Carbonyl Derivatives I - Part 3: Hal/X-, N/S(N)- and Anomeric Sugar Acetals
Publisher: Georg Thieme Verlag
Houben-Weyl is the acclaimed reference series for preparative methods in organic chemistry, in which all methods are organized accor ding to the class of compound or functional group to be synthesized. The Houben-Weyl volumes contain 146 000 product-specific experi mental procedures, 580 000 structures, and 700 000 references. The preparative significance of the methods for all classes of compou nds is critically evaluated. The series includes data from as far back as the early 1800s to 2003. // The content of this e-book was originally published in 1992.
P R E F A C E xxv PHILOSOPHY From its first edition through this, its fourth, Organic Chemistry has been designed to meet the needs of the “mainstream,” two-semester, undergraduate organic chemistry course. It has evolved as those needs have changed, but its philosophy remains the same. The overarching theme is that organic chemistry is not only an interesting subject, but also a logical one. It is logical because its topics can be connected in a steady progression from simple to complex. Our approach has been to reveal the logic of organic chemistry by being selective in the topics we cover, as well as thorough and patient in developing them. Teaching at all levels is undergoing rapid change, especially in applying powerful tools that exploit the graphics capability of personal computers. Organic chemistry has always been the most graphical of the chemical sciences and is well positioned to benefit significantly from these tools. Consistent with our philosophy, this edition uses computer graphics to enhance the core material, to make it more visual, and more understandable, but in a way that increases neither the amount of material nor its level. ORGANIZATION The central message of chemistry is that the properties of a substance come from its structure. What is less obvious, but very powerful, is the corollary. Someone with training in chemistry can look at the structure of a substance and tell you a lot about its properties. Organic chemistry has always been, and continues to be, the branch of chemistry that best connects structure with properties. This text has a strong bias toward structure, and this edition benefits from the availability of versatile new tools to help us understand that structure. The text is organized to flow logically and step by step from structure to properties and back again. As the list of chapter titles reveals, the organization is according to functional groups—structural units within a molecule most responsible for a particular property— because that is the approach that permits most students to grasp the material most readily. Students retain the material best, however, if they understand how organic reactions take place. Thus, reaction mechanisms are stressed early and often, but within a functional group framework. A closer examination of the chapter titles reveals the close link between a functional group class (Chapter 20, Carboxylic Acid Derivatives) and a reaction type (Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution), for example. It is very satisfying to see students who entered the course believing they needed to memorize everything progress to the point of thinking and reasoning mechanistically. Some of the important stages in this approach are as follows: • The first mechanism the students encounter (Chapter 4) describes the conversion of alcohols to alkyl halides. Not only is this a useful functional-group transformation, but its first step proceeds by the simplest mechanism of all—proton transfer. The overall mechanism provides for an early reinforcement of acid-base chemistry and an early introduction to carbocations and nucleophilic substitution. • Chapter 5 continues the chemistry of alcohols and alkyl halides by showing how they can be used to prepare alkenes by elimination reactions. Here, the students see a second example of the formation of carbocation intermediates from alcohols, but in this case, the carbocation travels a different pathway to a different destination. • The alkenes prepared in Chapter 5 are studied again in Chapter 6, this time with an eye toward their own chemical reactivity. What the students learned about carbocations in Chapters 4 and 5 serves them well in understanding the mechanisms of the reactions of alkenes in Chapter 6. • Likewise, the mechanism of nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones described in Chapter 17 sets the stage for aldol condensation in Chapter 18, esterification of carboxylic acids in Chapter 19, nucleophilic acyl substitution in Chapter 20, and ester condensation in Chapter 21. xxvi PREFACE THE SPARTAN INTEGRATION The third edition of this text broke new ground with its emphasis on molecular modeling, including the addition of more than 100 exercises of the model-building type. This, the fourth edition, moves to the next level of modeling. Gwendolyn and Alan Shusterman’s 1997 Journal of Chemical Education article “Teaching Chemistry with Electron Density Models” described how models showing the results of molecular orbital calculations, especially electrostatic potential maps, could be used effectively in introductory courses. The software used to create the Shustermans’ models was Spartan, a product of Wavefunction, Inc. In a nutshell, the beauty of electrostatic potential maps is their ability to display the charge distribution in a molecule. At the most fundamental level, the forces that govern structure and properties in organic chemistry are the attractions between opposite charges and the repulsions between like charges. We were therefore optimistic that electrostatic potential maps held great promise for helping students make the connection between structure, especially electronic structure, and properties. Even at an early stage we realized that two main considerations had to guide our efforts. • An integrated approach was required. To be effective, Spartan models and the information they provide must be woven into, not added to, the book’s core. • The level of the coverage had to remain the same. Spartan is versatile. We used the same software package to develop this edition that is used in research laboratories worldwide. It was essential that we limit ourselves to only those features that clarified a particular point. Organic chemistry is challenging enough. We didn’t need to make it more difficult. If we were to err, it would therefore be better to err on the side of caution. A third consideration surfaced soon after the work began. • Student access to Spartan would be essential. Nothing could help students connect with molecular modeling better than owning the same software used to produce the text or, even better, software that allowed them not only to view models from the text, but also to make their own. All of this led to a fruitful and stimulating collaboration with Dr. Warren Hehre, a leading theoretical chemist and the founder, president, and CEO of Wavefunction, Inc. Warren was enthusiastic about the project and agreed to actively participate in it. He and Alan Shusterman produced a CD tailored specifically to NEW IN THIS EDITION ALL-NEW ILLUSTRATIONS All figures were redrawn to convey visual concepts clearly and forcefully. In addition, the author created a number of new images using the Spartan molecular modeling application. Now students can view electrostatic potential maps to see the charge distribution of a molecule in vivid color. These striking images afford the instructor a powerful means to lead students to a better understanding of organic molecules. FULL SPARTAN IMAGE INTEGRATION The Spartangenerated images are impressive in their own right, but for teaching purposes they are most effective when they are closely aligned with the text content. Because the author personally generated the images as he wrote this edition, the molecular models are fully integrated with text, and the educational value is maximized. Additionally, icons direct students to specific applications of either the SpartanView or SpartanBuild program, found on the accompanying CD-ROM. Appendix 3 provides a complete guide to the Learning By Modeling CD-ROM. ALL-NEW SPECTRA Chapter 13, Spectroscopy, was heavily revised, with rewritten sections on NMR and with all the NMR spectra generated on a high-field instrument. IMPROVED SUMMARIES The end-of-chapter summaries are recast into a more open, easier-to-read format, inspired by the popularity of the accompanying summary tables. NEW DESIGN This edition sports a new look, with an emphasis on neatness, clarity, and color carefully used to heighten interest and to create visual cues for important information. PREFACE xxvii accompany our text. We call it Learning By Modeling. It and Organic Chemistry truly complement each other. Many of the problems in Organic Chemistry have been written expressly for the model-building software SpartanBuild that forms one part of Learning By Modeling. Another tool, SpartanView, lets students inspect more than 250 already constructed models and animations, ranging in size from hydrogen to carboxypeptidase. We were careful to incorporate Spartan so it would be a true amplifier of