Designing Experimental Research in Archaeology is a guide for the design of archaeological experiments for both students and scholars. Experimental archaeology provides a unique opportunity to corroborate conclusions with multiple trials of repeatable experiments and can provide data otherwise unavailable to archaeologists without damaging sites, remains, or artifacts. Each chapter addresses a particular classification of material culture-ceramics, stone tools, perishable materials, composite hunting technology, butchering practices and bone tools, and experimental zooarchaeology-detailing issues that must be considered in the development of experimental archaeology projects and discussing potential pitfalls. The experiments follow coherent and consistent research designs and procedures and are placed in a theoretical context, and contributors outline methods that will serve as a guide in future experiments. This degree of standardization is uncommon in traditional archaeological research but is essential to experimental archaeology. The field has long been in need of a guide that focuses on methodology and design. This book fills that need not only for undergraduate and graduate students but for any archaeologist looking to begin an experimental research project.
Annelou van Gijn,John Whittaker,Patricia C. Anderson
Author: Annelou van Gijn,John Whittaker,Patricia C. Anderson
Publisher: Oxbow Books
This volume is the outcome of collaborative European research among archaeologists, archaeobotanists, ethnographers, historians and agronomists, and frequently uses experiments in archaeology. It aims to establish new common ground for integrating different approaches and for viewing agriculture from the standpoint of the human actors involved. Each chapter provides an interdisciplinary overview of the skills used and the social context of the pursuit of agriculture, highlighting examples of tools, technologies and processes from land clearance to cereal processing and food preparation. This is the second of three volumes in the EARTH monograph series, The dynamics of non-industrial agriculture: 8,000 years of resilience and innovation , which shows the great variety of agricultural practices in human terms, in their social, political, cultural and legal contexts.
The Use of Experimental Archaeology in the Study of the Past
Author: Dana C. E. Millson
Publisher: Oxbow Books Limited
Category: Social Science
Experimental archaeology is today forging new links between archaeological scientists and theorists. Many of the best archaeological projects today are those which use methodology and interpretation from both the sciences and the arts. The papers presented here reflect this interdisciplinary approach and focus on sites and material culture spanning from the Mesolithic to the Late Medieval periods. They range from the history of experimentation in archaeology and its place within the field today, to the theory behind `the experiment', to several projects which have used controlled experimentation to test hypotheses about archaeological remains, past actions, and the scientific processes we use. Now that archaeology has moved beyond the focus of the Processual/Post-Processual debates of the 1970s and 80s, which pitted science against the arts, archaeologists have more freedom to choose how to `do archaeology'. The contributions to this book reflect this as problems are approached in creative ways, which move back and forth between science and theory in a hermeneutic fashion, and hypotheses are challenged and new theories formed.
Practicing Primitive: A Handbook of Aboriginal Skills is a collection of information and images put together over a twenty-year period in a search for hands-on communication with our shared Stone Age past. The story of the Stone Age is our story, and primitive technology is a way for anyone who wants to understand that shared history. Watts makes the case that the learning and practice of aboriginal skills helps us connect with our remote past, encourages us to participate in the shared inheritance of primitive ('first') skills. Practicing Primitive includes detailed instructions on how to make or perform over 65 Stone Age objects or skills, covering primitive basics such as making axes and food utensils out of stone, bone, shell, and plant material; bark and reed shelters; bags and ropes made of bark and leaves; watercraft out of reeds or bamboo; and much more. Watts covers the environment, lifestyle, and tool kit of three different stages of human evolution: the Lower Paleolithic of 2.5 million years ago, the Middle Paleolithic of 60 thousand years ago, and the Mesolithic 9 thousand years ago. Steven M. Watts, has directed the Aboriginal Studies Program at the Schiele Museum of Natural History in Gastonia, North Carolina, since 1984. Steve is currently president of the international Society of Primitive Technology, which publishes a biannual journal, The Bulletin of Primitive Technology. He is the author of many articles dealing with culture and technology, and served as a consultant on the 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment movie Cast Away. Steve has an undergraduate degree from Appalachian State University and a master's degree from Duke University.
In this fresh and engaging volume, Denys A. Stocks examines the archaeological and pictorial evidence for masonry in ancient Egypt. Through a series of experiments in which he tests and evaluates over two hundred reconstructed and replica tools, he brings alive the methods and practices of ancient Egyptian craftworking, highlighting the innovations and advances made by this remarkable civilisation. This practical approach to understanding the fundamentals of ancient Egyptian stoneworking shows the evolution of tools and techniques, and how these come together to produce the wonders of Egyptian art and architecture. Comprehensively illustrated with over two hundred photographs and drawings, Experiments in Egyptian Archaeology will bring a fresh perspective to the puzzles of Egyptian craft and technology. By combining the knowledge of a modern engineer with the approach of an archaeologist and historian, Denys Stocks has created a work that will capture the imagination of all Egyptology scholars and enthusiasts
First published in 1979, this text picks out the major trends in experimental archaeology. However the choice of work described is selective and represents the author's interest in archaeological experiment as an important means of retrieving and explaining evidence about early societies.
