Dictators and Democrats

Masses, Elites, and Regime Change

Author: Stephan Haggard,Robert R. Kaufman

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400882982

Category: Political Science

Page: 424

View: 5102

From the 1980s through the first decade of the twenty-first century, the spread of democracy across the developing and post-Communist worlds transformed the global political landscape. What drove these changes and what determined whether the emerging democracies would stabilize or revert to authoritarian rule? Dictators and Democrats takes a comprehensive look at the transitions to and from democracy in recent decades. Deploying both statistical and qualitative analysis, Stephen Haggard and Robert Kaufman engage with theories of democratic change and advocate approaches that emphasize political and institutional factors. While inequality has been a prominent explanation for democratic transitions, the authors argue that its role has been limited, and elites as well as masses can drive regime change. Examining seventy-eight cases of democratic transition and twenty-five reversions since 1980, Haggard and Kaufman show how differences in authoritarian regimes and organizational capabilities shape popular protest and elite initiatives in transitions to democracy, and how institutional weaknesses cause some democracies to fail. The determinants of democracy lie in the strength of existing institutions and the public's capacity to engage in collective action. There are multiple routes to democracy, but those growing out of mass mobilization may provide more checks on incumbents than those emerging from intra-elite bargains. Moving beyond well-known beliefs regarding regime changes, Dictators and Democrats explores the conditions under which transitions to democracy are likely to arise.

Dictators and Democrats

Masses, Elites, and Regime Change

Author: Professor in the Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies Stephan Haggard,Robert R. Kaufman

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780691172156

Category: Political Science

Page: 424

View: 7329

From the 1980s through the first decade of the twenty-first century, the spread of democracy across the developing and post-Communist worlds transformed the global political landscape. What drove these changes and what determined whether the emerging democracies would stabilize or revert to authoritarian rule? "Dictators and Democrats "takes a comprehensive look at the transitions to and from democracy in recent decades. Deploying both statistical and qualitative analysis, Stephen Haggard and Robert Kaufman engage with theories of democratic change and advocate approaches that emphasize political and institutional factors. While inequality has been a prominent explanation for democratic transitions, the authors argue that its role has been limited, and elites as well as masses can drive regime change. Examining seventy-eight cases of democratic transition and twenty-five reversions since 1980, Haggard and Kaufman show how differences in authoritarian regimes and organizational capabilities shape popular protest and elite initiatives in transitions to democracy, and how institutional weaknesses cause some democracies to fail. The determinants of democracy lie in the strength of existing institutions and the public's capacity to engage in collective action. There are multiple routes to democracy, but those growing out of mass mobilization may provide more checks on incumbents than those emerging from intra-elite bargains. Moving beyond well-known beliefs regarding regime changes, "Dictators and Democrats" explores the conditions under which transitions to democracy are likely to arise.

Dictators and Democrats

Masses, Elites, and Regime Change

Author: Robert R. Kaufman

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780691172149

Category: Political Science

Page: 424

View: 6801

From the 1980s through the first decade of the twenty-first century, the spread of democracy across the developing and post-Communist worlds transformed the global political landscape. What drove these changes and what determined whether the emerging democracies would stabilize or revert to authoritarian rule? "Dictators and Democrats "takes a comprehensive look at the transitions to and from democracy in recent decades. Deploying both statistical and qualitative analysis, Stephen Haggard and Robert Kaufman engage with theories of democratic change and advocate approaches that emphasize political and institutional factors. While inequality has been a prominent explanation for democratic transitions, the authors argue that its role has been limited, and elites as well as masses can drive regime change. Examining seventy-eight cases of democratic transition and twenty-five reversions since 1980, Haggard and Kaufman show how differences in authoritarian regimes and organizational capabilities shape popular protest and elite initiatives in transitions to democracy, and how institutional weaknesses cause some democracies to fail. The determinants of democracy lie in the strength of existing institutions and the public's capacity to engage in collective action. There are multiple routes to democracy, but those growing out of mass mobilization may provide more checks on incumbents than those emerging from intra-elite bargains. Moving beyond well-known beliefs regarding regime changes, "Dictators and Democrats" explores the conditions under which transitions to democracy are likely to arise.

Life after Dictatorship

Authoritarian Successor Parties Worldwide

Author: James Loxton,Scott Mainwaring

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108426670

Category: Political Science

Page: 400

View: 7826

Launches a new research agenda on one of the most common but overlooked features of the democratization experience worldwide: authoritarian successor parties.