the textbook, not just as a standalone tool that students might or might not use, depending on the involvement of their instructor. Thus, the content of the CD provides visual, three-dimensional reinforcement of the concepts covered on the printed page. The SpartanView icon invites students to view a molecule or animation as they are reading the text. Opportunities to use SpartanBuild are similarly correlated to the text with an icon directing students to further explore a concept or solve a modeling-based problem with the software. In addition to its role as the electronic backbone of the CD component and the integrated learning approach, the Spartan software makes a visible impact on the printed pages of this edition. I used Spartan on my own computer to create many of the figures, providing students with numerous visual explorations of the concepts of charge distribution. BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS AND THEIR INTEGRATION Comprehensive coverage of the important classes of biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, peptides, proteins, and nucleic acids) appears in Chapters 25–27. But biological applications are such an important part of organic chemistry that they deserve more attention throughout the course. We were especially alert to opportunities to introduce more biologically oriented material to complement that which had already grown significantly since the first edition. Some specific examples: • The new boxed essay “Methane and the Biosphere” in Chapter 2 combines elements of organic chemistry, biology, and environmental science to tell the story of where methane comes from and where it goes. • A new boxed essay, “An Enzyme-Catalyzed Nucleophilic Substitution of an Alkyl Halide,” in Chapter 8 makes a direct and simple connection between SN2 reactions and biochemistry. • Two new boxed essays, “How Sweet It Is!” in Chapter 25, and “Good Cholesterol? Bad Cholesterol? What’s the Difference?” in Chapter 26, cover topics of current interest from an organic chemist’s perspective. • The already-numerous examples of enzymecatalyzed organic reactions were supplemented by adding biological Baeyer-Villiger oxidations and fumaric acid dehydrogenation. Chapters 25–27 have benefited substantially from the Spartan connection. We replaced many of the artistrendered structural drawings of complex biomolecules from earlier editions with accurate models generated from imported crystallographic data. These include: • maltose, cellobiose, and cellulose in Chapter 25 • triacylglycerols in Chapter 26 • alanylglycine, leucine enkephalin, a pleated - sheet, an -helix, carboxypeptidase, myoglobin, DNA, and phenylalanine tRNA in Chapter 27 All of these are included on Learning By Modeling, where you can view them as wire, ball-and-spoke, tube, or space-filling models while rotating them in three dimensions. Both the text and Learning By Modeling include other structures of biological interest including: • a space-filling model of a micelle (Chapter 19) • electrostatic potential maps of the 20 common amino acids showing just how different the various side chains are (Chapter 27) SPECTROSCOPY Because it offers an integrated treatment of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared (IR), and ultravioletvisible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry (MS), Chapter 13 is the longest in the text. It is also the chapter that received the most attention in this edition. All of the sections dealing with NMR were extensively rewritten, all of the NMR spectra were newly recorded on a high-field instrument, and all of the text figures were produced directly from the electronic data files. Likewise, the IR and UV-VIS sections of Chapter 13 were revised and all of the IR spectra were recorded especially for this text. After being first presented in Chapter 13, spectroscopy is then integrated into the topics that follow it. The functional-group chapters, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 22, xxviii PREFACE and 24, all contain spectroscopy sections as well as examples and problems based on display spectra. INTEGRATION OF TOPICS Too often, in too many courses (and not just in organic chemistry), too many interesting topics never get covered because they are relegated to the end of the text as “special topic chapters” that, unfortunately, fall by the wayside as the end of the term approaches. We have, from the beginning and with each succeeding edition, looked for opportunities to integrate the most important of these “special” topics into the core material. I am pleased with the results. Typically, this integration is accomplished by breaking a topic into its component elements and linking each of those elements to one or more conceptually related core topics. There is, for example, no end-of-text chapter entitled “Heterocyclic Compounds.” Rather, heteroatoms are defined in Chapter 1 and nonaromatic heterocyclic compounds introduced in Chapter 3; heterocyclic aromatic compounds are included in Chapter 11, and their electrophilic and nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions described in Chapters 12 and 23, respectively. Heterocyclic compounds appear in numerous ways throughout the text and the biological role of two classes of them—the purines and pyrimidines—features prominently in the discussion of nucleic acids in Chapter 27. The economic impact of synthetic polymers is too great to send them to the end of the book as a separate chapter or to group them with biopolymers. We regard polymers as a natural part of organic chemistry and pay attention to them throughout the text. The preparation of vinyl polymers is described in Chapter 6, polymer stereochemistry in Chapter 7, diene polymers in Chapter 10, Ziegler–Natta catalysis in Chapter 14, and condensation polymers in Chapter 20. INTEGRATING THE CHEMISTRY CURRICULUM I always thought that the general chemistry course would be improved if more organic chemists taught it, and have done just that myself for the past nine years. I now see that just as general chemistry can benefit from the perspective that an organic chemist brings to it, so can the teaching and learning of organic chemistry be improved by making the transition from general chemistry to organic smoother. Usually this is more a matter of style and terminology than content—an incremental rather than a radical change. I started making such changes in the third edition and continue here. I liked, for example, writing the new boxed essay “Laws, Theories, and the Scientific Method” and placing it in Chapter 6. The scientific method is one thing that everyone who takes a college-level chemistry course should be familiar with, but most aren’t. It normally appears in Chapter 1 of general chemistry texts, before the students have enough factual knowledge to really understand it, and it’s rarely mentioned again. By the time our organic chemistry students get to “Laws, Theories, and the Scientific Method,” however, we have told them about the experimental observations that led to Markovnikov’s law, and how our understanding has progressed to the level of a broadly accepted theory based on carbocation stability. It makes a nice story. Let’s use it. FEWER TOPICS EQUALS MORE HELP By being selective in the topics we cover, we can include more material designed to help the student learn. Solved sample problems: In addition to a generous number of end-of-chapter problems, the text includes more than 450 problems within the chapters themselves. Of these in-chapter problems approximately one-third are multipart exercises that contain a detailed solution to part (a) outlining the reasoning behind the answer. Summary tables: Annotated summary tables have been a staple of Organic Chemistry ever since the first edition and have increased in number to more than 50. Well received by students and faculty alike, they remain one of the text’s strengths. End-of-chapter summaries: Our experience with the summary tables prompted us to recast the narrative part of the end-of-chapter summaries into a more open, easier-to-read format. SUPPLEMENTS For the Student Study Guide and Solutions Manual by Francis A. Carey and Robert C. Atkins. This valuable supplement provides solutions to all problems in the text. More than simply providing answers, most solutions guide the student with the reasoning behind each problem. In addition, each chapter of the Study Guide and Solutions Manual concludes with a Self-Test designed to assess the student’s mastery of the material. Online Learning Center At www.mhhe.com/carey, this comprehensive, exclusive Web site provides a wealth of electronic resources for PREFACE xxix instructors and students alike. Content includes tutorials, problem-solving strategies, and assessment exercises for every chapter in the text. Learning By Modeling CD-ROM In collaboration with Wavefunction, we have created a cross-function CD-ROM that contains an electronic model-building kit and a rich collection of animations and molecular models that reveal the interplay between electronic structure and reactivity in organic chemistry. Packaged free with the text, Learning By Modeling has two components: SpartanBuild, a user-friendly electronic toolbox that lets you build, examine, and