Proceedings of the European Symposium, Bologna, Italy, 13-16 June 1989
Author: N.S. Baer,C. Sabbioni,A.I. Sors
Category: Business & Economics
Science, Technology and European Cultural Heritage is a collection of papers from the Proceedings of the European Symposium of the same title held in Bologna, Italy on June13-16, 1989. The papers discuss the critical issues related to the scientific and technical aspects of the protection and conservation of the cultural heritage of Europe. Participants of the symposium identify and describe the main research and development issues that are common to cultural heritage problems, and increase cooperation in these areas. Other papers examine the applicability of research and development through better matching with the real needs of conservators, restorers, policy makers, and the general public. The participants also discuss specific research and development directions for the future, including the provision of a scientific basis for European Community policies on environment and culture. One paper presents some of the scientific research done both in the field and laboratory of specific historical areas, monuments, indoor objects. As an example, archaeologists can use infrared thermal image analysis as an enhanced tool to detect buried archeological and historical sites. Another paper analyzes the chemical and physical properties of deteriorated stones in historical monuments in Castile-Leon. The collection can prove useful for archaeologists, historians, museum curators, and policy makers involved in national and cultural preservation.
Making creates knowledge, builds environments and transforms lives. Anthropology, archaeology, art and architecture are all ways of making, and all are dedicated to exploring the conditions and potentials of human life. In this exciting book, Tim Ingold ties the four disciplines together in a way that has never been attempted before. In a radical departure from conventional studies that treat art and architecture as compendia of objects for analysis, Ingold proposes an anthropology and archaeology not of but with art and architecture. He advocates a way of thinking through making in which sentient practitioners and active materials continually answer to, or ‘correspond’, with one another in the generation of form. Making offers a series of profound reflections on what it means to create things, on materials and form, the meaning of design, landscape perception, animate life, personal knowledge and the work of the hand. It draws on examples and experiments ranging from prehistoric stone tool-making to the building of medieval cathedrals, from round mounds to monuments, from flying kites to winding string, from drawing to writing. The book will appeal to students and practitioners alike, with interests in social and cultural anthropology, archaeology, architecture, art and design, visual studies and material culture.
With many new forms of digital media--including such popular social media as Facebook, Twitter, and Flickr -- the people formerly known as the audience no longer only consume but also produce and even design media. Jonas Löwgren and Bo Reimer term this phenomenon collaborative media, and in this book they investigate the qualities and characteristics of these forms of media in terms of what they enable people to do. They do so through an interdisciplinary research approach that combines the social sciences and humanities traditions of empirical and theoretical work with practice-based, design-oriented interventions. Löwgren and Reimer offer analysis and a series of illuminating case studies -- examples of projects in collaborative media that range from small multidisciplinary research experiments to commercial projects used by millions of people. Löwgren and Reimer discuss the case studies at three levels of analysis: society and the role of collaborative media in societal change; institutions and the relationship of collaborative media with established media structures; and tribes, the nurturing of small communities within a large technical infrastructure. They conclude by advocating an interventionist turn within social analysis and media design.
The production and consumption of Information and Communication Technologies (or ICTs) have become embedded within our societies. This handbook is about the many challenges presented by ICTs. It sets out an intellectual agenda that examines the implications of ICTs for individuals, organisations, democracy, and the economy
This book focuses on the artistic process, creativity and collaboration, and personal approaches to creation and ideation, in making digital and electronic technology-based art. Less interested in the outcome itself – the artefact, artwork or performance – contributors instead highlight the emotional, intellectual, intuitive, instinctive and step-by-step creation dimensions. They aim to shine a light on digital and electronic art practice, involving coding, electronic gadgetry and technology mixed with other forms of more established media, to uncover the practice-as-research processes required, as well as the collaborative aspects of art and technology practice.
An Integrated Approach to Research Design, Measurement and Statistics
Author: Thomas R Black
Category: Social Science
This original textbook provides a comprehensive and integrated approach to using quantitative methods in the social sciences. Thomas R Black guides the student and researcher through the minefield of potential problems that may be confronted, and it is this emphasis on the practical that distinguishes his book from others which focus exclusively on either research design and measurement or statistical methods. Focusing on the design and execution of research, key topics such as planning, sampling, the design of measuring instruments, choice of statistical text and interpretation of results are examined within the context of the research process. In a lively and accessible style, the student is introduced to researc design issues alongside statistical procedures and encouraged to develop analytical and decision-making skills.
