Conceptual Models

Core to Good Design

Author: Jeff Johnson,Austin Henderson

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1608457494

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 96

View: 2450

People make use of software applications in their activities, applying them as tools in carrying out tasks. That this use should be good for people--easy, effective, efficient, and enjoyable--is a principal goal of design. In this book, we present the notion of Conceptual Models, and argue that Conceptual Models are core to achieving good design. From years of helping companies create software applications, we have come to believe that building applications without Conceptual Models is just asking for designs that will be confusing and difficult to learn, remember, and use. We show how Conceptual Models are the central link between the elements involved in application use: people's tasks (task domains), the use of tools to perform the tasks, the conceptual structure of those tools, the presentation of the conceptual model (i.e., the user interface), the language used to describe it, its implementation, and the learning that people must do to use the application. We further show that putting a Conceptual Model at the center of the design and development process can pay rich dividends: designs that are simpler and mesh better with users' tasks, avoidance of unnecessary features, easier documentation, faster development, improved customer uptake, and decreased need for training and customer support. Table of Contents: Using Tools / Start with the Conceptual Model / Definition / Structure / Example / Essential Modeling / Optional Modeling / Process / Value / Epilogue

Handbook of Human Centric Visualization

Author: Weidong Huang

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 146147485X

Category: Computers

Page: 743

View: 6197

Visualizations are visual representations of non-visual data. They are produced for people to interact with and to make sense of the underlying data. Rapid advances in display technology and computer power have enabled researchers to produce visually appealing pictures. However, the effectiveness of those pictures in conveying the embedded information to end users has not been fully explored. Handbook of Human Centric Visualization addresses issues related to design, evaluation and application of visualizations. Topics include visualization theories, design principles, evaluation methods and metrics, human factors, interaction methods and case studies. This cutting-edge book includes contributions from well-established researchers worldwide, from diverse disciplines including psychology, visualization and human-computer interaction. This handbook is designed for a professional audience composed of practitioners, lecturers and researchers working in the field of computer graphics, visualization, human-computer interaction and psychology. Undergraduate and postgraduate students in science and engineering focused on this topic will also find this book useful as a comprehensive textbook or reference.

Advancements in the Philosophy of Design

Author: Pieter E. Vermaas,Stéphane Vial

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319733028

Category: Philosophy

Page: 564

View: 1122

This volume presents 25 essays on the philosophy of design. With contributions originating from philosophy and design research, and from product design to architecture, it gives a rich spectrum of state of the art research and brings together studies on philosophical topics in which design plays a key role and design research to which philosophy contributes. Coverage zooms in on specific and more well-known design disciplines but also includes less-studied disciplines, such as graphic design, interior architecture and exhibition design. In addition, contributors take up traditional philosophical issues, such as epistemology, politics, phenomenology and philosophy of science. Some essays cover philosophical issues that emerge in design, for instance what design can do in addressing societal problems, while other essays analyze main-stream philosophical issues in which design is part of the argument, as for instance abduction and aesthetics. Readers will discover new research with insightful analyses of design research, design thinking and the specificity of design. Overall, this comprehensive overview of an emerging topic in philosophy will be of great interest to researchers and students.

Designing User Interfaces for an Aging Population

Towards Universal Design

Author: Jeff Johnson,Kate Finn

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 0128045124

Category: Computers

Page: 258

View: 1223

Designing User Interfaces for an Aging Population: Towards Universal Design presents age-friendly design guidelines that are well-established, agreed-upon, research-based, actionable, and applicable across a variety of modern technology platforms. The book offers guidance for product engineers, designers, or students who want to produce technological products and online services that can be easily and successfully used by older adults and other populations. It presents typical age-related characteristics, addressing vision and visual design, hand-eye coordination and ergonomics, hearing and sound, speech and comprehension, navigation, focus, cognition, attention, learning, memory, content and writing, attitude and affect, and general accessibility. The authors explore characteristics of aging via realistic personas which demonstrate the impact of design decisions on actual users over age 55. Presents the characteristics of older adults that can hinder use of technology Provides guidelines for designing technology that can be used by older adults and younger people Review real-world examples of designs that implement the guidelines and the designs that violate them

