in which communities are both enactors and beneficiaries. An accompanying instructor's manual provides learning exercises, field-based experiential assignments, and multiple-choice questions. A valuable resource for students and practitioners of education, public policy, and social services, this book bridges the perspectives of environmental justice, public health, and community well-being and development, which, while being mutually interdependent, have rarely been considered together. KEY FEATURES: Offers a new paradigm for improving public health through community-driven health coalitions Includes evidence-based strategies for engaging communities in the pursuit of health Demonstrates how to design, implement, monitor, and evaluate community health partnerships Presents transdisciplinary approaches that consider environmental and social justice variables Includes contributions of international authors renowned in community health research and practice

Fostering Independence, Participation, and Healthy Aging Through Technology

Workshop Summary

Author: National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Forum on Aging, Disability, and Independence

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309285178

Category: Medical

Page: 84

View: 1287

The Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the National Research Council (NRC) have had prominent roles in discussions of aging, disability, and technology for decades. In 1978, Aging and Medical Education (IOM, 1978) raised national awareness of the challenges to physicians posed by the aging of the U.S. population. Thirty years later, Retooling for an Aging America highlighted concerns for the entire health care workforce in view of the aging of the population, including the role of technology in caring for older populations. The 1988 report The Aging Population in the 21st Century examined social, economic, and demographic changes among older adults, as well as many health-related topics: health promotion and disease prevention; quality of life; health care system financing and use; and the quality of care- especially long-term care. In 1991, the landmark report Disability in America laid out a national agenda to prevent disability and improve the lives of people with disabling conditions. The 1997 report Enabling America: Assessing the Role of Rehabilitation Science and Engineering examined the knowledge base of rehabilitation science and engineering and proposed ways to translate scientific findings into interventions that produce better health. And the 2007 report The Future of Disability in America examined progress made since the earlier reports and looked at continuing barriers that limit the independence, productivity, and participation in community life of people with disabilities. All these reports were produced by committees appointed in accordance with guidelines of the National Academies and met multiples times to compile and review evidence, reach consensus on conclusions and recommendations, draft a report of the committee, and then modify that draft report in response to comments from outside reviewers. The IOM and NRC have also held several workshops related to aging, disability, and technology and published summary reports, such as Technology for Adaptive Aging and Grand Challenges of Our Aging Society. The IOM and NRC also convene groups that take a different approach to issues of pressing national and international importance. Often known as forums or roundtables, these groups meet regularly to foster dialogue and confront issues of mutual interest and concern among a broad range of stakeholders. They can convene workshops, initiate cooperative projects among members, commission independently authored articles, and generate ideas for independent consensus studies. In 2012 the IOM and NRC joined together to establish the Forum on Aging, Disability, and Independence to provide a neutral venue for broad-ranging discussions among the many stakeholders involved with aging and disability. The goals of the forum are to highlight areas in which the coordination of the aging and disability networks is strong, examine the challenges involved in aligning the aging and disability networks, explore new approaches for resolving problem areas, elevate the visibility and broaden the perspectives of stakeholders, and set the stage for future policy actions. Forum sponsors and members include federal agencies, health professional associations, private sector businesses, academics, and consumers. Fostering Independence, Participation, and Healthy Aging Through Technology summarizes this workshop.