The Politics of Authoritarian Rule

Author: Milan W. Svolik

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110702479X

Category: Political Science

Page: 228

View: 5556

"What drives politics in dictatorships? Milan W. Svolik argues authoritarian regimes must resolve two fundamental conflicts. Dictators face threats from the masses over which they rule - the problem of authoritarian control. Secondly from the elites with whom dictators rule - the problem of authoritarian power-sharing. Using the tools of game theory, Svolik explains why some dictators establish personal autocracy and stay in power for decades; why elsewhere leadership changes are regular and institutionalized, as in contemporary China; why some dictatorships are ruled by soldiers, as Uganda was under Idi Amin; why many authoritarian regimes, such as PRI-era Mexico, maintain regime-sanctioned political parties; and why a country's authoritarian past casts a long shadow over its prospects for democracy, as the unfolding events of the Arab Spring reveal. Svolik complements these and other historical case studies with the statistical analysis on institutions, leaders and ruling coalitions across dictatorships from 1946 to 2008"--

Ordering Power

Contentious Politics and Authoritarian Leviathans in Southeast Asia

Author: Dan Slater

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139489968

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 9756

Like the postcolonial world more generally, Southeast Asia exhibits tremendous variation in state capacity and authoritarian durability. Ordering Power draws on theoretical insights dating back to Thomas Hobbes to develop a unified framework for explaining both of these political outcomes. States are especially strong and dictatorships especially durable when they have their origins in 'protection pacts': broad elite coalitions unified by shared support for heightened state power and tightened authoritarian controls as bulwarks against especially threatening and challenging types of contentious politics. These coalitions provide the elite collective action underpinning strong states, robust ruling parties, cohesive militaries, and durable authoritarian regimes - all at the same time. Comparative-historical analysis of seven Southeast Asian countries (Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Vietnam, and Thailand) reveals that subtly divergent patterns of contentious politics after World War II provide the best explanation for the dramatic divergence in Southeast Asia's contemporary states and regimes.

Authoritarianism and the Elite Origins of Democracy

Author: Michael Albertus,Victor Menaldo

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107199824

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 322

View: 9773

Provides an innovative theory of regime transitions and outcomes, and tests it using extensive evidence between 1800 and today.

Democracy, Inequality and Corruption

Author: Jong-sung You

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107078407

Category: Political Science

Page: 308

View: 4772

In this comparative, historical survey of three East-Asian countries, Jong-sung You explores how inequality hinders democratic control of corruption.

Making Constitutions

Presidents, Parties, and Institutional Choice in Latin America

Author: Gabriel L. Negretto

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107026520

Category: Political Science

Page: 283

View: 4118

This book provides the first systematic explanation of the origins of constitutional designs from an analytical, historical, and comparative perspective. Based on a comprehensive analysis of constitutional change in Latin America from 1900 to 2008 and four detailed case studies, Gabriel Negretto shows that the main determinants of constitutional choice are the past performance of constitutions in providing effective and legitimate instruments of government and the strategic interests of the actors who have influence over institutional selection. The book explains how governance problems shape the general guidelines for reform, while strategic calculations and power resources affect the selection of specific alternatives of design. It also emphasizes the importance of the events that trigger reform and the designers' level of electoral uncertainty for understanding the relative impact of short-term partisan interests on constitution writing. Negretto's study challenges predominant theories of institutional choice, and paves the way for the development of a new research agenda on institutional change.

The Promise of Power

The Origins of Democracy in India and Autocracy in Pakistan

Author: Maya Tudor

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107032962

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 4861

Under what conditions are some developing countries able to create stable democracies while others have slid into instability and authoritarianism? To address this classic question at the center of policy and academic debates, The Promise of Power investigates a striking puzzle: why, upon the 1947 Partition of British India, was India able to establish a stable democracy while Pakistan created an unstable autocracy? Drawing on interviews, colonial correspondence, and early government records to document the genesis of two of the twentieth century's most celebrated independence movements, Maya Tudor refutes the prevailing notion that a country's democratization prospects can be directly attributed to its levels of economic development or inequality. Instead, she demonstrates that the differential strengths of India's and Pakistan's independence movements directly account for their divergent democratization trajectories. She also establishes that these movements were initially constructed to pursue historically conditioned class interests. By illuminating the source of this enduring contrast, The Promise of Power offers a broad theory of democracy's origins that will interest scholars and students of comparative politics, democratization, state-building, and South Asian political history.