evaluate literally thousands of molecular models; and SpartanView, an application with which you can view and examine more than 250 molecular models and animations discussed in the text. In the textbook, icons point the way to where you can use these state-of-the-art molecular modeling applications to expand your understanding and sharpen your conceptual skills. This edition of the text contains numerous problems that take advantage of these applications. Appendix 3 provides a complete guide to using the CD. For the Instructor Overhead Transparencies. These full-color transparencies of illustrations from the text include reproductions of spectra, orbital diagrams, key tables, computergenerated molecular models, and step-by-step reaction mechanisms. Test Bank. This collection of 1000 multiplechoice questions, prepared by Professor Bruce Osterby of the University of Wisconsin–LaCrosse, is available to adopters in print, Macintosh, or Windows format. Visual Resource Library. This invaluable lecture aid provides the instructor with all the images from the textbook on a CD-ROM. The PowerPoint format enables easy customization and formatting of the images into the lecture. The Online Learning Center, described in the previous section, has special features for instructors, including quiz capabilities. Please contact your McGraw-Hill representative for additional information concerning these supplements. A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S xxxi You may have noticed that this preface is almost entirely “we” and “our,” not “I” and “my.” That is because Organic Chemistry is, and always has been, a team effort. From the first edition to this one, the editorial and production staffs at WCB/McGraw-Hill have been committed to creating an accurate, interesting, studentoriented text. Special thanks go to Kent Peterson, Terry Stanton, and Peggy Selle for their professionalism, skill, and cooperative spirit. Linda Davoli not only copy edited the manuscript but offered valuable advice about style and presentation. GTS Graphics had the critical job of converting the copy-edited manuscript to a real book. Our contact there was Heather Stratton; her enthusiasm for the project provided us an unusual amount of freedom to fine-tune the text. I have already mentioned the vital role played by Warren Hehre and Alan Shusterman in integrating Spartan into this edition. I am grateful for their generosity in giving their time, knowledge, and support to this project. I also thank Dr. Michal Sabat of the University of Virginia for his assistance in my own modeling efforts. All of the NMR and IR spectra in this edition were recorded at the Department of Chemistry of James Madison University by two undergraduate students, Jeffrey Cross and Karin Hamburger, under the guidance of Thomas Gallaher. We are indebted to them for their help. Again, as in the three previous editions, Dr. Robert C. Atkins has been indispensable. Bob is the driving force behind the Study Guide and Solutions Manual that accompanies this text. He is much more than that, though. He reads and critiques every page of the manuscript and every page of two rounds of proofs. I trust his judgment completely when he suggests how to simplify a point or make it clearer. Most of all, he is a great friend. This text has benefited from the comments offered by a large number of teachers of organic chemistry who reviewed it at various stages of its development. I appreciate their help. They include Reviewers for the Fourth Edition Jennifer Adamski, Old Dominion University Jeffrey B. Arterburn, New Mexico State University Steven Bachrach, Trinity University Jared A. Butcher, Jr., Ohio University Barry Carpenter, Cornell University Pasquale R. Di Raddo, Ferris State University Jill Discordia, Le Moyne College William A. Donaldson, Marquette University Mark Forman, St. Joseph’s University Warren Giering, Boston University Benjamin Gross, University of Tennessee–Chattanooga R. J. Hargrove, Mercer University E. Alexander Hill, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee Shawn Hitchcock, Illinois State University L. A. Hull, Union College Colleen Kelley, Northern Arizona University Brenda Kesler, San Jose State University C. A. Kingsbury, University of Nebraska–Lincoln Francis M. Klein, Creighton University Paul M. Lahti, University of Massachusetts–Amherst Rita S. Majerle, South Dakota State University Michael Millam, Phoenix College Tyra Montgomery, University of Houston–Downtown Richard Narske, Augustana University Michael A. Nichols, John Carroll University Bruce E. Norcross, SUNY–Binghamton Charles A. Panetta, University of Mississippi Michael J. Panigot, Arkansas State University Joe Pavelites, William Woods College Ty Redd, Southern Utah University Charles Rose, University of Nevada Suzanne Ruder, Virginia Commonwealth University Christine M. Russell, College of DuPage Dennis A. Sardella, Boston College Janice G. Smith, Mt. Holyoke College Tami I. Spector, University of San Francisco Ken Turnbull, Wright State University Clifford M. Utermoehlen, USAF Academy Curt Wentrup, University of Queensland S. D. Worley, Auburn University Reviewers for the Third Edition Edward Alexander, San Diego Mesa College Ronald Baumgarten, University of Illinois–Chicago Barry Carpenter, Cornell University John Cochran, Colgate University xxxii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I. G. Csizmadia, University of Toronto Lorrain Dang, City College of San Francisco Graham Darling, McGill University Debra Dilner, U.S. Naval Academy Charles Dougherty, Lehman College, CUNY Fillmore Freeman, University of California–Irvine Charles Garner, Baylor University Rainer Glaser, University of Missouri–Columbia Ron Gratz, Mary Washington College Scott Gronert, San Francisco State University Daniel Harvey, University of California–San Diego John Henderson, Jackson Community College Stephen Hixson, University of Massachusetts–Amherst C. A. Kingsbury, University of Nebraska–Lincoln Nicholas Leventis, University of Missouri–Rolla Kwang-Ting Liu, National Taiwan University Peter Livant, Auburn University J. E. Mulvaney, University of Arizona Marco Pagnotta, Barnard College Michael Rathke, Michigan State University Charles Rose, University of Nevada–Reno Ronald Roth, George Mason University Martin Saltzman, Providence College Patricia Thorstenson, University of the District of Columbia Marcus Tius, University of Hawaii at Manoa Victoria Ukachukwu, Rutgers University Thomas Waddell, University of Tennessee–Chattanooga George Wahl, Jr., North Carolina State University John Wasacz, Manhattan College Finally, I thank my family for their love, help, and encouragement. The “big five” remain the same: my wife Jill, our sons Andy, Bob, and Bill, and daughter-inlaw Tasneem. They have been joined by the “little two,” our grandchildren Riyad and Ava. Comments, suggestions, and questions are welcome. Previous editions produced a large number of e-mail messages from students. I found them very helpful and invite you to contact me at: [email protected] Francis A. Carey
Introduction to Polymer Chemistry provides undergraduate students with a much-needed, well-rounded presentation of the principles and applications of natural, synthetic, inorganic, and organic polymers. With an emphasis on the environment and green chemistry and materials, this fourth edition continues to provide detailed coverage of natural and synthetic giant molecules, inorganic and organic polymers, elastomers, adhesives, coatings, fibers, plastics, blends, caulks, composites, and ceramics. Building on undergraduate work in foundational courses, the text fulfills the American Chemical Society Committee on Professional Training (ACS CPT) in-depth course requirement
Wenn es knallt und stinkt, dann ist Chemie im Spiel! "Chemie für Dummies" macht deutlich, dass Chemie nicht nur aus Formeln, sondern vor allem aus unzähligen interessanten Stoffen, Versuchen und Reaktionen besteht. In diesem etwas anderen Chemie-Buch lernen Sie die Grundlagen der Chemie kennen und erfahren, wo sich chemische Phänomene im Alltag bemerkbar machen. John T. Moore macht für Sie so schwer vorstellbare Begriffe wie Atom, Base oder Molekül begreiflich und zeigt, wie man mit dem Periodensystem umgeht. Mit Übungsaufgaben am Ende eines jeden Kapitels können Sie dann noch Ihr Wissen überprüfen.
The book provides a comprehensive and easily accessiblereference source covering all important aspects of particleadhesion and removal. The core objective is to cover bothfundamental and applied aspects of particle adhesion and removalwith emphasis on recent developments. Among the topics to be covered include: 1. Fundamentals of surface forces in particle adhesion andremoval. 2. Mechanisms of particle adhesion and removal. 3. Experimental methods (e.g. AFM, SFA,SFM,IFM, etc.) tounderstand particle-particle and particle-substrateinteractions. 4. Mechanics of adhesion of micro- and nanoscaleparticles. 5. Various factors affecting particle adhesion to a variety ofsubstrates. 6. Surface modification techniques to modulate particleadhesion. 7. Various cleaning methods (both wet & dry) for particleremoval. 8. Relevance of particle adhesion in a host of technologies rangingfrom simple to ultra-sophisticated.
