Statistical Principles of Research Design and Analysis
Author: R. O. Kuehl
Publisher: Duxbury Press
Robert Kuehl's DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS, Second Edition, prepares students to design and analyze experiments that will help them succeed in the real world. Kuehl uses a large array of real data sets from a broad spectrum of scientific and technological fields. This approach provides realistic settings for conducting actual research projects. Next, he emphasizes the importance of developing a treatment design based on a research hypothesis as an initial step, then developing an experimental or observational study design that facilitates efficient data collection. In addition to a consistent focus on research design, Kuehl offers an interpretation for each analysis.
By emphasizing how research hypotheses relate to treatment design, this text provides an overall research design strategy. The author offers as realistic a setting as possible for conducting an actual research project.Examples, often based on actual research studies, describe the research venue and establish a specific problem; then the corresponding research hypothesis is identified with a treatment design that addresses it. The examples provide practical pointers relating the treatment design to the experiment design. The author includes: -- Recurrent emphasis on the following ideas: controlling variation, randomization, the "why" of replication, and the structure of the research design process-- Examples, based whenever possible on actual research studies, organized in a problem-solving fashion-- Numerous exercises also based on actual research studies and real data, whenever possible-- Consistent emphasis on data analysis of the design-- Strong computer orientation with computer outputs in SAS, SPSS, Minitab "RM", and BMDP-- A large array of real data sets from a broad spectrum of scientific and technological fields.
Facts101 is your complete guide to Design of Experiments, Statistical Principles of Research Design and Analysis. In this book, you will learn topics such as as those in your book plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.
Offering deep insight into the connections between design choice and the resulting statistical analysis, Design of Experiments: An Introduction Based on Linear Models explores how experiments are designed using the language of linear statistical models. The book presents an organized framework for understanding the statistical aspects of experimental design as a whole within the structure provided by general linear models, rather than as a collection of seemingly unrelated solutions to unique problems. The core material can be found in the first thirteen chapters. These chapters cover a review of linear statistical models, completely randomized designs, randomized complete blocks designs, Latin squares, analysis of data from orthogonally blocked designs, balanced incomplete block designs, random block effects, split-plot designs, and two-level factorial experiments. The remainder of the text discusses factorial group screening experiments, regression model design, and an introduction to optimal design. To emphasize the practical value of design, most chapters contain a short example of a real-world experiment. Details of the calculations performed using R, along with an overview of the R commands, are provided in an appendix. This text enables students to fully appreciate the fundamental concepts and techniques of experimental design as well as the real-world value of design. It gives them a profound understanding of how design selection affects the information obtained in an experiment.
An accessible and practical approach to the design and analysis of experiments in the health sciences Design and Analysis of Experiments in the Health Sciences provides a balanced presentation of design and analysis issues relating to data in the health sciences and emphasizes new research areas, the crucial topic of clinical trials, and state-of-the- art applications. Advancing the idea that design drives analysis and analysis reveals the design, the book clearly explains how to apply design and analysis principles in animal, human, and laboratory experiments while illustrating topics with applications and examples from randomized clinical trials and the modern topic of microarrays. The authors outline the following five types of designs that form the basis of most experimental structures: Completely randomized designs Randomized block designs Factorial designs Multilevel experiments Repeated measures designs A related website features a wealth of data sets that are used throughout the book, allowing readers to work hands-on with the material. In addition, an extensive bibliography outlines additional resources for further study of the presented topics. Requiring only a basic background in statistics, Design and Analysis of Experiments in the Health Sciences is an excellent book for introductory courses on experimental design and analysis at the graduate level. The book also serves as a valuable resource for researchers in medicine, dentistry, nursing, epidemiology, statistical genetics, and public health.