Design of Visualizations for Human-Information Interaction

A Pattern-Based Framework

Author: Kamran Sedig,Paul Parsons

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 162705748X

Category: Computers

Page: 185

View: 9806

Interest in visualization design has increased in recent years. While there is a large body of existing work from which visualization designers can draw, much of the past research has focused on developing new tools and techniques that are aimed at specific contexts. Less focus has been placed on developing holistic frameworks, models, and theories that can guide visualization design at a general level—a level that transcends domains, data types, users, and other contextual factors. In addition, little emphasis has been placed on the thinking processes of designers, including the concepts that designers use, while they are engaged in a visualization design activity. In this book we present a general, holistic framework that is intended to support visualization design for human-information interaction. The framework is composed of a number of conceptual elements that can aid in design thinking. The core of the framework is a pattern language—consisting of a set of 14 basic, abstract patterns—and a simple syntax for describing how the patterns are blended. We also present a design process, made up of four main stages, for creating static or interactive visualizations. The 4-stage design process places the patterns at the core of designers’ thinking, and employs a number of conceptual tools that help designers think systematically about creating visualizations based on the information they intend to represent. Although the framework can be used to design static visualizations for simple tasks, its real utility can be found when designing visualizations with interactive possibilities in mind—in other words, designing to support a human-information interactive discourse. This is especially true in contexts where interactive visualizations need to support complex tasks and activities involving large and complex information spaces. The framework is intended to be general and can thus be used to design visualizations for diverse domains, users, information spaces, and tasks in different fields such as business intelligence, health and medical informatics, digital libraries, journalism, education, scientific discovery, and others. Drawing from research in multiple disciplines, we introduce novel concepts and terms that can positively contribute to visualization design practice and education, and will hopefully stimulate further research in this area.

The Datacenter as a Computer

An Introduction to the Design of Warehouse-Scale Machines

Author: Luiz André Barroso,Jimmy Clidaras,Urs Hölzle

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1627050108

Category: Computers

Page: 154

View: 8909

As computation continues to move into the cloud, the computing platform of interest no longer resembles a pizza box or a refrigerator, but a warehouse full of computers. These new large datacenters are quite different from traditional hosting facilities of earlier times and cannot be viewed simply as a collection of co-located servers. Large portions of the hardware and software resources in these facilities must work in concert to efficiently deliver good levels of Internet service performance, something that can only be achieved by a holistic approach to their design and deployment. In other words, we must treat the datacenter itself as one massive warehouse-scale computer (WSC). We describe the architecture of WSCs, the main factors influencing their design, operation, and cost structure, and the characteristics of their software base. We hope it will be useful to architects and programmers of today’s WSCs, as well as those of future many-core platforms which may one day implement the equivalent of today’s WSCs on a single board. Notes for the Second Edition After nearly four years of substantial academic and industrial developments in warehouse-scale computing, we are delighted to present our first major update to this lecture. The increased popularity of public clouds has made WSC software techniques relevant to a larger pool of programmers since our first edition. Therefore, we expanded Chapter 2 to reflect our better understanding of WSC software systems and the toolbox of software techniques for WSC programming. In Chapter 3, we added to our coverage of the evolving landscape of wimpy vs. brawny server trade-offs, and we now present an overview of WSC interconnects and storage systems that was promised but lacking in the original edition. Thanks largely to the help of our new co-author, Google Distinguished Engineer Jimmy Clidaras, the material on facility mechanical and power distribution design has been updated and greatly extended (see Chapters 4 and 5). Chapters 6 and 7 have also been revamped significantly. We hope this revised edition continues to meet the needs of educators and professionals in this area.

Designing with the Mind in Mind

Simple Guide to Understanding User Interface Design Guidelines

Author: Jeff Johnson

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 012411556X

Category: Computers

Page: 250

View: 6779

In this completely updated and revised edition of Designing with the Mind in Mind, Jeff Johnson provides you with just enough background in perceptual and cognitive psychology that user interface (UI) design guidelines make intuitive sense rather than being just a list or rules to follow. Early UI practitioners were trained in cognitive psychology, and developed UI design rules based on it. But as the field has evolved since the first edition of this book, designers enter the field from many disciplines. Practitioners today have enough experience in UI design that they have been exposed to design rules, but it is essential that they understand the psychology behind the rules in order to effectively apply them. In this new edition, you'll find new chapters on human choice and decision making, hand-eye coordination and attention, as well as new examples, figures, and explanations throughout. Provides an essential source for user interface design rules and how, when, and why to apply them Arms designers with the science behind each design rule, allowing them to make informed decisions in projects, and to explain those decisions to others Equips readers with the knowledge to make educated tradeoffs between competing rules, project deadlines, and budget pressures Completely updated and revised, including additional coverage on human choice and decision making, hand-eye coordination and attention, and new mobile and touch-screen examples throughout