Readers continue to turn to Klein's Organic Chemistry As a Second Language: Second Semester Topics, 4th Edition because it enables them to better understand fundamental principles, solve problems, and focus on what they need to know to succeed. The fourth edition explores the major principles in the field and explains why they are relevant. It is written in a way that clearly shows the patterns in organic chemistry so that readers can gain a deeper conceptual understanding of the material. Topics are presented clearly in an accessible writing style along with numerous hands-on problem solving exercises.
This book is about how students are taught the periodic table. It reviews aspects of the periodic table’s development, using the history and philosophy of science. The teaching method presented in this book is ideal for teaching the subject in high school and at introductory university level. Chemistry students taught in this new, experimental way are compared with those taught in the traditional way and the author describes how tests found more conceptual responses from the experimental group than the control group. The historical aspects of importance to this teaching method are: the role of the Karlsruhe Congress of 1860; the accommodation of the chemical elements in the periodic table; prediction of elements that were discovered later; corrections of atomic weights; periodicity in the periodic table as a function of the atomic theory; and the accommodation of argon. The experimental group of students participated in various activities, including: discussion of various aspects related to the history and philosophy of science; construction of concept maps and their evaluation by the students; PowerPoint presentations; and interviews with volunteer students.
Author: David Halliday,Robert Resnick,Jearl Walker
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Noch bessere Didaktik, noch mehr Beispiele, noch mehr Aufgaben, noch mehr Spaß - die Neuauflage des "Halliday" erfüllt alle Wünsche an ein zeitgemäßes Lehrbuch der Physik! Das Lehrbuch bietet den gesamten Stoff der einführenden Experimentalphysik-Vorlesungen für Hauptfachstudenten. Mehrere Kapitel wurden im Sinne der besseren Verständlichkeit komplett umgeschrieben, etwa zum Gauß'schen Satz und zum elektrischen Potential. Die Kapitel zur Quantenmechanik sind deutlich umfangreicher und behandeln nun die Schrödinger-Gleichung ausführlicher bis hin zur Reflexion von Materiewellen an Potentialstufen und der Schwarzkörperstrahlung. Doch für die dritte Auflage wurden die Kapitel nicht nur überarbeitet, sondern didaktisch neu strukturiert: die Lerninhalte sind nun in Modulen organisiert, wobei jede Einheit die Lernziele explizit aufführt und die Schlüsselkonzepte zusammenfasst. So können Studentinnen und Studenten zielgerichtet lernen und den Lernerfolg nach der Lektüre selbst überprüfen. Das selbstständige Lernen wird unterstützt durch rund 300 im Text durchgerechnete Beispiele, 250 Verständnis-Checks, mehr als 650 konzeptionelle Fragen sowie mehr als 2500 Aufgaben unterschiedlichen Schwierigkeitsgrads.
Douglas A. Skoog,F. James Holler,Stanley R. Crouch
Author: Douglas A. Skoog,F. James Holler,Stanley R. Crouch
Publisher: Springer Spektrum
Das Standard-Lehrbuchs zur Instrumentellen Analytik, begründet von Skoog und Leary, ist hiermit endlich wieder auf Deutsch verfügbar. Als stark erweiterte, komplett überarbeitete Ausgabe unterstützt es fortgeschrittene Studenten der Chemie an Universitäten und Hochschulen. Es berücksichtig die Anforderungen einer großen Vielfalt an Disziplinen, die ein Grundwissen in Analytischer Chemie benötigen, und richtet sich damit auch an Physiker, Ingenieure und Biochemiker. Das Buch führt aktuell und kompetent in die Grundzüge und Feinheiten der heutigen Instrumentellen Analytischen Chemie ein. Der Focus liegt in diesem Buch auf den theoretischen Grundlagen der diversen Gerätetypen, deren optimales Anwendungsgebiet, Empfindlichkeit und Präzision sowie deren Grenzen. Über 700 detailreiche, selbsterklärende Abbildungen, Anhänge zu Statistik und Elektronik, Übungsaufgaben mit Lösungen und viele wichtige Originalzitate ergänzen dieses moderne Lehrbuch für Studierende und Praktiker.
Die faszinierende Nahtoderfahrung eines Neurochirurgen
Author: Eben Alexander
Category: Body, Mind & Spirit
Eine spektakuläre Reise in das Leben nach dem Tod Was geschieht, wenn wir sterben? Gibt es ein Leben nach dem Tod? Fragen, die jeden Menschen berühren und die in diesem Buch auf revolutionäre Weise neu beantwortet werden. Mit 54 Jahren erkrankt der renommierte Neurochirurg und Harvard-Dozent Eben Alexander an einer extrem seltenen Form der Hirnhautentzündung. Er fällt ins Koma. Die Ärzte stellen fest, dass sein Gehirn irreparabel geschädigt ist, und prognostizieren sein baldiges Ende. Doch Eben Alexander kehrt ins Leben zurück – und gesundet innerhalb kurzer Zeit. Minutiös berichtet der Gehirnforscher, was er während des Komas durchlebte: Begleitet von einem Engelwesen taucht er ein in eine Welt ohne Zeit und Raum, in der sich ihm die göttliche Quelle allen Seins offenbart. Hier erfährt er: Wir alle sind Teil eines universalen, unsterblichen Bewusstseins.
Prepare for the SAT Chemistry test with the experts you trust! This step-by-step guide will give you the knowledge and tools you need to succeed on this challenging exam. You'll get essential skill-building techniques and strategies created and classroom-tested by a leading high school science teacher. You'll also get full-length practice tests, hundreds of sample questions, and all the facts about the current exam -- everything you need to do your best on test day! Features 5 full-length sample tests in the latest test format More than 500 practice questions Step-by-step review of all topics covered on the exam Teacher-recommended strategies to raise your score Special features: SAT Chemistry at a Glance, Top Items to Remember on Test Day, and more About the Author Thomas A. Evangelist teaches high school science for the New York City Board of Education.
