A Former Prosecutor Exposes the Psychology and Politics of Wrongful Convictions
Author: Mark Godsey
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Category: Social Science
In this unprecedented view from the trenches, prosecutor turned champion for the innocent Mark Godsey takes us inside the frailties of the human mind as they unfold in real-world wrongful convictions. Drawing upon stories from his own career, Godsey shares how innate psychological flaws in judges, police, lawyers, and juries coupled with a “tough on crime” environment can cause investigations to go awry, leading to the convictions of innocent people. In Blind Injustice, Godsey explores distinct psychological human weaknesses inherent in the criminal justice system—confirmation bias, memory malleability, cognitive dissonance, bureaucratic denial, dehumanization, and others—and illustrates each with stories from his time as a hard-nosed prosecutor and then as an attorney for the Ohio Innocence Project. He also lays bare the criminal justice system’s internal political pressures. How does the fact that judges, sheriffs, and prosecutors are elected officials influence how they view cases? How can defense attorneys support clients when many are overworked and underpaid? And how do juries overcome bias leading them to believe that police and expert witnesses know more than they do about what evidence means? This book sheds a harsh light on the unintentional yet routine injustices committed by those charged with upholding justice. Yet in the end, Godsey recommends structural, procedural, and attitudinal changes aimed at restoring justice to the criminal justice system.
In the wrong hands, math can be deadly. Even the simplest numbers can become powerful forces when manipulated by journalists, politicians or other public figures, but in the case of the law your liberty—and your life—can depend on the right calculation. Math on Trial tells the story of ten trials in which mathematical arguments were used—and disastrously misused—as evidence. Despite years of math classes, most people (and most jurors) fail to detect even simple mathematical sophistry, resulting in such horrors as a medical expert’s faulty calculation of probabilities providing the key evidence for a British mother’s conviction for the murder of her two babies. The conviction was later overturned, but three years in prison took its toll—Sally Clark died of acute alcohol intoxication in March of 2007. Mathematicians Leila Schneps and Coralie Colmez use a wide range of examples, from a mid-19th-century dispute over wills that became a signal case in the forensic use of mathematics, to the conviction and subsequent exoneration of Amanda Knox, to show how the improper application of mathematical concepts can mean the difference between walking free and life in prison. The cases discussed include: -The Case of Amanda Knox (How a judge’s denial of a second DNA test may have destroyed a chance to reveal the truth about Meredith Kercher’s murder) -The Case of Joe Sneed (How a fabricated probability framed a son for his parents’ grisly killing) -The Case of Sally Clark (How multiplying non-independent probabilities landed an innocent mother in jail for the murder of her children) -The Case of Janet Collins (How unjustified estimates combined with a miscalculated probability convicted an innocent couple of violent robbery) A colorful narrative of mathematical abuse featuring such characters as Charles Ponzi, Alfred Dreyfus, Hetty Green, and Oliver Wendell Holmes, Math on Trial shows that legal expertise isn’t everything when it comes to proving a man innocent.
Josiah Sutton was convicted of rape. He was five inches shorter and 65 pounds lighter than the suspect described by the victim, but at trial a lab analyst testified that his DNA was found at the crime scene. His case looked like many others—arrest, swab, match, conviction. But there was just one problem—Sutton was innocent. We think of DNA forensics as an infallible science that catches the bad guys and exonerates the innocent. But when the science goes rogue, it can lead to a gross miscarriage of justice. Erin Murphy exposes the dark side of forensic DNA testing: crime labs that receive little oversight and produce inconsistent results; prosecutors who push to test smaller and poorer-quality samples, inviting error and bias; law-enforcement officers who compile massive, unregulated, and racially skewed DNA databases; and industry lobbyists who push policies of “stop and spit.” DNA testing is rightly seen as a transformative technological breakthrough, but we should be wary of placing such a powerful weapon in the hands of the same broken criminal justice system that has produced mass incarceration, privileged government interests over personal privacy, and all too often enforced the law in a biased or unjust manner. Inside the Cell exposes the truth about forensic DNA, and shows us what it will take to harness the power of genetic identification in service of accuracy and fairness.
