Author: Sivanes Phillipson,Kelly Y.L Ku,Shane N Phillipson
International interest focuses on why pupils from East-Asia tend to outperform pupils from the West and scholars have proposed a number of possible explanations to account for these international trends. Using Vygotsky's theory (1978) as a conceptual framework to "construct" school achievement, this book puts forward culturally relevant context for understanding developmental aspects of children’s school achievement and their implication to classroom practice and education progress. Converging the two important lines of inquiry – the child factor and the sociocultural factor – this book showcases evidence-based scholarly works from across the globe that shed light on causes of academic achievement in different contexts. The book brings together eminent scholars from early childhood, primary education, secondary and vocational education who expertly capture the vitality of development and processes of specific child factors and their interaction with their environment that explain their school achievement. Foregrounded in the five planes of cultural historical, institutional, social, personal and mental, the research explain how children think, learn and form the will to perform amidst the changing social and family environment, and challenging school and educational environment.
Author: Peter Foster,Roger Gomm,Martyn Hammersleley
The issue of educational opportunity has long been of public concern and a major focus for eduational research. As a result, there is now a substantial body of research findings in this field, both quantitative and qualitative.; This work relates to various levels of the educational system and to different categories of student, but particularly social class, gender, ethnicity and race. The central trend has been to find persisting inequalities despite reform at system, institutional and classroom levels. Furthermore, the educational system is frequently portrayed as playing a key role in reproducing wider social and economic inequalities.; This book examines the status of educational inequality as a social problem, explores the conceptual issues surrounding it, assesses a representative sample of recent research, and seeks to clarify the relevant methodological ground rules, thereby laying the basis for future research in the field.
Educational Psychology: Constructing Learning 6e sets the standard for educational psychology texts in Australia and New Zealand, with its comprehensive, authoritative and research-based coverage of the subject. This edition includes completely updated content to reflect recent advances in the discipline, including revised theory into practice features from 39 international developmental psychologists. The author has retained the constructivist approach that made previous editions so engaging and relevant to student teachers, and content has been constructed around the new Australian Profession Standards for Teachers.
Developing Tests and Questionnaires for a National Assessment of Educational Achievement is the second in the National Assessments of Educational Achievement series. It is designed to help build capacity in carrying out technically adequate assessments of national levels of student achievement. It introduces readers to the activities involved in the development of achievement tests, and includes developing an assessment framework, writing multiple choice and constructed response type items, pretesting, producing test booklets, and handscoring items. A section on questionnaire construction feat.
A detailed account of the Joint UNESCO-UNICEF Monitoring Learning Achievement Project in five pilot countries (China, Jordan, Mali, Mauritius and Morocco), and the implementation strategies designed to promote a 'critical mass' approach to capacity-building through national and inter-agency partnerships. It also presents some common core and country-specific tests of basic learning competencies and proposes a step-by-step framework for data collection, analysis and reporting.
Challenging current theories about gender and achievement, this book assesses the issues at stake and analyses the policy drives and changing perceptions of gender on which the 'gender and achievement' debates are based. This new topical book guides the reader through the different theories and approaches, drawing together and reviewing work on gender and educational performance. The authors also highlight the continuing problems experienced by girls in terms of achievement and classroom interaction. The subjects covered include: perspectives on gender and achievement the construction of gender and achievement in education policy evaluating boys' underachievement the future for boys and girls? raising achievement: 'What works in the classroom?' Teachers, education professionals and students engaged in teacher training will welcome the editors' objective yet critical expertise.