Welcome to the fourth edition of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life. This chemistry text was written and designed to help you prepare for a career in a health-related profession, such as nursing, dietetics, respiratory therapy, and environmental and agricultural science. This text assumes no prior knowledge of chemistry. My main objective in writing this text is to make the study of chemistry an engaging and positive experience for you by relating the structure and behavior of matter to its role in health and the environment. This new edition introduces more problem-solving strategies, including new Concept Checks, more problem-solving guides, new Analyze the Problem features, conceptual and challenge problems, and new sets of combined problems. It is also my goal to encourage you become a critical thinker by understanding the scientific concepts with current issues concerning health and the environment. Thus, I have utilized materials that • motivate you to learn and enjoy chemistry • relate chemistry to careers that interest you • develop problem-solving skills that lead to your success in chemistry • promote your learning and success in your chosen career I hope that this textbook helps you discover exciting new ideas and gives you a rewarding Â�experience as you develop an understanding and appreciation of the role of chemistry in your life. New for the Fourth Edition New features have been added throughout this fourth edition, including the following: • All new chapter openers provide engaging stories that illustrate how Chemistry is used daily in contemporary professions. • New Analyze the Problem feature illustrates how to break down a word problem into the components required to solve a problem. • A new Chapter 1, Chemistry and Measurements, offers a comprehensive overview of introductory Chemistry and a study plan for learning the fundamentals. • Learning Goals are now included at the end of each chapter section with Questions and Problems to reinforce student retention of the main concepts. • Problems with high difficulty in MasteringChemistry were moved to the Challenge Problems sections or revised, while problems that received low assign values from professors nationwide were rewritten and improved to better support student learning throughout the course. Additionally, over 30 new tutorials specific to this text including activities incorporating Concept Maps will be available with Â�MasteringChemistry for the Fourth Edition. • Two new types of interest boxes, Chemistry Link to Industry and Chemistry Link to History, demonstrate connections between the chemical concepts and real events, then and now. • New Guides to Problem Solving include Using Concentration to Calculate Mass or Volume, Using Density, Writing Formulas with Polyatomic Ions, Using Half- Lives, Drawing Electron-Dot Formulas, Determination of Polarity of a Molecule, and Â�Calculating the Molar Mass of a Gas. • Chapter Reviews now include bulleted lists and thumbnail art samples related to the content of each section. • Statements in Guides to Problem Solving were rewritten and matched to steps of the corresponding Sample Problems. • Problems were rewritten and added to give matched sets of problems for each odd number and its following even number. Chapter-by-Chapter Changes to the Fourth Edition Chapter 1, “Chemistry and Measurements,” now introduces students to the concepts of chemicals and chemistry and asks students to develop a study plan for learning chemistry. Students learn measurement and the need to understand numerical structures of the metric system in the sciences. • The Chemistry Link to Health, “Bone Density,” has been updated to discuss changes in bone density with age and is now included in Chapter 1. • New Guide to Problem Solving, “Using Density,” uses color blocks as visual guides in the step-by-step solution pathway. • Content in Scientific Notation was rewritten to clarify the coefficient and the power of 10. • New photos added that include the standard kilogram, mass of a nickel, a virus, and ophthalmologist. • New material identifies exact and measured numbers and their significant figures within equalities and conversion factors. • New Sample Problem on percent body fat illustrates the use of a percent conversion factor as an equality and the formation of conversion factors. • New numbers added to Study Checks to match the Sample Problem numbers. • New problems added and problems paired to obtain similar content and questions. • More emphasis on metric (SI) units and removed some problems that used U.S. system units. Chapter 2, “Energy and Matter,” now looks at energy, temperature, classification of matter, states of matter, physical and chemical changes, and nutritional energy values. • The Chemistry Link to the Environment updates the content of “Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming.” • New Guide to Problem Solving, “Calculating Temperature,” was added. • New macro-to-micro art emphasizes the atomic level of compounds and changes of state. • New problems relating the burning of fuel to product Â�energy to light a light bulb were added while problems with heat of fusion, heat of vaporization, and multiple step calculations were deleted. Chapter 3, “Atoms and Elements,” looks at elements, atoms, subatomic particles, and atomic mass. The Periodic Table Â�emphasizes the numbering of groups from 1–18. • New element name and symbol Copernicium, Cn, was added to the periodic table. • New atomic number 117 was added to the periodic table. • New Chemistry Link to Industry, “Many Forms of Carbon,” was added, which describes four forms of carbon: diamond, graphite, buckminsterfullerene, and nanotubes. • New Chemistry Link to Health, “Elements Essential to Health,” was added, which describes the essential elements in an adult and the position of each on the periodic table. • New column added in Table 3.8, “Most Prevalent Isotope.” • New shapes of d orbitals added to Shapes of Orbitals. • Material on mass number in Section 3.4 was rewritten. • New Metallic Character text added to Section 3.8, Trends in Periodic Properties. • New problems added that compare metallic character of elements. • New summary of Trends in Periodic Properties added for valence electrons, atomic radius, ionization energy, and metallic character from top to bottom of a group and going left to right in a period. Chapter 4, “Nuclear Chemistry,” extends the concepts of subatomic particles, atomic number, and atomic mass to a discussion of the nucleus of radioisotopes including the positron. Nuclear equations are written and balanced for both naturally occurring and artificially produced radioisotopes. The topic of biological Â�effects of radiation is part of the chapter content. • New column “Type of Radiation” added to Â�Tables 4.7 and 4.8. • Increased the number of radioisotopes in Table 4.8. • New problems added on measuring activity of a radioisotope, positron equation balancing, and positron decay. • Updated to full symbols using mass number and atomic number in Sample Problems for balancing nuclear equations. • Updated art including alpha and beta radiation. • Placed bombarding particles at the beginning of nuclear equations involving bombardment. Chapter 5, “Compounds and Their Bonds,” describes how Â�atoms form ionic and covalent bonds in compounds. Students learn to write chemical formulas and to name ionic compounds—Â� including those with polyatomic ions—and covalent compounds. Students are introduced to the three-dimensional shape of molecules. The discussion of polyatomic ions, which includes more polyatomic ions, follows the formation of ionic compounds. The concept of resonance is discussed for the electron-dot formulas for compounds with multiple bonds. Electronegativity, bond polarity, and the shapes of molecules are discussed. Attractive Forces in Compounds compares the attractive forces between particles and their impact on physical properties and changes of state. • Updated/added Concept Checks to clarify understanding of concepts for problem solving including “Drawing Electron-Dot Formulas” and “Using Electronegativity to Determine the Polarity of Bonds.” • Revised Formation of Ions to emphasize the stability of electron configurations. • Updated/added art in ionic compounds with new colors for Na, Cl, Mg, and S, and to illustrate dispersion forces between two nonpolar molecules • Added more transition elements and their charges to Â�Table 5.5. • Reorganized polarity of molecules by presenting nonpolar molecules followed by polar molecules. • New guides “Writing Formulas with Polyatomic Ions,” “Determination of Polarity of a Molecule,” and “Drawing Electron-Dot Formulas,” were added. • New table “Typical Bonding Patterns of Some Nonmetals in Covalent Compounds” was added. • The discussion of exceptions to bonding patterns now Â�includes models of BCl3 and SF6. • Identification of molecular shape now emphasizes Â�electron-group geometry. • New wedge–dash notation was added to three-dimensional structures of methane and ammonia. Chapter 6, “Chemical Reactions and Quantities,” includes balancing chemical equations and classifying reaction types as combination, decomposition, single and double replacement, and combustion reactions. Calculations include the use of the mole, molar mass, and equation coefficients for problem solving involving