Interaction Design

Beyond Human-Computer Interaction

Author: Jenny Preece,Yvonne Rogers,Helen Sharp

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119020751

Category: Computers

Page: 584

View: 1742

This is an ideal resource for learning the interdisciplinary skills needed for interaction design, human computer interaction, information design, web design and ubiquitous computing. This text offers a cross-disciplinary, practical and process-oriented introduction to the field, showing not just what principles ought to apply to interaction design, but crucially how they can be applied.

Adaptive Interaction

A Utility Maximization Approach to Understanding Human Interaction with Technology

Author: Stephen J. Payne,Andrew Howes

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1608458393

Category: Computers

Page: 111

View: 1449

This lecture describes a theoretical framework for the behavioural sciences that holds high promise for theory-driven research and design in Human-Computer Interaction. The framework is designed to tackle the adaptive, ecological, and bounded nature of human behaviour. It is designed to help scientists and practitioners reason about why people choose to behave as they do and to explain which strategies people choose in response to utility, ecology, and cognitive information processing mechanisms. A key idea is that people choose strategies so as to maximise utility given constraints. The framework is illustrated with a number of examples including pointing, multitasking, skim-reading, online purchasing, Signal Detection Theory and diagnosis, and the influence of reputation on purchasing decisions. Importantly, these examples span from perceptual/motor coordination, through cognition to social interaction. Finally, the lecture discusses the challenging idea that people seek to find optimal strategies and also discusses the implications for behavioral investigation in HCI.

HCI Theory

Classical, Modern, and Contemporary

Author: Yvonne Rogers

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1608459012

Category: Computers

Page: 129

View: 8171

Theory is the bedrock of many sciences, providing a rigorous method to advance knowledge, through testing and falsifying hypotheses about observable phenomena. To begin with, the nascent field of HCI followed the scientific method borrowing theories from cognitive science to test theories about user performance at the interface. But HCI has emerged as an eclectic interdiscipline rather than a well-defined science. It now covers all aspects of human life, from birth to bereavement, through all manner of computing, from device ecologies to nano-technology. It comes as no surprise that the role of theory in HCI has also greatly expanded from the early days of scientific testing to include other functions such as describing, explaining, critiquing, and as the basis for generating new designs. The book charts the theoretical developments in HCI, both past and present, reflecting on how they have shaped the field. It explores both the rhetoric and the reality: how theories have been conceptualized, what was promised, how they have been used and which has made the most impact in the field -- and the reasons for this. Finally, it looks to the future and asks whether theory will continue to have a role, and, if so, what this might be. Table of Contents: Introduction / The Backdrop to HCI Theory / The Role and Contribution of Theory in HCI / Classical Theories / Modern Theories / Contemporary Theory / Discussion / Summary

Experience Design

Technology for All the Right Reasons

Author: Marc Hassenzahl

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1608450473

Category: Computers

Page: 85

View: 5257

In his In the blink of an eye, Walter Murch, the Oscar-awarded editor of The English Patient, Apocalypse Now, and many other outstanding movies, devises the Rule of Six -- six criteria for what makes a good cut. On top of his list is "to be true to the emotion of the moment," a quality more important than advancing the story or being rhythmically interesting. The cut has to deliver a meaningful, compelling, and emotion-rich "experience" to the audience. Because, "what they finally remember is not the editing, not the camerawork, not the performances, not even the story---it's how they felt." Technology for all the right reasons applies this insight to the design of interactive products and technologies -- the domain of Human-Computer Interaction, Usability Engineering, and Interaction Design. It takes an experiential approach, putting experience before functionality and leaving behind oversimplified calls for ease, efficiency, and automation or shallow beautification. Instead, it explores what really matters to humans and what it needs to make technology more meaningful. The book clarifies what experience is, and highlights five crucial aspects and their implications for the design of interactive products. It provides reasons why we should bother with an experiential approach, and presents a detailed working model of experience useful for practitioners and academics alike. It closes with the particular challenges of an experiential approach for design. The book presents its view as a comprehensive, yet entertaining blend of scientific findings, design examples, and personal anecdotes. Table of Contents: Follow me! / Crucial Properties of Experience / Three Good Reasons to Consider Experience / A Model of Experience / Reflections on Experience Design