In 1835 Oberlin became the first institute of higher education to make a cause of racial egalitarianism when it decided to educate students “irrespective of color.” Yet the visionary college’s implementation of this admissions policy was uneven. In Constructing Black Education at Oberlin College: A Documentary History, Roland M. Baumann presents a comprehensive documentary history of the education of African American students at Oberlin College. Following the Reconstruction era, Oberlin College mirrored the rest of society as it reduced its commitment to black students by treating them as less than equals of their white counterparts. By the middle of the twentieth century, black and white student activists partially reclaimed the Oberlin legacy by refusing to be defined by race. Generations of Oberlin students, plus a minority of faculty and staff, rekindled the college’s commitment to racial equality by 1970. In time, black separatism in its many forms replaced the integrationist ethic on campus as African Americans sought to chart their own destiny and advance curricular change. Oberlin’s is not a story of unbroken progress, but rather of irony, of contradictions and integrity, of myth and reality, and of imperfections. Baumann takes readers directly to the original sources by including thirty complete documents from the Oberlin College Archives. This richly illustrated volume is an important contribution to the college’s 175th anniversary celebration of its distinguished history, for it convincingly documents how Oberlin wrestled over the meaning of race and the destiny of black people in American society.
Girls are now out-performing boys at GCSE level, giving rise to a debate in the media on boys' underachievement. However, often such work has been a 'knee-jerk' response, led by media, not based on solid research. Boys, Girls and Achievement - Addressing the Classroom Issues fills that gap and: *provides a critical overview of the current debate on achievement; *Focuses on interviews with young people and classroom observations to examine how boys and girls see themselves as learners; *analyses the strategies teachers can use to improve the educational achievements of both boys and girls. Becky Francis provides teachers with a thorough analysis of the various ways in which secondary school pupils construct their gender identities in the classroom. The book also discusses methods teachers might use challenge these gender constructions in the classroom and thereby address the 'gender-gap' in achievement.
One of the most disturbing problems in American education today is the unequal achievement of children in schools. Few problems have sparked greater concern than the issue of why students from different social origins differ so significantly in their academic performance. This book explores the role played by families and schools in this troubling problem. It employs a social constructionist approach in considering how ascribed characteristics (race, gender, and class) intersect with the daily interactions of teachers and students in classrooms and with the educational practices and structures within schools (tracking, testing, and teacher expectations) to play an exacting role in the construction of success or failure. It suggests that the new student identity that begins to emerge as a result of these processes provides a self-fulfilling prophesy of expectation and belief, which defines how students see themselves as learners and achievers. Through these practices, schooling becomes a crucial factor in the social construction of academic success. The author's final conclusion is inescapable: unequal achievement in school is largely a social construction. But it is a social construction facilitated both by student attributes including gender, race, and class and by the educational structures and policies some schools employ. Because of this undeniable fact, parents, educational practitioners, and policy makers must continue to investigate social policies and practices relative to student abilities and make every effort to understand how they may be related to achievement. Informed by research, they must endeavor to see this power inherent in schooling and the need to effect change.
The essays in this volume tackle the construction and significance of race and ethnicity as boundary-making processes among diverse immigrant populations in the United States. Race and ethnicity can both unite and divide. The individual scholars contributing to this volume model, deploy, and explain notions of "borders" and "boundaries" in various ways, but collectively they emphasize the fluidity of racial and ethnic identities that are shaped, negotiated, and contested in specific contexts and situations. Constructing Borders/Crossing Boundaries also captures the range of spaces in which ethnicity and race become salient--the university, the immigrant enclave, the detention center, the work place, the nightclub, and even the trans-Atlantic passage. This interdisciplinary work features essays on a diverse range of immigrant populations from past to present and will interest scholars from across disciplines.
I personally learned to know Ralph Tyler rather late in his career when, in the 1960s, I spent a year as a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford. His term of office as Director of the Center was then approaching its end. This would seem to disqualify me thoroughly from preparing a Foreword to this "Classic Works. " Many of his colleagues and, not least, of his students at his dear Alma Mater, the University of Chicago, are certainly better prepared than I to put his role in American education in proper perspective. The reason for inviting me is, I assume, to bring out the influence that Tyler has had on the international educational scene. I am writing this Foreword on a personal note. Ralph Tyler's accomplishments in his roles as a scholar, policy maker, educational leader, and statesman have been amply put on record in this book, not least in the editors' Preface. My reflections are those of an observer from abroad but who, over the last 25 years, has been close enough to overcome the aloofness of the foreigner. Tyler has over many years been criss-crossing the North American con tinent generously giving advice to agencies at the federal, state, and local levels, lecturing, and serving on many committees and task forces that have been instrumental in shaping American education.