mole and mass calculations for chemical reactions. • Updated colors for atoms of H, C, O, and N in models of compounds undergoing reactions. • New combustion reactions are now included in types of reactions. New problems were added for combustion to Questions and Problems. • New number line added to illustrate direction of change in oxidation or reduction. • Rewrote discussion of Oxidation and Reduction in Â�Biological Systems to relate Â�addition of O, loss of H, and loss of electrons to reduction with gain of H, loss of O, or gain of electrons. • New Concept Check, “Calculating Percent Yield,” was added. • Rewrote limiting reactant problems to improve success in problem solving. • Added list, “Three Conditions Required for a Reaction to Occur.” • Added tutorials include “Classifying Chemical Reactions by What Atoms Do,” “Signs of a Chemical Reaction,” “Limiting Reactant and Yield: Mole Calculations,” Â�“Limiting Reactant and Yield: Mass Calculations,” and “The Mole as a Counting Unit.” • Added “draw the formulas of reactants and products” to problems with visual reactants and products. • Added “predict products” of reactions to help students identify formation of products. Chapter 7, “Gases,” discusses the properties of a gas and asks the student to calculate changes in gases using the gas laws Â�including the Ideal Gas Law. • New/added Concept Checks for each of the gas laws and molar volume provide a conceptual transition between text information and problem solving. • New guide “Calculating the Molar Mass of a Gas” was added. • New gas properties that remain constant are now Â�included in gas Sample Problem solutions. • Gas problems were added that relate to real world gases or gas mixtures. Chapter 8, “Solutions,” describes solutions, solubility, saturation, concentrations, insoluble salts, and colligative properties. New problem-solving strategies clarify the use of concentration conversion factors to determine the volume of solution or mass of solute. The volumes and molarities of solutions are used to calculate product quantities in chemical reactions as well as in dilutions and titrations. • Combined percent concentrations and molarity in Â�Section 8.4 to give standard format for concentration calculations. • New table “Summary of Types of Concentration Expressions and Their Units” clarifies the types of units in percent concentrations and molarity. • New Sample Problem for volume/volume percent concentration was added. • New guide “Using Concentration to Calculate Mass or Volume,” was added. • New Explore Your World activity, “Preparing Rock Candy,” for students to experience an everyday saturated solution was added. • Placed dilution in a separate Section 8.5 “Dilution of Â�Solutions and Solution Reactions” that applies dilution to both percent and molarity solutions. • New Concept Check about freezing point changes was added. • New material and photo of the Alaskan Upis beetle that produces biological antifreeze to survive subfreezing environment. • Updated/added tables on concentration factors that combine percent and molarity, organize solution problem data, and identify the type of solution as well as updated the table “Solubility Rules for Ionic Solids in Water.” • New material was added on the function of electrolytes in the cells and organs of the body, Pedialyte, and the Â�impact of solute dissociation on freezing point lowering and boiling point elevation. Chapter 9, “Chemical Equilibrium,” looks at the rates of reactions and the equilibrium condition when forward and reverse rates for a reaction become equal. Equilibrium expressions for reactions are written and equilibrium constants are calculated. Le Châtelier’s principle is used to evaluate the impact on concentrations when a stress is placed on the system • New photo added to content and Sample Problems that illustrate a biological example of enzymes (catalysts) in laundry detergents. • Rewrote several problems to guide students through equilibrium concentration. • Converted old Figures 9.9 and 9.10 to unnumbered art and updated to show correct proportions of reactants and products at equilibrium. • Rewrote and updated Concept Checks and Sample Problems about concentration changes and equilibrium mixtures. • Moved old Figure 9.8 of SO2 and O2 to Section 9.2 to Â�illustrate reversible reactions and updated for more visuals on forward and reverse reactions reaching equilibrium. • Revised Section 9.5 to be more qualitative and less quantitative and added content on the effect of volume changes on equilibrium systems. • New art was added to illustrate Le Châtelier’s Principle to show how adding water to one side of two connected water tanks reaches equilibrium, how addition of reactant places stress on an equilibrium system and how the system responds to reduce stress, and how a container shows shifts in equilibrium conditions when the piston increases or decreases volume. Chapter 10, “Acids and Bases,” discusses acids and bases, Brønsted– Lowry acids and bases, and conjugate acid–base pairs. The dissociation of strong and weak acids and bases is related to their strengths as acids or bases. The ionization of water leads to the ionproduct constant of water, Kw, the pH scale, and the calculation of pH. Chemical equations for acids in reactions are balanced and titration of an acid is illustrated. Buffers are discussed along with their role in the blood. • New Concept Check and photo illustrates the ionization of calcium hydroxide in the preparation of hominy and grits. • New molecular models added to show atoms in carbonic acid, hydrogen carbonate, and carbonate ions, and atoms in formic acid and formate ion were added to illustrate their structures. • New photos added to show use of calcium carbonate added to farm crops to reduce acidity of the soil, the chemical Â�reaction of sodium bicarbonate with an acid and the products of carbon dioxide and a salt, calcium hydroxide as lime and dental filler, and how low dissociation of HF illustrates that hydrofluoric acid is a weak acid. • New art illustrates the parietal cells in the lining of the stomach that secrete gastric acid HCl in Chemistry Link to Health. • New guide “Calculating 3H3O+4 from pH” was added. • New list compares the effect of different ratios of 3H2PO4 - 4 > 3HPO4 2-4 on pH. Chapter 11, “Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes,” discusses the structure, nomenclature, and reactions of Â�alkanes. Guides to Problem Solving (GPS) clarify the rules for Â�nomenclature. The chapter provides an overview of each family of organic compounds and their functional groups and forms a Â�basis for understanding the biomolecules of living systems. • Information on oil spills was updated to include recent British Petroleum oil spill. • Updated colors for atoms of H, C, O, and N in models of compounds undergoing reactions. • New representations of atoms with updated colors were added to Table 11.8. • Updated and simplified the section and problems associated with Naming of Alkanes with Substituents. • Converted Sample Problem 11.3 to Concept Check 11.4 to provide more detail on how to distinguish between structural formulas that are isomers or the same molecule. • Updated the discussion of melting and boiling points of alkanes by adding analogies and photos of licorice sticks and tennis balls to illustrate impact of contact points on boiling points differences of straight-chain Â�alkanes and branched alkanes. • Changed Sample Problem 11.8 to Concept Check 11.7 in which students isolate functional groups in compounds and classify each class of compound. • Rewrote and highlighted functional groups in various classes of organic compounds to help students identify a group of atoms that is a functional group on an alkane chain. Chapter 12, “Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds,” Â�discusses alkenes and alkynes, cis–trans isomers, addition reactions, polymers of alkenes found in everyday items, and aromatic compounds. • Alkene examples were added to introductory paragraph. • Bond angles were added in illustration of alkene and Â�alkyne structures. • Added skeletal formulas to the table of alkanes, Â�alkenes, and alkynes, and added reactions for alkenes and alkynes. • Changed instruction from write to draw a condensed structural formula. • Color screens were added to Sample Problem 12.1 to clarify “Naming Alkenes and Alkynes.” • Rewrote material in Section 12.2 to highlight cis and trans positions of groups attached to carbons and double bonds and discussion of benzene structure stability. • New Concept Check 12.3, “Converting Formulas of Â�Alkenes to Cis and Trans Isomers,” illustrates how to draw groups in cis and trans isomers. • Added photos and formulas of aromatic compounds Chapter 13, “Alcohols, Phenols, Ethers, and Thiols,” Â�discusses structures, names, properties, and reactions of alcohols, phenols, thiols, and ethers. • New skeletal formulas for alcohols and ethers were added and the naming of alcohols was simplified. • Changed instruction from write to draw a condensed structural formula. • Moved classification of alcohols to Section 13.3. • Updated the “Guide to Naming Alcohols.” • New color screens were added to Sample Problems that named alcohols and phenols and IUPAC naming of ethers. • Rewrote Sample Problem 13.4, “Isomers of Alcohols and Ethers” including Study Check. • Reorganized Table 13.1 to include