Evaluating User Experience in Games

Concepts and Methods

Author: Regina Bernhaupt

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781848829633

Category: Computers

Page: 277

View: 1347

It was a pleasure to provide an introduction to a new volume on user experience evaluation in games. The scope, depth, and diversity of the work here is amazing. It attests to the growing popularity of games and the increasing importance developing a range of theories, methods, and scales to evaluate them. This evolution is driven by the cost and complexity of games being developed today. It is also driven by the need to broaden the appeal of games. Many of the approaches described here are enabled by new tools and techniques. This book (along with a few others) represents a watershed in game evaluation and understanding. The eld of game evaluation has truly “come of age”. The broader eld of HCI can begin to look toward game evaluation for fresh, critical, and sophisticated thi- ing about design evaluation and product development. They can also look to games for groundbreaking case studies of evaluation of products. I’ll brie y summarize each chapter below and provide some commentary. In conclusion, I will mention a few common themes and offer some challenges. Discussion In Chapter 1, User Experience Evaluation in Entertainment, Bernhaupt gives an overview and presents a general framework on methods currently used for user experience evaluation. The methods presented in the following chapters are s- marized and thus allow the reader to quickly assess the right set of methods that will help to evaluate the game under development.

Crossing the Quality Chasm:

A New Health System for the 21st Century

Author: Committee on Quality of Health Care in America,Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309072808

Category: Medical

Page: 360

View: 2074

Second in a series of publications from the Institute of Medicine's Quality of Health Care in America project Today's health care providers have more research findings and more technology available to them than ever before. Yet recent reports have raised serious doubts about the quality of health care in America. Crossing the Quality Chasm makes an urgent call for fundamental change to close the quality gap. This book recommends a sweeping redesign of the American health care system and provides overarching principles for specific direction for policymakers, health care leaders, clinicians, regulators, purchasers, and others. In this comprehensive volume the committee offers: A set of performance expectations for the 21st century health care system. A set of 10 new rules to guide patient-clinician relationships. A suggested organizing framework to better align the incentives inherent in payment and accountability with improvements in quality. Key steps to promote evidence-based practice and strengthen clinical information systems. Analyzing health care organizations as complex systems, Crossing the Quality Chasm also documents the causes of the quality gap, identifies current practices that impede quality care, and explores how systems approaches can be used to implement change.

The Design of Implicit Interactions

Author: Wendy Ju

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1627052682

Category: Computers

Page: 93

View: 9987

People rely on implicit interaction in their everyday interactions with one another to exchange queries, offers, responses, and feedback without explicit communication. A look with the eyes, a wave of the hand, the lift of the door handle—small moves can do a lot to enable joint action with elegance and economy. This work puts forward a theory that these implicit patterns of interaction with one another drive our expectations of how we should interact with devices. I introduce the Implicit Interaction Framework as a tool to map out interaction trajectories, and we use these trajectories to better understand the interactions transpiring around us. By analyzing everyday implicit interactions for patterns and tactics, designers of interactive devices can better understand how to design interactions that work or to remedy interactions that fail. This book looks at the “smart,” “automatic,” and “interactive” devices that increasingly permeate our everyday lives—doors, switches, whiteboards—and provides a close reading of how we interact with them. These vignettes add to the growing body of research targeted at teasing out the factors at play in our interactions. I take a look at current research, which indicates that our reactions to interactions are social, even if the entities we are interacting with are not human. These research insights are applied to allow us to refine and improve interactive devices so that they work better in the context of our day-to-day lives. Finally this book looks to the future, and outlines considerations that need to be taken into account in prototyping and validating devices that employ implicit interaction.