"A crusading legal scholar exposes the powerful psychological forces that undermine our criminal justice system--and affect us all Our nation is founded on the notion that the law is impartial, that legal cases are won or lost on the basis of evidence, careful reasoning and nuanced argument. But they may, in fact, turn on the temperature of the courtroom, the camera angle of a defendant's taped confession, or a simple word choice or gesture during a cross-examination. In Unfair, law professor Adam Benforado shines a light on this troubling new research, showing, for example, that people with certain facial features receive longer sentences and that judges are far more likely to grant parole first thing in the morning. In fact, over the last two decades, psychologists and neuroscientists have uncovered many cognitive forces that operate beyond our conscious awareness--and Benforado argues that until we address these hidden biases head-on, the social inequality we see now will only widen, as powerful players and institutions find ways to exploit the weaknesses in our legal system. Weaving together historical examples, scientific studies, and compelling court cases--from the border collie put on trial in Kentucky to the five teenagers who falsely confessed in the Central Park Jogger case--Benforado shows how our judicial processes fail to uphold our values and protect society's weakest members, convicting the innocent while letting dangerous criminals go free. With clarity and passion, he lays out the scope of the problem and proposes a wealth of reforms that could prevent injustice and help us achieve true fairness and equality before the law"--
AS SEEN ON ABC NEWS'' 20/20, LARRY KING LIVE, ENTERTAINMENT TONIGHT, ON THE RECORD WITH GRETA VAN SUSTEREN, AND MORETrue-crime buffs will snap this up. -BooklistDoubly appealing for murder-mystery lovers. It digs deeply into real-life killings, and it offers an expert''s firsthand look at forensics. -Dallas Morning NewsAttention to storytelling reveals the characters behind the cases...essential reading. -Publishers WeeklyLee''s skill at interpreting crime scenes shines on every page. His admonitions concerning the preserving of crime scene integrity should be included in every textbook description of investigative procedure. -American ScientistMerges travelogue with autopsy report...the scientific bits add a framework seldom found in true-crime books. ...while horror is [Lee''s] stock in trade, he shares it with readers in a warmly personal way that keeps the shivers down while revealing the evil that men do. -ForeWordThere''s no one quite like Henry Lee. When others see random items and information, Dr. Lee sees patterns of evidence. He is our modern day Sherlock Holmes... -Alan M. Dershowitz, Professor of Law, Harvard Law SchoolA ''must read'' from the world''s greatest criminalist. Dr. Lee leads us on an investigative journey to justice in five sensational murder cases. -Johnnie L. Cochran Jr.Truly a legend in his own time, Dr. Henry C. Lee is considered by many to be the greatest forensic scientist in the world. He gained widespread public recognition through his testimony in the televised O. J. Simpson trial. Since that time he has helped with the Jon Benet Ramsey case and the investigations of mass murder in Croatia.This book will take the reader through the entire investigative process of five murder cases, with Dr. Lee as the tour guide. The cases include: the O. J. Simpson case, in which Dr. Lee''s analysis of the blood evidence at the crime scene revealed that the Los Angeles Police Department had missed several blood drops on the back of Nicole Simpson, a footprint belonging to a second possible assailant, and the physical improbability of Mr. Simpson''s climbing a fence to return to his home; the woodchipper murder, in which an Eastern Airlines pilot murdered his wife and then put her body through a woodchipper in an attempt to dispose of the remains; the Mathison murder, in which a veteran Hawaiian police sergeant claimed to have accidentally run over his wife after she fled the family van during a dispute; the Ed Sherman murder, in which a college English professor attempted to disguise the time of his wife''s death by turning up the air conditioning unit in their house and then using the alibi that he was away from the home sailing on the day the crime allegedly took place; and the McArthur murder, in which a police sergeant shot and killed his wife, but then tried to make it appear that she had accidentally killed herself.In each case, Dr. Lee presents in scientific detail how he investigated the murders, analyzed the evidence, and used techniques that played a critical role in bringing criminals to justice. He discusses how the criminalist examines