Dental Functional Morphology offers an alternative to the received wisdom that teeth merely crush, cut, shear or grind food and shows how teeth adapt to diet. Providing an analysis of tooth action based on an understanding of how food particles break, it shows how tooth form from the earliest mammals to modern-day humans can be understood using very basic considerations about fracture. It outlines the theoretical basis step by step, explaining the factors governing tooth shape and size and provides an allometric analysis that will revolutionize attitudes to the evolution of the human face and the impact of cooked foods on our dentition. In addition, the basis of the mechanics behind the fracture of different types of food, and methods of measurement are given in an easy-to-use appendix. It will be an important sourcebook for physical anthropologists, dental and food scientists, palaeontologists and those interested in feeding ecology.
Companion to Dental Anthropology presents a collection of original readings addressing all aspects and sub-disciplines of the field of dental anthropology—from its origins and evolution through to the latest scientific research. Represents the most comprehensive coverage of all sub-disciplines of dental anthropology available today Features individual chapters written by experts in their specific area of dental research Includes authors who also present results from their research through case studies or voiced opinions about their work Offers extensive coverage of topics relating to dental evolution, morphometric variation, and pathology
Diet is key to understanding the ecology and evolution of our distant ancestors and thier kin, the early hominins. An appreciation of the range of foods eaten by our progenitorsalso underscores just how unhealthy many of our diets are today.
Teeth are amazing - the product of half a billion years of evolution. They provide fuel for the body by breaking apart other living things; and they must do it again and again over a lifetime without themselves being broken in the process. This means that plants and animals have developed tough or hard tissues for protection, and teeth have evolved ways to sharpen or strengthen themselves to overcome those defences. And just as different jobs require different tools, animals with different diets have different shaped teeth to deal with the variety of foods that they eat. In this Very Short Introduction, Peter S. Ungar, an award-winning author and leading scientist, presents the story of teeth. Ungar outlines the key concepts, including insights into the origin of teeth and their evolution. Considering why teeth are important, he describes how they are made, and how they work, including their fundamental importance in the fossil record. Ungar finishes with a review of mammal teeth, looking at how they evolved and how recent changes to our diet are now affecting dental health. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
The sixth to ninth centuries saw a flowering of written laws among the early Germanic tribes. These laws include tables of fines for personal injury, designed to offer a legal, non-violent alternative to blood feud. Using these personal injury tariffs, The Body Legal in Barbarian Law examines a variety of issues, including the interrelationships between victims, perpetrators, and their families; the causes and results of wounds inflicted in daily life; the methods, successes, and failures of healing techniques; the processes of individual redress or public litigation; and the native and borrowed developments in the various 'barbarian' territories as they separated from the Roman Empire. By applying the techniques of linguistic anthropology to the pre-history of medicine, anatomical knowledge, and law, Lisi Oliver has produced a remarkable study that sheds new light on early Germanic conceptions of the body in terms of medical value, physiological function, psychological worth, and social significance.
This first comprehensive overview of the modern aspects of biomineralization represents life and materials science at its best: Bioinspired pathways are the hot topics in many disciplines and this holds especially true for biomineralization. Here, the editors - well-known members of associations and prestigious institutes - have assembled an international team of renowned authors to provide first-hand research results. This third volume deals with biomineralization in medicine, paying closer attention to bones, teeth and pathological calcifications. An interdisciplinary must-have account, for biochemists, bioinorganic chemists, lecturers in chemistry and biochemistry, materials scientists, biologists, and solid state physicists.
The 15th Congress of the European Anthropological Association, held under the title MAN AND ENVIRONMENT: TRENDS AND CHALLENGES IN ANTHROPOLOGY, was organized by the Department of Biological Anthropology, Eötvös Lorànd University, Budapest, Hungary. The Congress was also a celebration of the 125th anniversary of the founding of the Department of Biological Anthropology of the university. The Congress strived to encompass all aspects of physical anthropology pertinent to the understanding of human origins as well as the variability of ancient and present populations. The main topic was: Man and Environment in the Past and at Present - Trends and Challenges in Anthropology. At the beginning of the 21st century it seemed important to summarize what we had learned in the last hundred years in order to help our younger colleagues in physical anthropology in understanding the current trends and to provide them with suggestions for their future research. The present volume contains a collection of the selected papers presented in the congress. The first section discusses some aspects of the human evolution and adaptation and reflects on the race concept. The second section discusses some skeletal variations in different populations and the effects of isolation, migration and life-style on genetic structure of populations. The third session gives an overview of the current state of our knowledge about growth and ageing that may mould our general approach to human ecology. This book will be especially useful physical anthropologists, human biologists, human geneticist, medical and bio-demographical scientists interested in knowing more about human variability.