This engaging text shows how statistics and methods work together, demonstrating a variety of techniques for evaluating statistical results against the specifics of the methodological design. Richard Gonzalez elucidates the fundamental concepts involved in analysis of variance (ANOVA), focusing on single degree-of-freedom tests, or comparisons, wherever possible. Potential threats to making a causal inference from an experimental design are highlighted. With an emphasis on basic between-subjects and within-subjects designs, Gonzalez resists presenting the countless "exceptions to the rule" that make many statistics textbooks so unwieldy and confusing for students and beginning researchers. Ideal for graduate courses in experimental design or data analysis, the text may also be used by advanced undergraduates preparing to do senior theses. Useful pedagogical features include: Discussions of the assumptions that underlie each statistical test Sequential, step-by-step presentations of statistical procedures End-of-chapter questions and exercises Accessible writing style with scenarios and examples This book is intended for graduate students in psychology and education, practicing researchers seeking a readable refresher on analysis of experimental designs, and advanced undergraduates preparing senior theses. It serves as a text for graduate level experimental design, data analysis, and experimental methods courses taught in departments of psychology and education. It is also useful as a supplemental text for advanced undergraduate honors courses.
This book offers a step-by-step guide to the experimental planning process and the ensuing analysis of normally distributed data, emphasizing the practical considerations governing the design of an experiment. Data sets are taken from real experiments and sample SAS programs are included with each chapter. Experimental design is an essential part of investigation and discovery in science; this book will serve as a modern and comprehensive reference to the subject.
An essential textbook for any student or researcher in biology needing to design experiments, sample programs or analyse the resulting data. The text begins with a revision of estimation and hypothesis testing methods, covering both classical and Bayesian philosophies, before advancing to the analysis of linear and generalized linear models. Topics covered include linear and logistic regression, simple and complex ANOVA models (for factorial, nested, block, split-plot and repeated measures and covariance designs), and log-linear models. Multivariate techniques, including classification and ordination, are then introduced. Special emphasis is placed on checking assumptions, exploratory data analysis and presentation of results. The main analyses are illustrated with many examples from published papers and there is an extensive reference list to both the statistical and biological literature. The book is supported by a website that provides all data sets, questions for each chapter and links to software.
The tools and techniques used in Design of Experiments (DoE) have been proven successful in meeting the challenge of continuous improvement in many manufacturing organisations over the last two decades. However research has shown that application of this powerful technique in many companies is limited due to a lack of statistical knowledge required for its effective implementation. Although many books have been written on this subject, they are mainly by statisticians, for statisticians and not appropriate for engineers. Design of Experiments for Engineers and Scientists overcomes the problem of statistics by taking a unique approach using graphical tools. The same outcomes and conclusions are reached as through using statistical methods and readers will find the concepts in this book both familiar and easy to understand. This new edition includes a chapter on the role of DoE within Six Sigma methodology and also shows through the use of simple case studies its importance in the service industry. It is essential reading for engineers and scientists from all disciplines tackling all kinds of manufacturing, product and process quality problems and will be an ideal resource for students of this topic. Written in non-statistical language, the book is an essential and accessible text for scientists and engineers who want to learn how to use DoE Explains why teaching DoE techniques in the improvement phase of Six Sigma is an important part of problem solving methodology New edition includes a full chapter on DoE for services as well as case studies illustrating its wider application in the service industry
Statistical Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials: Principles and Methods concentrates on the biostatistics component of clinical trials. Developed from the authors’ courses taught to public health and medical students, residents, and fellows during the past 15 years, the text shows how biostatistics in clinical trials is an integration of many fundamental scientific principles and statistical methods. Teach Your Students How to Design, Monitor, and Analyze Clinical Trials The book begins with ethical and safety principles, core trial design concepts, the principles and methods of sample size and power calculation, and analysis of covariance and stratified analysis. It then focuses on sequential designs and methods for two-stage Phase II cancer trials to Phase III group sequential trials, covering monitoring safety, futility, and efficacy. The authors also discuss the development of sample size reestimation and adaptive group sequential procedures, explain the concept of different missing data processes, and describe how to analyze incomplete data by proper multiple imputations. Turn Your Students into Better Clinical Trial Investigators This text reflects the academic research, commercial development, and public health aspects of clinical trials. It gives students a multidisciplinary understanding of the concepts and techniques involved in designing and analyzing various types of trials. The book’s balanced set of homework assignments and in-class exercises are appropriate for students in (bio)statistics, epidemiology, medicine, pharmacy, and public health.
