Darfur and the Crime of Genocide

Author: John Hagan,Wenona Rymond-Richmond

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107376122

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 1661

In 2004, the State Department gathered more than a thousand interviews from refugees in Chad that verified Colin Powell's UN and congressional testimonies about the Darfur genocide. The survey cost nearly a million dollars to conduct and yet it languished in the archives as the killing continued, claiming hundreds of thousands of murder and rape victims and restricting several million survivors to camps. This book fully examines that survey and its heartbreaking accounts. It documents the Sudanese government's enlistment of Arab Janjaweed militias in destroying black African communities. The central questions are: why is the United States so ambivalent to genocide? Why do so many scholars deemphasize racial aspects of genocide? How can the science of criminology advance understanding and protection against genocide? This book gives a vivid firsthand account and voice to the survivors of genocide in Darfur.

Mean Streets

Youth Crime and Homelessness

Author: John Hagan,Bill McCarthy

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521646260

Category: Social Science

Page: 299

View: 6886

This field study features intensive personal interviews of more than four hundred young people who have left home and school and are living on the streets of Toronto and Vancouver. The study examines why youth take to the streets, their struggles to survive there, their victimization and involvement in crime, their associations with other street youth, especially within "street families," their contacts with the police, and their efforts to rejoin conventional society. Major theories of youth crime are analyzed and reappraised in the context of a new social capital theory of crime.

Divergent Social Worlds

Neighborhood Crime and the Racial-Spatial Divide

Author: Ruth D. Peterson,Lauren J. Krivo

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610446771

Category: Social Science

Page: 184

View: 6173

More than half a century after the first Jim Crow laws were dismantled, the majority of urban neighborhoods in the United States remain segregated by race. The degree of social and economic advantage or disadvantage that each community experiences—particularly its crime rate—is most often a reflection of which group is in the majority. As Ruth Peterson and Lauren Krivo note in Divergent Social Worlds, “Race, place, and crime are still inextricably linked in the minds of the public.” This book broadens the scope of single-city, black/white studies by using national data to compare local crime patterns in five racially distinct types of neighborhoods. Peterson and Krivo meticulously demonstrate how residential segregation creates and maintains inequality in neighborhood crime rates. Based on the authors’ groundbreaking National Neighborhood Crime Study (NNCS), Divergent Social Worlds provides a more complete picture of the social conditions underlying neighborhood crime patterns than has ever before been drawn. The study includes economic, social, and local investment data for nearly nine thousand neighborhoods in eighty-seven cities, and the findings reveal a pattern across neighborhoods of racialized separation among unequal groups. Residential segregation reproduces existing privilege or disadvantage in neighborhoods—such as adequate or inadequate schools, political representation, and local business—increasing the potential for crime and instability in impoverished non-white areas yet providing few opportunities for residents to improve conditions or leave. And the numbers bear this out. Among urban residents, more than two-thirds of all whites, half of all African Americans, and one-third of Latinos live in segregated local neighborhoods. More than 90 percent of white neighborhoods have low poverty, but this is only true for one quarter of black, Latino, and minority areas. Of the five types of neighborhoods studied, African American communities experience violent crime on average at a rate five times that of their white counterparts, with violence rates for Latino, minority, and integrated neighborhoods falling between the two extremes. Divergent Social Worlds lays to rest the popular misconception that persistently high crime rates in impoverished, non-white neighborhoods are merely the result of individual pathologies or, worse, inherent group criminality. Yet Peterson and Krivo also show that the reality of crime inequality in urban neighborhoods is no less alarming. Separate, the book emphasizes, is inherently unequal. Divergent Social Worlds lays the groundwork for closing the gap—and for next steps among organizers, policymakers, and future researchers. A Volume in the American Sociological Association’s Rose Series in Sociology

Complementarity in the Line of Fire

The Catalysing Effect of the International Criminal Court in Uganda and Sudan

Author: Sarah M. H. Nouwen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107010780

Category: Law

Page: 525

View: 8021

"This book follows as LAW"--

Snapshots of Research

Readings in Criminology and Criminal Justice

Author: Richard D. Hartley

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1452238510

Category: Education

Page: 464

View: 6225

Snapshots of Research: Readings in Criminology and Criminal Justice is a comprehensive, cutting-edge text that provides an introductory overview of the main research methods used in the fields of criminology and criminal justice. This text/reader offers a wide range of modern research examples, as well as several classic articles, including a broad range of readings from the four major branches of the criminal justice system—policing, courts/law, juvenile justice, and corrections—that are relevant to career paths students may be interested in pursuing.