Interacting with Information

Author: Ann Blandford,Simon John Attfield

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1608450260

Category: Computers

Page: 85

View: 2790

We live in an "information age," but information is only useful when it is interpreted by people and applied in the context of their goals and activities. The volume of information to which people have access is growing at an incredible rate, vastly outstripping people's ability to assimilate and manage it. In order to design technologies that better support information work, it is necessary to better understand the details of that work. In this lecture, we review the situations (physical, social and temporal) in which people interact with information. We also discuss how people interact with information in terms of an "information journey," in which people, iteratively, do the following: recognise a need for information, find information, interpret and evaluate that information in the context of their goals, and use the interpretation to support their broader activities. People's information needs may be explicit and clearly articulated but, conversely, may be tacit, exploratory and evolving. Widely used tools supporting information access, such as searching on the Web and in digital libraries, support clearly defined information requirements well, but they provide limited support for other information needs. Most other stages of the information journey are poorly supported at present. Novel design solutions are unlikely to be purely digital, but to exploit the rich variety of information resources, digital, physical and social, that are available. Theories of information interaction and sensemaking can highlight new design possibilities that augment human capabilities. We review relevant theories and findings for understanding information behaviours, and we review methods for evaluating information working tools, to both assess existing tools and identify requirements for the future. Table of Contents: Introduction: Pervasive Information Interactions / Background: Information Interaction at the Crossroads of Research Traditions / The Situations: Physical, Social and Temporal / The Behaviors: Understanding the "Information Journey" / The Technologies: Supporting the Information Journey / Studying User Behaviors and Needs for Information Interaction / Looking to the Future / Further Reading

Engineering a Learning Healthcare System:

A Look at the Future: Workshop Summary

Author: Institute of Medicine,National Academy of Engineering

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309120640

Category: Medical

Page: 340

View: 5565

Improving our nation's healthcare system is a challenge which, because of its scale and complexity, requires a creative approach and input from many different fields of expertise. Lessons from engineering have the potential to improve both the efficiency and quality of healthcare delivery. The fundamental notion of a high-performing healthcare system--one that increasingly is more effective, more efficient, safer, and higher quality--is rooted in continuous improvement principles that medicine shares with engineering. As part of its Learning Health System series of workshops, the Institute of Medicine's Roundtable on Value and Science-Driven Health Care and the National Academy of Engineering, hosted a workshop on lessons from systems and operations engineering that could be applied to health care. Building on previous work done in this area the workshop convened leading engineering practitioners, health professionals, and scholars to explore how the field might learn from and apply systems engineering principles in the design of a learning healthcare system. Engineering a Learning Healthcare System: A Look at the Future: Workshop Summary focuses on current major healthcare system challenges and what the field of engineering has to offer in the redesign of the system toward a learning healthcare system.

Core-Task Design

A Practice-Theory Approach to Human Factors

Author: Leena Norros,Paula Savioja,Hanna Koskinen

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1627055754

Category: Computers

Page: 141

View: 9708

This book focuses on design of work from the human-factors (HF) perspective. In the approach referred to as Core-Task Design (CTD), work is considered practice, composed of human actors, the physical and social environment, and the tools used for reaching the actors’ objectives. This book begins with consideration of an industrial case, the modernization of a nuclear power plant automation system, and the related human-system interfaces in the control room. This case illustrates generic design dilemmas that invite one to revisit human-factors research methodology: Human factors should adopt practice as a new unit of analysis and should accept intervention as an inherent feature of its methodology. These suggestions are put into practice in the CTD approach, according to which three general design functions are performed, those being: • understand-to-generalize—empirical analysis of the work at hand, • foresee-the-promise—creation of concepts for future work, and • intervene-to-develop—participatory development and design of work. For fulfillment fulfillment of each of the design functions, several CTD methods are introduced. The methods are aimed at modeling the core task and analyzing how the actors actually take the core task features into account in order to achieve balance between potentially conflicting demands in action. Thereby, new understanding of the core task is acquired. Further methods focus on projecting the roles and functionality of technologies in the future work and on implementing changes to the work. Specific studies of the nuclear power plant’s control-room renewal constitute an example demonstrating a core task and the associated methods. We argue that the CTD approach offers clear utility for the design of future technology, work, and everyday services and environments. CTD utilizes achievements of practice theory in the social sciences to generate a creative synthesis of Cognitive Work Analysis, semiotic analysis of practice, and the cultural-historical theory of activity. Core-Task Design facilitates dialogue among human-factors experts, design engineers, and end users in their joint development of work. The intended audience of this book is students, researchers, and practitioners of human factors, industrial art and design, and instrumentation and control-system design.