solubility and boiling points of some typical alcohols and ethers and to include the number of carbon atoms and condensed structural formula with up to five carbon atoms. • New Chemistry Link to Health, “Hand Sanitizers and Ethanol,” has been added. • Updated art in Oxidation of Alcohols to include level of oxidation of secondary alcohols. • New colors for H and O atoms involved in oxidation and reduction were used. Chapter 14, “Aldehydes, Ketones, and Chiral Molecules,” discusses the nomenclature and structures of aldehydes and Â�ketones. The discussion of Fischer projections, chiral molecules, and mirror images prepares students for the discussions on carbohydrates in Chapter 15. • New skeletal formulas for aldehydes and ketones were added. • Rewrote Sample Problem 14.3, “Boiling Point and Solubility.” • New problems on Tollens’ and Benedict’s reagents were added. • New glucose example was added to Chemistry Link to Health, “Some Important Aldehydes and Ketones.” • IUPAC names used for alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones in addition reactions. • Rewrote content on Drawing Fischer Projections and addition reactions that form hemiacetals and acetals. • New photos and mirror images for ibuprofen and naproxen were added. Chapter 15, “Carbohydrates,” applies the organic chemistry of alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones to carbohydrates, which relates the study of chemistry to health and medicine. • New art includes photo of iodine test for starch. • Converted green spheres in types of carbohydrates to more representative hexagon shapes. • Converted all CHO groups at top of Fischer projections to C“O and Hi. • Rewrote the descriptions of the glycosidic bonds in monosaccharides, the definitions of anomers and anomeric carbons, and Fischer projections for clarity. • Converted all open-chain structures to Fischer projections. • New discussion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) was included. • Updated Guide to Problem Solving and discussion in Sample Problem for “Drawing Haworth Structures.” • New color coding of iOH groups in open-chain and Haworth structures of d-glucose and of O in Â�carbonyl groups and free hydroxyl group to highlight differences in alpha and beta anomers of monosaccharides. • Described mutarotation for all the monosaccharides and disaccharides maltose and lactose. • Highlighted hemiacetal and acetal linkage in monosaccharides and disaccharides along with iOH groups in Â�alpha and beta anomers. • Ionized the structure of aspartame sweetener. • Rewrote Chemistry Link to Health, “Blood Types and Carbohydrates,” to clarify blood types and antigens. Chapter 16, “Carboxylic Acids and Esters,” discusses two more of the organic families that are important in biochemical systems. The chemical reactions discussed are most applicable to reactions in biochemical systems. • Updated art with proper atom colors of H, O, and C. • Rewrote “Guide to Naming Carboxylic Acids.” • New skeletal formulas and color-coded screens were added to Sample Problem 16.1, “Naming Carboxylic Acids.” • New photos of acetic acid crystals, facial with lactic acid, willow tree (aspirin), fingernail polish, aspirin, Â�Dacron clothing, grapes, strawberries, and raspberries were added. • Reworked naming for esters and turned all ester formulas to place acyl portion first. • New color coding screens were added to Sample Problem 16.6, “Naming Esters.” • New problems for structural isomers of carboxylic acids and esters were added. Chapter 17, “Lipids,” contains the functional groups of alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones in larger molecules such as triacylglycerols, glycerophospholipids, and steroids. • Updated melting points of fatty acids. • New Table 17.3 now compares similarities of organic and lipid reactions of esterification, hydrogenation, Â�hydrolysis, and saponification. • Redesigned the art for the structure of a glycerophospholipid. • New discussion of snake venom, which contains phospholipases, was added. • Updated/added art on the olestra structure and adrenal glands and kidneys. • Replaced Figure 17.10 with new art for lipoprotein transport of HDLs and LDLs Added new material in Chemistry Link to Health, Â�“Converting Unsaturated Fats to Saturated Fats: Â�Hydrogenation and Interesterification” and added a new Chemistry Link to Health, “Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome.” Chapter 18, “Amines and Amides,” emphasizes the nitrogen atom in their functional groups and their names. Alkaloids are discussed as the naturally occurring amines in plants. • Updated the “Guide to the IUPAC Naming of Amines.” • Rewrote Naming Compounds with Two Functional Groups to include names of amino substituents in alcohols, ketones, and carboxylic acid. • New tables added on summarizing the priority of naming in molecules with two functional groups and comparing melting points of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines. • New guide, “Naming Compounds with Two Functional Groups,” was added. • New Sample Problem, “IUPAC Names for Compounds with Two Functional Groups,” was added. • New photos include indigo related to aniline, Benadryl product for antihistamines, and Neo-Synephrine product. • New models of amines showing number of hydrogen bonds between molecules of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines and showing the number of hydrogen bonds for solubility of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines in water. • New section written on the role of amines in Neurotransmitters. • New art on structures of neurotransmitters and over-thecounter products. • New Questions and Problems and Additional Problems written on neurotransmitters. Chapter 19, “Amino Acids and Proteins,” discusses amino Â�acids, formation of proteins, structural levels of proteins, hydrolysis, and denaturation of proteins. • New one-letter abbreviations for amino acids were added to Table 19.2 and in problems. • New list of amino acids, R groups, polarity, and behavior in water was added. • Amino acids now drawn with bond line to H from a-C, and bond line from H to N. • Reactions of zwitterions in acids and bases are now separated into two equations. • Ammonium groups and carboxylate groups in amino Â�acids are now color coded. • New guide “Drawing a Peptide” has been added. • New Table 19.7 “Protein Denaturation” has been added. • Updated artwork of a prion to show both normal and Â�abnormal protein structures. • Updated myoglobin and hemoglobin structures to ribbon models. • New art added including ribbon models of proteins, structures of pentapeptide met-enkephalin, and ball-andstick models for some amino acids. Chapter 20, “Enzymes and Vitamins,” relates the importance of the three-dimensional shape of proteins to their function as Â�enzymes. The shape of an enzyme and its substrate is a factor in enzyme regulation. End products of an enzyme-catalyzed Â�sequence can increase or decrease the rate of an enzyme-Â� catalyzed reaction. Proteins change shape and lose function when subjected to pH changes and high temperatures. The Â�important role of water-soluble vitamins as coenzymes is Â�related to enzyme function. • Changed equation for carbonic anhydrase to CO2 + H2OhHCO3 - + H+. • Combined art of enzyme with new pullout art to give more detail of active site. • Added Enzyme–Product complex (EP complex) to Â�enzyme-catalyzed reactions. • New art added for enzyme-catalyzed reactions includes EP complex, enzymes using ribbon models to show Â�active site with substrate, and proenzymes of proteases. • New emphasis on the dynamic induced-fit model of substrate and active site. • Classification of Enzymes and Names was moved from Section 20.1 to Section 20.2 and shortened. Chapter 21, “Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis,” describes the nucleic acids and their importance as biomolecules that store and direct information for cellular components, growth, and reproduction. The role of complementary base pairing is highlighted in both DNA replication and the formation of mRNA during protein synthesis. Discussions include the Â�genetic code, its relationship to the order of amino acids in a protein, and how mutations can occur when the nucleotide sequence is altered. Recombinant DNA and viruses are also discussed. • New Table 21.1 summarizes the components in DNA and RNA; Table 21.6 summarizes steps in protein synthesis, site and materials, and process; and Table 21.7 summarizes the nucleotide and amino acid sequences in protein synthesis. • Section 21.3 now includes work of Rosalind Franklin on the DNA double helix. Chapter 22, “Metabolic Pathways for Carbohydrates,” Â�describes the stages of metabolism and the digestion of carbohydrates, our most important fuel. The breakdown of glucose to pyruvate is described using the glycolytic pathway, which is followed under aerobic conditions by the decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. The synthesis of glycogen and the synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources are discussed. • Updated Figure 22.1 for stages of metabolism, Figure 22.3 for ATP structure, Figure 22.4 using color blocks to show ADP + Pi forms ATP, and Figure 22.10 to use color blocks for ATP in glycolysis • New tables added to summarize enzymes and coenzymes in metabolic reactions: “Characteristics of Oxidation and