blood spatter evidence and uses blood identification, DNA analysis, and other forensic technologies developed in the world''s best laboratories. This is a fascinating insider''s look by a world-renowned expert into the pursuit of justice in some of the most grisly criminal cases of recent times.Dr. Henry C. Lee (Branford, CT), chair and professor of forensic science at the University of New Haven and chief emeritus in the Department of Public Safety in Meriden, CT, is a lifetime distinguished member of the International Association of Identification and a distinguished fellow of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences. He is the author (with Jerry Labriola, MD) of Famous Crimes Revisited, The Budapest Connection, and Dr. Henry Lee''s Forensic Files, and (with Thomas W. O''Neil) Cracking Cases and Cracking More Cases, among other works. Dr. Lee was formerly on Court TV''s Trace E
Asia Society. Independent Commission on Pakistan Police Reform
La prova scientifica entra nei nostri Tribunali con sempre maggiore ricorsività, chiamando gli operatori (avvocati, magistrati, forze di polizia) e gli studiosi del processo penale a risolvere inediti interrogativi e a reinterpretare le norme codicistiche alla luce d’un fenomeno di rilevante complessità. Il presente trattato mira a fornire al lettore le coordinate concettuali e gli strumenti ermeneutici per risolvere le questioni più controverse sull’impiego delle evidenze scientifiche nel sistema di giustizia penale. L’opera è divisa in tre differenti sezioni. - Una prima dedicata ai profili generali (teoria della prova e della decisione; rapporti con il diritto sostanziale; risvolti sovranazionali). - Una seconda riservata alla dinamica processuale (criteri di ammissione; problemi di assunzione; canoni valutativi; controlli impugnatori; esperienza comparata). - Una terza rivolta all’analisi di singole prove scientifiche (dal test genetico agli esiti medico-legali; dalla digital evidence alle neuroscienze). Diretta da due dei maggiori esperti della materia, quest'opera racchiude contributi di docenti universitari, giudici di legittimità, magistrati inquirenti, avvocati e studiosi stranieri.
“The New Machiavelli” is a novel written by H. G. Wells, first published in 1911. The plot was well-known to have been based on Wells' affair with Amber Reeves and a satire of Beatrice and Sidney web; and, as such, was constituted a veritable literary scandal at the time. An interesting and entertaining story of life and loves, “The New Machiavelli” will not disappoint fans of Wells work and deserves a place on every bookshelf. Contents include: “The Making Of A Man”, “Concerning A Book That Was Never Written”, “Bromstead And My Father”, “Margaret In London”, et cetera. Herbert George Wells (1866 – 1946) was a prolific English writer who wrote in a variety of genres, including the novel, politics, history, and social commentary. Today, he is perhaps best remembered for his contributions to the science fiction genre thanks to such novels as “The Time Machine” (1895), “The Invisible Man” (1897), and “The War of the Worlds” (1898). Many vintage books such as this are becoming increasingly scarce and expensive. We are republishing this book now in an affordable, modern, high-quality edition complete with a specially commissioned new biography of the author.
Let's begin with the basics: violence is an inherent part of policing. The police represent the most direct means by which the state imposes its will on the citizenry. They are armed, trained, and authorized to use force. Like the possibility of arrest, the threat of violence is implicit in every police encounter. Violence, as well as the law, is what they represent. Using media reports alone, the Cato Institute's last annual study listed nearly seven thousand victims of police "misconduct" in the United States. But such stories of police brutality only scratch the surface of a national epidemic. Every year, tens of thousands are framed, blackmailed, beaten, sexually assaulted, or killed by cops. Hundreds of millions of dollars are spent on civil judgments and settlements annually. Individual lives, families, and communities are destroyed. In this extensively revised and updated edition of his seminal study of policing in the United States, Kristian Williams shows that police brutality isn't an anomaly, but is built into the very meaning of law enforcement in the United States. From antebellum slave patrols to today's unarmed youth being gunned down in the streets, "peace keepers" have always used force to shape behavior, repress dissent, and defend the powerful. Our Enemies in Blue is a well-researched page-turner that both makes historical sense of this legalized social pathology and maps out possible alternatives.