Psychosocial Aspects of Disability

Insider Perspectives and Strategies for Counselors

Author: Noreen M. Glover-Graf, RhD, CRC,Michael J. Millington, PhD, CRC

Publisher: Springer Publishing Company

ISBN: 082610603X

Category: Psychology

Page: 528

View: 2263

"What a marvelous and amazing textbook. Drs. Marini, Glover-Graf and Millington have done a remarkable job in the design of this highly unique book, that comprehensively and very thoughtfully addresses the psychosocial aspects of the disability experience. These highly respected scholars have produced a major work that will be a central text in rehabilitation education for years to come." From the Foreword by Michael J. Leahy, Ph.D., LPC, CRC Office of Rehabilitation and Disability Studies Michigan State University "This is an excellent book, but the best parts are the stories of the disabled, which give readers insights into their struggles and triumphs." Score: 94, 4 Stars--Doody's Medical Reviews What are the differences between individuals with disabilities who flourish as opposed to those who never really adjust after a trauma? How are those born with a disability different from individuals who acquire one later in life? This is the first textbook about the psychosocial aspects of disability to provide students and practitioners of rehabilitation counseling with vivid insight into the experience of living with a disability. It features the first-person narratives of 16 people living with a variety of disabling conditions, which are integrated with sociological and societal perspectives toward disability, and strategies for counseling persons with disabilities. Using a minority model perspective to address disability, the book focuses on historical perspectives, cultural variants regarding disability, myths and misconceptions, the attitudes of special interest and occupational groups, the psychology of disability with a focus on positive psychology, and adjustments to disability by the individual and family. A wealth of counseling guidelines and useful strategies are geared specifically to individual disabilities. Key Features: Contains narratives of people living with blindness, hearing impairments, spinal cord injuries, muscular dystrophy, polio, mental illness, and other disabilities Provides counseling guidelines and strategies specifically geared toward specific disabilities, including "dos and don'ts" Includes psychological and sociological research relating to individual disabilities Discusses ongoing treatment issues and ethical dilemmas for rehabilitation counselors Presents thought-provoking discussion questions in each chapter Authored by prominent professor and researcher who became disabled as a young adult

Handbook of Religion and Health

Author: Harold Koenig,Dana King,Verna B. Carson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199912718

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 1192

View: 8315

The Handbook of Religion and Health has become the seminal research text on religion, spirituality, and health, outlining a rational argument for the connection between religion and health. The Second Edition completely revises and updates the first edition. Its authors are physicians: a psychiatrist and geriatrician, a primary care physician, and a professor of nursing and specialist in mental health nursing. The Second Edition surveys the historical connections between religion and health and grapples with the distinction between the terms ''religion'' and ''spirituality'' in research and clinical practice. It reviews research on religion and mental health, as well as extensive research literature on the mind-body relationship, and develops a model to explain how religious involvement may impact physical health through the mind-body mechanisms. It also explores the direct relationships between religion and physical health, covering such topics as immune and endocrine function, heart disease, hypertension and stroke, neurological disorders, cancer, and infectious diseases; and examines the consequences of illness including chronic pain, disability, and quality of life. Finally, the Handbook reviews research methods and addresses applications to clinical practice. Theological perspectives are interwoven throughout the chapters. The Handbook is the most insightful and authoritative resource available to anyone who wants to understand the relationship between religion and health.

Wellbeing: A Complete Reference Guide, Interventions and Policies to Enhance Wellbeing

Author: Felicia A. Huppert,Cary L. Cooper

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118716167

Category: Psychology

Page: 704

View: 656

Using an evidence-based approach and case studies from a widerange of life domains, Interventions and Policies to EnhanceWellbeing examines the most successful existing strategies topromote wellbeing and mental health. Discusses the results of the latest research in the science ofwellbeing and their implications for improved learning, creativity,productivity, relationships, and health Covers interventions for individuals across the lifespan, aswell as those for organizations, communities, and entirepopulations Looks at policy initiatives and approaches with a focus on theintegration of new technology and the role of the media Part of the six-volume Wellbeing: A Complete ReferenceGuide, which brings together leading research from across thesocial sciences

Occupational Therapy and Physical Dysfunction E-Book

Enabling Occupation

Author: Michael Curtin,Matthew Molineux,Jo-Anne Webb (formerly Supyk/Mellson)

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0702048771

Category: Medical

Page: 672

View: 7789

The sixth edition of this classic book remains a key text for occupational therapists, supporting their practice in working with people with physical impairments, stimulating reflection on the knowledge, skills and attitudes which inform practice, and encouraging the development of occupation-focused practice. Within this book, the editors have addressed the call by leaders within the profession to ensure that an occupational perspective shapes the skills and strategies used within occupational therapy practice. Rather than focusing on discrete diagnostic categories the book presents a range of strategies that, with the use of professional reasoning, can be transferred across practice settings. The new editors have radically updated the book, in response to the numerous internal and external influences on the profession, illustrating how an occupational perspective underpins occupational therapy practice. A global outlook is intrinsic to this edition of the book, as demonstrated by the large number of contributors recruited from across the world. Covers everything the student needs within the physical disorders part of their course Links theory of principles to practice and management Written and edited by a team of internationally experienced OT teachers, clinicians and managers Gives key references and further reading lists for more detailed study Written within a framework of lifespan development in line with current teaching and practice Includes practice scenarios and case studies Focuses on strategies Subtitle reflecting the primacy of occupation in occupational therapy practice Inclusion of practice scenarios to illustrate the application of theory to practice Features such as chapter summaries and key points, providing a quick overview of each chapter A focus on strategies rather than diagnostic categories Consideration of individuals, groups and communities An international perspective Language that is person-centred and inclusive New editorial team endorsed by the former editors including Annie Turner

Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Committee on Minority Representation in Special Education

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309170818

Category: Social Science

Page: 496

View: 4381

Special education and gifted and talented programs were designed for children whose educational needs are not well met in regular classrooms. From their inceptions, these programs have had disproportionate representation of racial and ethnic minority students. What causes this disproportion? Is it a problem? Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education considers possible contributors to that disparity, including early biological and environmental influences and inequities in opportunities for preschool and K-12 education, as well as the possibilities of bias in the referral and assessment system that leads to placement in special programs. It examines the data on early childhood experience, on differences in educational opportunity, and on referral and placement. The book also considers whether disproportionate representation should be considered a problem. Do special education programs provide valuable educational services, or do they set students off on a path of lower educational expectations? Would students not now placed in gifted and talented programs benefit from raised expectations, more rigorous classes, and the gifted label, or would they suffer failure in classes for which they are unprepared? By examining this important problem in U.S. education and making recommendations for early intervention and general education, as well as for changes in referral and assessment processes, Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education will be an indispensable resource to educators throughout the nation, as well as to policy makers at all levels, from schools and school districts to the state and federal governments.

Hoop Dreams on Wheels

Disability and the Competitive Wheelchair Athlete

Author: Ronald Berger

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135890765

Category: Social Science

Page: 184

View: 1904

Hoop Dreams on Wheels is a life-history study of wheelchair athletes associated with a premier collegiate wheelchair basketball program. The book, which grapples with the intersection of biography and history in society, situates the study in broader context with background on the history and sociology of disability and disability sports. It documents the development and evolution of the basketball program and tells the individual life stories of the athletes, highlighting the formative interpersonal and institutional experiences that influenced their agentive actions and that helped them achieve success in wheelchair sports. It also examines divisions within the disability community that reveal both empowering and disempowering aspects of competitive wheelchair athletics, and it explores some of the complexities and dilemmas of disability identity in contemporary society. The book is intended to be read by a general audience as well as by students in college courses on disability, sports, social problems, deviance, medical sociology and anthropology, and introductory sociology. It also will be of interest to scholars in the sociology of disability, sociology of sports, and medical humanities, as well as life-history researchers and professionals in the fields of physical education, therapeutic recreation, and rehabilitative counseling.

A Textbook of Children's and Young People's Nursing E-Book

Author: Dr Jim Richardson,Edward Alan Glasper

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0702044407

Category: Medical

Page: 776

View: 2616

nurse for life – electronic access only Get to all of the high-quality content from Elsevier faster than ever! Your favourite textbooks are now available as e-books through nurse for life, allowing you to: Electronically search the book Create and share notes and highlights Save time with automatic referencing Load it up and change the way you learn! What do I get? You will be emailed a PIN code that will give you perpetual access to the electronic version of the book through nurse for life. Book description This title is directed primarily towards health care professionals outside of the United States. Covering the full age and specialty spectrum this text brings together for the first time, individual chapters from among the most respected children's nurses. This textbook is rooted in child-centred health care within a family context and draws upon best contemporary practice throughout the UK and further afield. This innovative text harnesses new design parameters in enquiry-based/problem-based learning, providing up-to-date information on a wide range of topics. In an exciting addition each chapter offers readers additional material on an Evolve website. Full Microsoft PowerPoint presentations augment the written chapters and provide extra information that includes case studies, moving image, photographs and text. Each chapter offers readers additional material on an Evolve website. Full Microsoft PowerPoint presentations augment the written chapters and provide extra information that includes case studies, moving image, photographs and text. Aims, objectives, learning outcomes, a summary box in each chapter and key points assist learning and understanding Professional conversation boxes enliven the text on the page and make it more interesting to dip into Suggestions for seminar discussion topics to help teachers Case studies help to relate theory to practice Prompts to promote reflective practice Activity boxes/suggested visits Evidence based practice boxes which highlight key research studies, annotated bibliographies including details of web-sites and full contemporary references to the evidence base Resource lists including recommended web-site addresses