By emphasizing how to think strategically about a research project, the author of this innovative book shows readers the important steps of a scientific study - from the formulation of the study to the write-up of results. Illustrative examples from the social, health and behavioural sciences are used throughout to illustrate 40 principles of good research practice.
Eden Medina,Ivan da Costa Marques,Christina Holmes,Marcos Cueto
Essays on Science, Technology, and Society in Latin America
Author: Eden Medina,Ivan da Costa Marques,Christina Holmes,Marcos Cueto
Publisher: MIT Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
The essays in this volume study the creation, adaptation, and use of science and technology in Latin America. They challenge the view that scientific ideas and technology travel unchanged from the global North to the global South -- the view of technology as "imported magic." They describe not only alternate pathways for innovation, invention, and discovery but also how ideas and technologies circulate in Latin American contexts and transnationally. The contributors' explorations of these issues, and their examination of specific Latin American experiences with science and technology, offer a broader, more nuanced understanding of how science, technology, politics, and power interact in the past and present.The essays in this book use methods from history and the social sciences to investigate forms of local creation and use of technologies; the circulation of ideas, people, and artifacts in local and global networks; and hybrid technologies and forms of knowledge production. They address such topics as the work of female forensic geneticists in Colombia; the pioneering Argentinean use of fingerprinting technology in the late nineteenth century; the design, use, and meaning of the XO Laptops created and distributed by the One Laptop per Child Program; and the development of nuclear energy in Argentina, Mexico, and Chile.ContributorsPedro Ignacio Alonso, Morgan G. Ames, Javiera Barandiarán, João Biehl, Anita Say Chan, Amy Cox Hall, Henrique Cukierman, Ana Delgado, Rafael Dias, Adriana Díaz del Castillo H., Mariano Fressoli, Jonathan Hagood, Christina Holmes, Matthieu Hubert, Noela Invernizzi, Michael Lemon, Ivan da Costa Marques, Gisela Mateos, Eden Medina, María Fernanda Olarte Sierra, Hugo Palmarola, Tania Pérez-Bustos, Julia Rodriguez, Israel Rodríguez-Giralt, Edna Suárez Díaz, Hernán Thomas, Manuel Tironi, Dominique Vinck
With Experiments Past the important role that experimental archaeology has played in the development of archaeology is finally uncovered and understood. Experimental archaeology is a method to attempt to replicate archaeological artefacts and/or processes to test certain hypotheses or discover information about those artefacts and/or processes. It has been a key part of archaeology for well over a century, but such experiments are often embedded in wider research, conducted in isolation or never published or reported. Experiments Pasts provides readers with a glimpse of experimental work and experience that was previously inaccessible due to language, geographic and documentation barriers, while establishing a historical context for the issues confronting experimental archaeology today. This volume contains formal papers on the history of experimental methodologies in archaeology, as well as personal experiences of the development of experimental archaeology from early leaders in the field, such as Hans-Ole Hansen. Also represented in these chapters are the histories of experimental approaches to taphonomy, the archaeology of boats, building structures and agricultural practices, as well as narratives on how experimental archaeology has developed on a national level in several European countries and its role in encouraging a wide-scale interest and engagement with the past.
Ever since the discovery of fossil remains of extinct animals associated with flint implements, bones and other animal remains have been providing invaluable information to the archaeologist. In the last 20 years many archaeologists and zoologists have taken to studying such "archaeofaunal" remains, and the science of "zoo-archaeology" has come into being. What was the nature of the environment in which our ancestors lived? In which season were sites occupied? When did our earliest ancestors start to hunt big game, and how efficient were they as hunters? Were early humans responsible for the extinction of so many species of large mammals 10-20,000 years ago? When, where and why were certain animals first domesticated? When did milking and horse-riding begin? Did the Romans influence our eating habits? What were sanitary conditions like in medieval England? And could the terrible pestilence which afflicted the English in the seventh century AD have been plague? These are some of the questions dealt with in this book. The book also describes the nature and development of bones and teeth, and some of the methods used in zoo-archaeology.
The book considers urban mobilities and immobilities in the Global South through an exploration of the theoretical and methodological entry points that can be used to further the agenda of transport planning. Transport system improvements can (and do) have complex and unequal impacts on different sectors of society. Conventional approaches to analysing travel demand and transport system performance developed in the ‘Global North’ are typically ill-equipped to identify and understand the complexities and inequities in urban areas of the Global South. Using case studies from urban Africa and Asia, the book addresses the need to understand the ‘lived world’ of mobilities and use this knowledge to address issues that are central to our urban existence in the 21st century.