The Crime of All Crimes

Toward a Criminology of Genocide

Author: Nicole Rafter

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 1479805963

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 1161

Cambodia. Rwanda. Armenia. Nazi Germany. History remembers these places as the sites of unspeakable crimes against humanity, and indisputably, of genocide. Yet, throughout the twentieth century, the world has seen many instances of violence committed by states against certain groups within their borders—from the colonial ethnic cleansing the Germans committed against the Herero tribe in Africa, to the Katyn Forest Massacre, in which the Soviets shot over 20,000 Poles, to anti-communist mass murders in 1960s Indonesia. Are mass crimes against humanity like these still genocide? And how can an understanding of crime and criminals shed new light on how genocide—the “crime of all crimes”—transpires? In The Crime of All Crimes, criminologist Nicole Rafter takes an innovative approach to the study of genocide by comparing eight diverse genocides--large-scale and small; well-known and obscure—through the lens of criminal behavior. Rafter explores different models of genocidal activity, reflecting on the popular use of the Holocaust as a model for genocide and ways in which other genocides conform to different patterns. For instance, Rafter questions the assumption that only ethnic groups are targeted for genocidal “cleansing," and she also urges that actions such as genocidal rape be considered alongside traditional instances of genocidal violence. Further, by examining the causes of genocide on different levels, Rafter is able to construct profiles of typical victims and perpetrators and discuss means of preventing genocide, in addition to delving into the social psychology of genocidal behavior and the ways in which genocides are brought to an end. A sweeping and innovative investigation into the most tragic of events in the modern world, The Crime of All Crimes will fundamentally change how we think about genocide in the present day.

International Crime and Justice

Author: Mangai Natarajan

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139492373

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 1835

International crime and justice is an emerging field that covers international and transnational crimes that have not been the focus of mainstream criminology or criminal justice. This book examines the field from a global perspective. It provides an introduction to the nature of international and transnational crimes and the theoretical perspectives that assist in understanding the relationship between social change and the waxing and waning of the crime opportunities resulting from globalization, migration, and culture conflicts. Written by a team of world experts, it examines the central role of victim rights in the development of legal frameworks for the prevention and control of transnational and international crimes. It also discusses the challenges to delivering justice and obtaining international cooperation in efforts to deter, detect, and respond to these crimes.

Elements of Genocide

Author: Paul Behrens,Ralph Henham

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136168559

Category: Law

Page: 272

View: 8384

Elements of Genocide provides an authoritative evaluation of the current perception of the crime, as it appears in the decisions of judicial authorities, the writings of the foremost academic experts in the field, and in the texts of Commission Reports. Genocide constitutes one of the most significant problems in contemporary international law. Within the last fifteen years, the world has witnessed genocidal conduct in Rwanda and Bosnia and Herzegovina, while the debate on the commission of genocide in Darfur and the DR Congo is ongoing. Within the same period, the prosecution of suspected génocidaires has taken place in international tribunals, internationalised tribunals and domestic courts; and the names of Slobodan Milosevic, Radovan Karadzic and Saddam Hussein feature among those against whom charges of genocide were brought. Pursuing an interdisciplinary examination of the existing case law on genocide in international and domestic courts, Elements of Genocide comprehensive and accessible reflection on the crime of genocide, and its inherent complexities.

Decoding Albanian Organized Crime

Culture, Politics, and Globalization

Author: Jana Arsovska

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520282809

Category: Social Science

Page: 312

View: 8746

The expansion of organized crime across national borders has become a key security concern for the international community. In this theoretically and empirically vibrant portrait of a global phenomenon, Jana Arsovska examines some of the most widespread myths about the so-called Albanian Mafia. Based on more than a decade of research, including interviews with victims, offenders, and law enforcement across ten countries, as well as court files and confidential intelligence reports, Decoding Albanian Organized Crime presents a comprehensive overview of the causes, codes of conduct, activities, migration, and structure of Albanian organized crime groups in the Balkans, Western Europe, and the United States. Paying particular attention to the dynamic relationships among culture, politics, and organized crime, the book develops a framework for understanding the global growth of the criminal underworld and provides a model for future comparative research.

Sex Trafficking

Inside the Business of Modern Slavery

Author: Siddharth Kara

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231542631

Category: Law

Page: 320

View: 326

Since the publication of Sex Trafficking in 2007, Siddharth Kara has continued to travel across countries and continents, documenting the local factors and economic forces that support sexual slavery worldwide. His riveting encounters with victims and traffickers informed his screenplay for Trafficked (2016), now a major motion picture. The film features familiar figures from Sex Trafficking and the shocking conditions of their exploitation. It also includes cases Kara has uncovered since his book debuted. This new paperback edition of Sex Trafficking includes a preface by Kara in which he discusses his findings and updates the statistics relating to his business and economic analysis of contemporary slavery. After fifteen years, Kara has recorded nearly 900 cases of sex trafficking in forty-one countries and has helped advise on numerous legal, tactical, and policy efforts for abolishing modern-day slavery across the globe. Sex Trafficking continues to lead as a resource for those hoping to expose this hidden evil and eradicate its practice once and for all.

Iraq and the Crimes of Aggressive War

The Legal Cynicism of Criminal Militarism

Author: John Hagan,Joshua Kaiser,Anna Hanson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110710453X

Category: Law

Page: 280

View: 2761

This accessible account of the war in Iraq argues that US military actions constituted a criminal war of aggression.