Building Partnerships for Learning, Achievement, and Accountability
Author: Wayne Sailor
Publisher: Teachers College Press
A breakthrough for those concerned about improving education and schooling in our nation. Tackling tough, contemporary issues, this volume discusses provocative dilemmas with clarity and precision; it challenges us to think more deeply about reform and about the kind and quality of services America owes its children and itself. It is a work that will endure as both a challenge to our thinking and a call to action.
Case Studies in the Construction of High Achievement
Author: Jim Campbell,Laura Mazzoli Smith
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
What is it like to be YOUNG, GIFTED AND WORKING CLASS in contemporary England? How do working class family values support high educational achievement? What do researchers and policy makers have to learn about giftedness from working class families? These provocative questions are explored in this ground-breaking book. Most studies of giftedness focus on the characteristics of individuals, and draw upon psychological frameworks to understand them. Participants in most gifted education programmes are recruited disproportionately from the higher social classes. Sceptical of the concept of giftedness, Mazzoli Smith and Campbell question conventional methodologies, using a narrative approach to understand how four families of working class origins, each with a gifted child, construct their values in relation to education and social class. They explore the influence of their family histories, cultural values and life styles upon educational engagement and achievement. The authors show that gifted education policies are poorly matched to the values of these families and argue that much research into giftedness has been flawed by social and cultural discrimination. They propose an agenda for change in research paradigms in the giftedness field, which should be characterized by interdisciplinarity and more culturally relative conceptions of giftedness.
Thomas Kellaghan Educational Research Centre, St. Patrick's College, Dublin, Ireland Daniel L. Stufflebeam The Evaluation Center, Western Michigan University, Ml, USA Lori A. Wingate The Evaluation Center, Western Michigan University, Ml, USA Educational evaluation encompasses a wide array of activities, including student assessment, measurement, testing, program evaluation, school personnel evalua tion, school accreditation, and curriculum evaluation. It occurs at all levels of education systems, from the individual student evaluations carried out by class room teachers, to evaluations of schools and districts, to district-wide program evaluations, to national assessments, to cross-national comparisons of student achievement. As in any area of scholarship and practice, the field is constantly evolving, as a result of advances in theory, methodology, and technology; increasing globalization; emerging needs and pressures; and cross-fertilization from other disciplines. The beginning of a new century would seem an appropriate time to provide a portrait of the current state of the theory and practice of educational evaluation across the globe. It is the purpose of this handbook to attempt to do this, to sketch the international landscape of educational evaluation - its conceptual izations, practice, methodology, and background, and the functions it serves. The book's 43 chapters, grouped in 10 sections, provide detailed accounts of major components of the educational evaluation enterprise. Together, they provide a panoramic view of an evolving field.
The Consequences of Untracking Low Achieving Students
Author: Hugh Mehan
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Bolstering the academic success of low achieving students and providing a more egalitarian classroom setting are two constant challenges to our schools. This book describes the process of "untracking", an educational reform effort that has prepared students from low income, linguistic and ethnic minority backgrounds for college. Untracking offers all students the same academically-demanding curriculum while varying the amount of institutional support they receive. This book is a highly readable account of a successful school reform effort. It provides systematic research results concerning the educational and social consequences of untracking previously low achieving students, and will be of great importance to researchers in educational and social psychology.
Based on approaches from discourse analysis and sociolinguistics, this study proposes an analytical model focusing on the linguistic and discursive means narrators use to construct a variety of identities in everyday stories. This model is further exploited in language teaching to cultivate students' cultural sensitivity and critical literacy.