Ecological research and the way that ecologists use statistics continues to change rapidly. This second edition of the best-selling Design and Analysis of Ecological Experiments leads these trends with an update of this now-standard reference book, with a discussion of the latest developments in experimental ecology and statistical practice. The goal of this volume is to encourage the correct use of some of the more well known statistical techniques and to make some of the less well known but potentially very useful techniques available. Chapters from the first edition have been substantially revised and new chapters have been added. Readers are introduced to statistical techniques that may be unfamiliar to many ecologists, including power analysis, logistic regression, randomization tests and empirical Bayesian analysis. In addition, a strong foundation is laid in more established statistical techniques in ecology including exploratory data analysis, spatial statistics, path analysis and meta-analysis. Each technique is presented in the context of resolving an ecological issue. Anyone from graduate students to established research ecologists will find a great deal of new practical and useful information in this current edition.
1 Experimental Research in Science: Its Name and Nature -- 2 The Importance of Definitions -- 3 Aspects of Quantification -- 4 The Purpose and Principles Involved in Experimenting -- Part II: Planning the Experiments -- 5 Defining the Problem for Experimental Research -- 6 Stating the Problem as a Hypothesis -- 7 Designing Experiments to Suit Problems -- 8 Dealing with Factors -- 9 Factors at More Than Two Levels -- Part III: The Craft Part of Experimental Research -- 10 Searching through Published Literature -- 11 Building the Experimental Setup -- Part IV: The Art of Reasoning in Scientific Research -- 12 Logic and Scientific Research -- 13 Inferential Logic for Experimental Research -- 14 Use of Symbolic Logic -- Part V: Probability and Statistics for Experimental Research -- 15 Introduction to Probability and Statistics -- 16 Randomization, Replication, and Sampling -- 17 Further Significance of Samples -- 18 Planning the Experiments in Statistical Terms -- 19 Statistical Inference ...
TRY (FREE for 14 days), OR RENT this title: www.wileystudentchoice.com Design and Analysis of Experiments, 9th Edition continues to help senior and graduate students in engineering, business, and statistics-as well as working practitioners-to design and analyze experiments for improving the quality, efficiency and performance of working systems. This bestselling text maintains its comprehensive coverage by including: new examples, exercises, and problems (including in the areas of biochemistry and biotechnology); new topics and problems in the area of response surface; new topics in nested and split-plot design; and the residual maximum likelihood method is now emphasized throughout the book.
Fundamental Statistical Principles for Neurobiologists introduces readers to basic experimental design and statistical thinking in a comprehensive, relevant manner. This book is an introductory statistics book that covers fundamental principles written by a neuroscientist who understands the plight of the neuroscience graduate student and the senior investigator. It summarizes the fundamental concepts associated with statistical analysis that are useful for the neuroscientist, and provides understanding of a particular test in language that is more understandable to this specific audience, with the overall purpose of explaining which statistical technique should be used in which situation. Different types of data are discussed such as how to formulate a research hypothesis, the primary types of statistical errors and statistical power, followed by how to actually graph data and what kinds of mistakes to avoid. Chapters discuss variance, standard deviation, standard error, mean, confidence intervals, correlation, regression, parametric vs. nonparametric statistical tests, ANOVA, and post hoc analyses. Finally, there is a discussion on how to deal with data points that appear to be "outliers" and what to do when there is missing data, an issue that has not sufficiently been covered in literature. An introductory guide to statistics aimed specifically at the neuroscience audience Contains numerous examples with actual data that is used in the analysis Gives the investigators a starting pointing for evaluating data in easy-to-understand language Explains in detail many different statistical tests commonly used by neuroscientists
Written in simple language with relevant examples, Statistical Methods in Biology: Design and Analysis of Experiments and Regression is a practical and illustrative guide to the design of experiments and data analysis in the biological and agricultural sciences. The book presents statistical ideas in the context of biological and agricultural sciences to which they are being applied, drawing on relevant examples from the authors’ experience. Taking a practical and intuitive approach, the book only uses mathematical formulae to formalize the methods where necessary and appropriate. The text features extended discussions of examples that include real data sets arising from research. The authors analyze data in detail to illustrate the use of basic formulae for simple examples while using the GenStat® statistical package for more complex examples. Each chapter offers instructions on how to obtain the example analyses in GenStat and R. By the time you reach the end of the book (and online material) you will have gained: A clear appreciation of the importance of a statistical approach to the design of your experiments, A sound understanding of the statistical methods used to analyse data obtained from designed experiments and of the regression approaches used to construct simple models to describe the observed response as a function of explanatory variables, Sufficient knowledge of how to use one or more statistical packages to analyse data using the approaches described, and most importantly, An appreciation of how to interpret the results of these statistical analyses in the context of the biological or agricultural science within which you are working. The book concludes with a guide to practical design and data analysis. It gives you the understanding to better interact with consultant statisticians and to identify statistical approaches to add value to your scientific research.