DNA exonerations have shattered confidence in the criminal justice system by exposing how often we have convicted the innocent and let the guilty walk free. In this unsettling analysis, Garrett examines what went wrong in the cases of the first 250 people exonerated by DNA testing, and proposes systemic reforms.
Part 1 - Introduction to theory and basics : Ch. 1 Introduction to police technology -- Ch. 2 Computer Basics -- Ch. 3 Wireless Communications -- Ch. 4 Networks -- Ch. 5 Geographic Information System [GIS] -- Ch. 6 A brief history of Police Technology -- Part 2 - Strategic Information Systems and Technologies: Ch. 7 Communications Dispatch Centers -- Ch. 8 Agency Systems -- Ch. 9 External Systems -- Ch. 10 The Internet and Law Enforcement -- Ch. 11 Information Exchange -- Ch. 12 Crime analysis -- Part 3 - Tactical Information Systems : Ch. 13 Technology in Investigations -- Ch. 14 Wiretaps -- Ch. 15 Tracking and surveillance -- Ch.16 Hi-Tech Crime -- Ch. 17 Major Incident and Response -- Ch. 18 Technology in the Street -- Part 4 - Technology in Police management : Ch. 19 Personnel and Training -- Ch. 20 Implementing and Managing Technology -- Ch. 21 Emerging and Future Technologies.
Nearly every form of law practice requires skill in working with scientific or technical information and experts. This exciting new book brings the total civil and criminal forensics spectrum to life, based on years of curriculum development by the authors. Presenting critical information in an engaging, step-by-step manner, this book analyzes the relationship of law to science, the role of experts, laboratory tests and procedures, communication techniques, discovery strategies, ethical issues and trial practice skills. The commentary of prominent trial judges, lawyers and experts is infused throughout. Actual civil and criminal case problems optimize the learning experience for students. A DVD that presents a computer-animated version of an engineering expert's analysis and opinions is included.
Samuel Pallache, a Moroccan Jew in Catholic and Protestant Europe
Author: Mercedes García-Arenal,Gerard Wiegers
Publisher: JHU Press
In the late fifteenth century, many of the Jews expelled from Spain made their way to Morocco and established a dynamic community in Fez. A number of Jewish families became prominent in commerce and public life there. Among the Jews of Fez of Hispanic origin was Samuel Pallache, who served the Moroccan sultan as a commercial and diplomatic agent in Holland until Pallache's death in 1616. Before that, he had tried to return with his family to Spain, and to this end he tried to convert to Catholicism and worked as an informer, intermediary, and spy in Moroccan affairs for the Spanish court. Later he became a privateer against Spanish ships and was tried in London for that reason. His religious identity proved to be as mutable as his political allegiances: when in Amsterdam, he was devoutly Jewish; when in Spain, a loyal converso (a baptized Jew). In A Man of Three Worlds, Mercedes García-Arenal and Gerard Wiegers view Samuel Pallache's world as a microcosm of early modern society, one far more interconnected, cosmopolitan, and fluid than is often portrayed. Pallache's missions and misadventures took him from Islamic Fez and Catholic Spain to Protestant England and Holland. Through these travels, the authors explore the workings of the Moroccan sultanate and the Spanish court, the Jewish communities of Fez and Amsterdam, and details of the Atlantic-Mediterranean trade. At once a sweeping view of two continents, three faiths, and five nation-states and an intimate story of one man's remarkable life, A Man of Three Worlds is history at its most compelling. -- Richard L. Kagan, The Johns Hopkins University