Ergonomics in Design

Methods and Techniques

Author: Marcelo M. Soares,Francisco Rebelo

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1498760716

Category: Computers

Page: 532

View: 1106

Currently people deal with various entities (such as hardware, software, buildings, spaces, communities and other people), to meet specific goals while going about their everyday activities in work and leisure environments. These entities have become more and more complex and incorporate functions that hitherto had never been allocated such as automation, use in virtual environments, connectivity, personalization, mobility and friendliness. This book contributes to the analysis of human-system interactions from the perspective of ergonomics, regardless of how simple or complex they are, while incorporating the needs of users and workers in a healthy safe, efficient and enjoyable manner. This book provides a comprehensive review of the state of the art of current ergonomic in design methods and techniques that are being applied to products, machinery, equipment, workstations and systems while taking new technologies and their applications into consideration.? Ergonomics in Design: Methods and Techniques is organized into four sections and 30 chapters covering topics such as conceptual aspects of ergonomics in design, the knowledge of human characteristics applied to design, and the methodological aspects of design. Examples are shown in several areas of design including, but not limited to, consumer products, games, transport, education, architecture, fashion, sustainability, biomechanics, intelligent systems, virtual reality, and neurodesign. This book will: Introduces the newest developments in social-cultural approaches Shows different ergonomics in design methodological approaches Divulges the ways that ergonomics can contribute to a successful design Applies different subjects to support the design including –ergonomics, engineering, architecture, urbanism, neuro, and product designs. Presents recent technologies in ergonomic design, as applied to product design. With the contributions from a team of 75 researchers from 11 countries, the book covers the state-of-the-art of ergonomics in a way to produce better design.

Designing for User Engagement

Aesthetic and Attractive User Interfaces

Author: Alistair Sutcliffe

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1608450236

Category: Computers

Page: 47

View: 8297

This book explores the design process for user experience and engagement, which expands the traditional concept of usability and utility in design to include aesthetics, fun and excitement. User experience has evolved as a new area of Human Computer Interaction research, motivated by non-work oriented applications such as games, education and emerging interactive Web 2.0. The chapter starts by examining the phenomena of user engagement and experience and setting them in the perspective of cognitive psychology, in particular motivation, emotion and mood. The perspective of aesthetics is expanded towards interaction and engagement to propose design treatments, metaphors, and interactive techniques which can promote user interest, excitement and satisfying experiences. This is followed by reviewing the design process and design treatments which can promote aesthetic perception and engaging interaction. The final part of the chapter provides design guidelines and principles drawn from the interaction and graphical design literature which are cross-referenced to issues in the design process. Examples of designs and design treatments are given to illustrate principles and advice, accompanied by critical reflection. Table of Contents: Introduction / Psychology of User Engagement / UE Design Process / Design Principles and Guidelines / Perspectives and Conclusions

Activity Theory in HCI

Fundamentals and Reflections

Author: Victor Kaptelinin,Bonnie A. Nardi

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1608457044

Category: Computers

Page: 95

View: 5531

Activity theory -- a conceptual framework originally developed by Aleksei Leontiev -- has its roots in the socio-cultural tradition in Russian psychology. The foundational concept of the theory is human activity, which is understood as purposeful, mediated, and transformative interaction between human beings and the world. Since the early 1990s, activity theory has been a visible landmark in the theoretical landscape of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Along with some other frameworks, such as distributed cognition and phenomenology, it established itself as a leading post-cognitivist approach in HCI and interaction design. In this book we discuss the conceptual foundations of activity theory and its contribution to HCI research. After making the case for theory in HCI and briefly discussing the contribution of activity theory to the field (Chapter One) we introduce the historical roots, main ideas, and principles of activity theory (Chapter Two). After that we present in-depth analyses of three issues which we consider of special importance to current developments in HCI and interaction design, namely: agency (Chapter Three), experience (Chapter Four), and activity-centric computing (Chapter Five). We conclude the book with reflections on challenges and prospects for further development of activity theory in HCI (Chapter Six). Table of Contents: Introduction: Activity theory and the changing face of HCI / Basic concepts and principles of activity theory / Agency / Activity and experience / Activity-centric computing / Activity theory and the development of HCI