"This is an engaging and informative book on the modern practice of experimental design. The authors' writing style is entertaining, the consulting dialogs are extremely enjoyable, and the technical material is presented brilliantly but not overwhelmingly. The book is a joy to read. Everyone who practices or teaches DOE should read this book." - Douglas C. Montgomery, Regents Professor, Department of Industrial Engineering, Arizona State University "It's been said: 'Design for the experiment, don't experiment for the design.' This book ably demonstrates this notion by showing how tailor-made, optimal designs can be effectively employed to meet a client's actual needs. It should be required reading for anyone interested in using the design of experiments in industrial settings." —Christopher J. Nachtsheim, Frank A Donaldson Chair in Operations Management, Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota This book demonstrates the utility of the computer-aided optimal design approach using real industrial examples. These examples address questions such as the following: How can I do screening inexpensively if I have dozens of factors to investigate? What can I do if I have day-to-day variability and I can only perform 3 runs a day? How can I do RSM cost effectively if I have categorical factors? How can I design and analyze experiments when there is a factor that can only be changed a few times over the study? How can I include both ingredients in a mixture and processing factors in the same study? How can I design an experiment if there are many factor combinations that are impossible to run? How can I make sure that a time trend due to warming up of equipment does not affect the conclusions from a study? How can I take into account batch information in when designing experiments involving multiple batches? How can I add runs to a botched experiment to resolve ambiguities? While answering these questions the book also shows how to evaluate and compare designs. This allows researchers to make sensible trade-offs between the cost of experimentation and the amount of information they obtain.
An observational study is an empiric investigation of effects caused by treatments when randomized experimentation is unethical or infeasible. Observational studies are common in most fields that study the effects of treatments on people, including medicine, economics, epidemiology, education, psychology, political science and sociology. The quality and strength of evidence provided by an observational study is determined largely by its design. Design of Observational Studies is both an introduction to statistical inference in observational studies and a detailed discussion of the principles that guide the design of observational studies. Design of Observational Studies is divided into four parts. Chapters 2, 3, and 5 of Part I cover concisely, in about one hundred pages, many of the ideas discussed in Rosenbaum’s Observational Studies (also published by Springer) but in a less technical fashion. Part II discusses the practical aspects of using propensity scores and other tools to create a matched comparison that balances many covariates. Part II includes a chapter on matching in R. In Part III, the concept of design sensitivity is used to appraise the relative ability of competing designs to distinguish treatment effects from biases due to unmeasured covariates. Part IV discusses planning the analysis of an observational study, with particular reference to Sir Ronald Fisher’s striking advice for observational studies, "make your theories elaborate." The second edition of his book, Observational Studies, was published by Springer in 2002.
Author: Scott E. Maxwell,Harold D. Delaney,Ken Kelley
Designing Experiments and Analyzing Data: A Model Comparison Perspective (3rd edition) offers an integrative conceptual framework for understanding experimental design and data analysis. Maxwell, Delaney, and Kelley first apply fundamental principles to simple experimental designs followed by an application of the same principles to more complicated designs. Their integrative conceptual framework better prepares readers to understand the logic behind a general strategy of data analysis that is appropriate for a wide variety of designs, which allows for the introduction of more complex topics that are generally omitted from other books. Numerous pedagogical features?further facilitate understanding:?examples of published research demonstrate the applicability of each chapter’s content; flowcharts?assist in choosing the most appropriate procedure;?end-of-chapter lists of important formulas highlight key ideas and assist readers in locating the initial presentation of equations; useful programming code and tips are provided throughout the book and in associated resources available online, and?extensive sets of exercises?help develop a deeper understanding of the subject.?Detailed solutions?for some of the exercises and?realistic data sets?are included on the website (DesigningExperiments.com). The pedagogical approach used throughout the book enables readers to gain an overview of experimental design, from conceptualization of the research question to analysis of the data. The book and its companion website with web apps, tutorials, and detailed code are ideal for students and researchers seeking the optimal way to design their studies and analyze the resulting data.