Encyclopedia of War Crimes and Genocide

Author: Leslie Alan Horvitz,Christopher Catherwood

Publisher: Infobase Publishing

ISBN: 1438110294

Category: Genocide

Page: 593

View: 3610

Entries address topics related to genocide, crimes against humanity and peace, and human rights violations; profile perpetrators including Joseph Stalin, Pol Pot, and Idi Amin; and discuss institutions set up to prosecute these crimes in countries around the world.

The Right to Reparation in International Law for Victims of Armed Conflict

Author: Christine Evans,E. Christine Evans

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107019974

Category: Law

Page: 277

View: 8702

Christine Evans assesses the right to reparation for victims of armed conflict in international law and in national practice.

The Cambridge Companion to International Law

Author: James Crawford,Martti Koskenniemi

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107493439

Category: Law

Page: 484

View: 2672

This intellectually rigorous introduction to international law encourages readers to engage with multiple aspects of the topic: as 'law' directing and shaping its subjects; as a technique for governing the world of states and beyond statehood; and as a framework within which several critical and constructivist projects are articulated. The articles situate international law in its historical and ideological context and examine core concepts such as sovereignty, jurisdiction and the state. Attention is also given to its operation within international institutions and in dispute settlement, and a separate section is devoted to international law's 'projects': protecting human rights, eradicating poverty, the conservation of resources, the regulation of international trade and investment and the establishment of international order. The diverse group of contributors draws from disciplinary orientations ranging from positivism to postmodernism to ensure that this book is informed theoretically and politically, as well as grounded in practice.

Realizing Utopia

The Future of International Law

Author: Antonio Cassese

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191627712

Category: Law

Page: 724

View: 6432

Realizing Utopia is a collection of essays by a group of innovative international jurists. Its contributors reflect on some of the major legal problems facing the international community and analyse the inconsistencies or inadequacies of current law. They highlight the elements - even if minor, hidden, or emerging - that are likely to lead to future changes or improvements. Finally, they suggest how these elements can be developed, enhanced, and brought to fruition in the next two or three decades, with a view to achieving an improved architecture of world society or, at a minimum, to reshaping some major aspects of international dealings. Contributions to the book thus try to discern the potential, in the present legal construct of world society, that might one day be brought to light in a better world. As the impact of international law on national legal orders continues to increase, this volume takes stock of how far international law has come and how it should continue to develop. The work features an impressive list of contributors, including many of the leading authorities on international law and several judges of the International Court of Justice.

The Causes and Consequences of Group Violence

From Bullies to Terrorists

Author: James Hawdon,John Ryan,Marc Lucht

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 0739188976

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 4444

This book offers a transnational and transdisciplinary investigation of violence, ranging from bullying and hate crimes to revolutions, genocide, and terrorism. It offers empirical investigations of these specific types of violence as well as theoretical discussions of the underlying similarities and differences among these forms of violence.

The Media and Human Rights

The Cosmopolitan Promise

Author: Ekaterina Balabanova

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136253874

Category: Social Science

Page: 220

View: 8574

In recent years there has been an explosion in the usage and visibility of the language of human rights, but what does this mean for the role of the media? For evolving ideas about human rights? And for the prospect of shared cosmopolitan values? Ekaterina Balabanova argues that in order to answer these questions there needs to be a deconstruction of monolithic ways of thinking about the media and human rights, incorporating the spectrum of political arguments and worldviews that underpin both. Ten case studies are presented which illustrate many of the problems and challenges associated with the relationship between the media and human rights. The examples range from cases of humanitarian intervention to analysis of global human rights campaigning on refugee issues; from immigration and asylum, to genocide, freedom of speech and torture. Anchored in an appreciation of the political conflicts and compromises at the heart of international human rights agreements, The Media and Human Rights is an invaluable resource for students studying media and human rights, international politics, security studies and political communication.

The Fundamental Concept of Crime in International Criminal Law

A Comparative Law Analysis

Author: Iryna Marchuk

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642282466

Category: Law

Page: 304

View: 7100

This book examines the rapid development of the fundamental concept of a crime in international criminal law from a comparative law perspective. In this context, particular thought has been given to the catalyzing impact of the criminal law theory that has developed in major world legal systems upon the crystallization of the substantive part of international criminal law. This study offers a critical overview of international and domestic jurisprudence with regard to the construal of the concept of a crime (actus reus, mens rea, defences, modes of liability) and exposes roots of confusion in international criminal law through a comprehensive comparative analysis of substantive criminal laws in selected legal jurisdictions.

Genocide, Risk and Resilience

An Interdisciplinary Approach

Author: B. Ingelaere,S. Parmentier,Barbara Segaert,Jacques Haers

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137332433

Category: Social Science

Page: 238

View: 1533

This interdisciplinary volume aims to understand the linkages between the origins and aftermaths of genocide. Exploring social dynamics and human behaviour, this collection considers the interplay of various psychological, political, anthropological and historical factors at work in genocidal processes.