Democratization by Elections

A New Mode of Transition

Author: Staffan I. Lindberg

Publisher: Johns Hopkins University Press

ISBN: 9780801893193

Category: Political Science

Page: 432

View: 577

Roessler, Andreas Schedler, Jan Teorell, Nicolas van de Walle, Sharon L. Wolchik

Dictators and their Secret Police

Author: Sheena Chestnut Greitens

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107139848

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 2291

This book explores the secret police organizations of East Asian dictators: origins, operations, and effects on ordinary citizens' lives.

The Politics of Uncertainty

Sustaining and Subverting Electoral Authoritarianism

Author: Andreas Schedler

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199680329

Category: Political Science

Page: 493

View: 7142

This volume offers a major new theory of authoritarian politics. It studies regime struggles between government and opposition under electoral authoritarianism and argues that autocracies suffer from institutional uncertainties.

Democratization and Research Methods

Author: Michael Coppedge

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521537274

Category: Political Science

Page: 357

View: 9682

Democratization and Research Methods summarizes what researchers know about why countries become and remain democracies, and why they often do not. It also evaluates the various methods social scientists use to answer such questions. Michael Coppedge draws lessons that can be applied to any political phenomenon that is studied comparatively.

Making Waves

Democratic Contention in Europe and Latin America since the Revolutions of 1848

Author: Kurt Weyland

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110704474X

Category: Political Science

Page: 318

View: 2313

This study investigates the three main waves of political regime contention in Europe and Latin America. Surprisingly, protest against authoritarian rule spread across countries more quickly in the nineteenth century, yet achieved greater success in bringing democracy in the twentieth. To explain these divergent trends, the book draws on cognitive-psychological insights about the inferential heuristics that people commonly apply; these shortcuts shape learning from foreign precedents such as an autocrat's overthrow elsewhere. But these shortcuts had different force, depending on the political-organizational context. In the inchoate societies of the nineteenth century, common people were easily swayed by these heuristics: Jumping to the conclusion that they could replicate such a foreign precedent in their own countries, they precipitously challenged powerful rulers, yet often at inopportune moments -- and with low success. By the twentieth century, however, political organizations had formed. Their leaders had better capacities for information processing, were less strongly affected by cognitive shortcuts, and therefore waited for propitious opportunities before initiating contention. As organizational ties loosened the bounds of rationality, contentious waves came to spread less rapidly, but with greater success.

Pluralism by Default

Weak Autocrats and the Rise of Competitive Politics

Author: Lucan Way

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421418126

Category: Political Science

Page: 274

View: 765

"Focusing on regime trajectories across three countries in the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Moldova, and Ukraine), Lucan Way argues that democratic political competition has often been grounded less in well-designed institutions or emerging civil society, and more in the failure of authoritarianism. In many cases, pluralism has persisted because autocrats have been too weak to steal elections, repress opposition, or keep allies in line. Attention to the dynamics of this "pluralism by default" reveals an important but largely unrecognized contradiction in the transition process in many countries - namely, that the same factors that facilitate democratic and semi-democratic political competition may also thwart the development of stable, well-functioning democratic institutions. Weak states and parties - factors typically seen as sources of democratic failure - can also undermine efforts to crack down on political opposition and concentrate political control"--

Patronal Politics

Author: Henry E. Hale

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107073510

Category: Political Science

Page: 536

View: 8350

This book proposes a new way of understanding events throughout the world that are usually interpreted as democratization, rising authoritarianism, or revolution. Where the rule of law is weak and corruption pervasive, what may appear to be democratic or authoritarian breakthroughs are often just regular, predictable phases in longer-term cyclic dynamics - patronal politics. This is shown through in-depth narratives of the post-1991 political history of all post-Soviet polities that are not in the European Union. This book also includes chapters on czarist and Soviet history and on global patterns.

Defending Democracy

Reactions to Extremism in Interwar Europe

Author: Giovanni Capoccia

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801880384

Category: History

Page: 335

View: 5338

Winner, Best Book on European Politics, European Politics and Society Section, American Political Science Association A comprehensive and thoughtful historical analysis of the democracies of interwar Europe, Defending Democracy provides a unique perspective on the many lessons to be learned from their successes and failures. With an exclusively empirical investigative approach, Capoccia develops a methodology for analyzing contemporary democracies -- such as Algeria, Turkey, Israel, and others -- where similar political conditions are present.