Reduction in Metabolic Pathways” (Table 22.2) and Â�“Enzymes and Coenzymes in Metabolic Reactions” Â�(Table 22.3). • New color-coded art was added for structures of NAD and FAD in Figures 22.5 and 22.6. • New art in Figure 22.12 adds glucose structures for reactions for glycogenesis. Chapter 23, “Metabolic Pathways and Energy Production,” looks at the entry of acetyl-CoA into the citric acid cycle and the production of reduced coenzymes for electron transport, oxidative phosphorylation, and the synthesis of ATP. • Updated Figure 23.1 with new coding for components of citric acid cycle, Figure 23.3 to use same colors for components of the citric acid cycle, and Figures 23.5 and 23.7 to include complex notations and model of ATP synthase. • New overall equation at Complex I written as NADH + H+ + CoQhCoQH2 + NAD+. • Structure for oxidation/reduction of CoQ/CoQH2 now Â�included in Complex I discussion. • New ribbon model for cytochrome c was added. • Updated ATP formation at F1 and Fo ATP synthase sites. • Updated color screens for NADH, FADH2, and ATP. Chapter 24, “Metabolic Pathways for Lipids and Amino Acids,” discusses the digestion of lipids and proteins and the metabolic pathways that convert fatty acids and amino acids into energy. Discussions include the conversion of excess carbohydrates to triacylglycerols in adipose tissue and how the intermediates of the citric acid cycle are converted to nonessential amino acids. • Rewrote Mobilization of Fat Stores as Utilization of Fat Stores. • Updated discussion for Transport of Fatty Acids. • New chemical equations added for b-oxidation with the discussion of Reactions 1, 2, 3, and 4. • Replaced vertical representation of b-oxidation. • Changed fatty acids to give different fatty acids in text and in Questions and Problems. • Updated Figure 24.4 with new color coding for components of b-oxidation of capric acid and Figure 24.10 for carbon atoms from degraded amino acids. • Updated color screens for NADH, FADH2, and ATP. • New ribbon model of leptin added to Chemistry Link to Health, “Stored Fat and Obesity.” • Updated colors in Figures 24.8 and 24.12 to be consistent with earlier art of metabolic cycles. Instructional Package General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, fourth edition, provides an integrated teaching and learning package of support material for both students and professors. For Students Study Guideâ•‡â•‡ for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, fourth edition, by Karen Timberlake. This manual is keyed to the learning goals in the text, and designed to promote active learning through a variety of exercises with answers as well as practice tests. (ISBN 0321767020) Selected Solutions Manualâ•‡â•‡ for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, fourth edition, by Mark Quirie. This manual contains the complete solutions to the oddnumbered problems. (ISBN 0321767039) MasteringChemistry® (www.masteringchemistry.com)â•‡ â•‡ The most advanced, most widely used online chemistry tutorial and homework program is available for the fourth edition of General, Â�Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life. Â�MasteringChemistry® utilizes the Socratic Method to coach students through problem-solving techniques, offering hints, and simpler questions on request to help students learn, not just practice. A powerful gradebook with diagnostics that gives instructors unprecedented insight into their students’ learning is also available. For the Fourth Edition, 30 new tutorials have been created to guide students through the most challenging General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry topics and help them make connections between different concepts. Pearson eTextâ•‡â•‡ Pearson eText offers students the power to create notes, highlight text in different colors, create bookmarks, zoom, and view single or multiple pages. Â�Access to the Pearson eText for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, fourth edition, is available for purchase Â�either as a stand-alone item (ISBN 0321768701) or within MasteringChemistry® (ISBN 0321638697). Media Iconsâ•‡â•‡ in the margins throughout the text direct you to Â�tutorials within the Item Library and self-study activities and case studies in the Study Area located within MasteringChemistry® for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, fourth edition. Laboratory Manual for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry 2eâ•‡â•‡ by Karen Â�Timberlake. This best-selling lab Â�manual coordinates 42 experiments with the topics in General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, fourth edition; uses new terms during the lab; and explores chemical concepts. Laboratory investigations develop skills of manipulating equipment, reporting data, solving problems, making calculations, and drawing conclusions. (ISBN 0321695291) Essential Laboratory Manual for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry 2eâ•‡â•‡ by Karen Timberlake. This manual contains 25 experiments for the standard course sequence of topics in General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, fourth edition. (ISBN 0136055478) For Instructors MasteringChemistry® (www.masteringchemistry.com)â•‡â•‡ MasteringChemistry ® is the first adaptive-learning online homework and tutorial system. Instructors can create online assignments for their students by choosing from a wide range of items, including endof- chapter problems and research-enhanced tutorials. Assignments are automatically graded with Â�up-to-date diagnostic information, helping instructors pinpoint where students struggle Â�either individually or as a class as a whole. For the Fourth Edition, new tutorials have been created to guide students through the most challenging General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry topics and help them make connections between different concepts. Instructor Resource DVDâ•‡â•‡ This DVD includes all the art and tables from the book in JPG format for use in classroom projection or creating study materials and tests. In addition, the instructor can access the PowerPoint™ lecture outlines, featuring over 2000 slides. Also available on the discs are downloadable files of the Instructor Solutions Manual, a set of “clicker questions” suitable for use with classroom-response systems, and the test bank. (ISBN 0321638700) Instructor Solutions Manualâ•‡â•‡ Prepared by Mark Quirie, this manual highlights chapter topics and includes suggestions for the laboratory. Contains complete solution setups and answers to all problems in the text. (ISBN 0321767292) Printed Test Bankâ•‡â•‡ Prepared by Bill Timberlake, this test bank contains over 2000 questions in multiple-choice, matching, true– false, and short-answer format. (ISBN 0321767306) Online Instructor Manual to Laboratory Manualâ•‡â•‡ Contains Â�answers to report pages for the Laboratory Manual and Essential Laboratory Manual. (ISBN 0321751035) Also visit the Pearson Education catalog page for Timberlake’s General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life, fourth edition, at www.pearsonhighered.com to download available instructor supplements. Acknowledgments The preparation of a new edition is a continuous effort of many people. As in my work on other textbooks, I am thankful for the support, encouragement, and dedication of many people who put in hours of tireless effort to produce a high-quality book that provides an outstanding learning package. The editorial team at Pearson has done an exceptional job. I want to thank Adam Â�Jaworski, editor in chief, and executive editor, Jeanne Zalesky, who supported my vision of this fourth edition and the addition of the new Analyze the Problem feature; more Guides to Problem Solving; new Chemistry Links to Health, History, Â�Industry, and the Environment; new learning goals with section questions and problems; thumbnails in Chapter Review; matched problem sets; and an updated art program. I am in awe and much appreciate all the wonderful work of Jessica Â�Neumann, associate editor, who was like an angel encouraging me at each step while skillfully Â�coordinating Â�reviews, art, website materials, and all the things it takes to make a book come together. I appreciate the work of Beth Sweeten, project manager, and Andrea Stefanowicz of Â�PreMediaGlobal, who brilliantly coordinated all phases of the manuscript to the final pages of a beautiful book. Thanks to Mark Quirie and Vincent Dunlap, manuscript reviewers and Â�accuracy checkers, and Denise Rubens, copy editor, who precisely reviewed and edited the manuscript to make sure the words and problems were correct to help students learn chemistry. Their keen eyes and thoughtful comments were extremely helpful in the development of this text. I am especially proud of the art program in this text, which lends beauty and understanding to chemistry. I would like to thank Connie Long and Derek Bacchus, art director and book designer, whose creative ideas provided the outstanding Â�design for the cover and pages of the book. Eric Schrader, photo Â�researcher, was invaluable in researching and selecting vivid photos for the text so that students can see the beauty of chemistry. Thanks also to Bio-Rad Laboratories for their courtesy and use of KnowItAll Â�ChemWindows, drawing software that helped me produce chemical structures for the manuscript. The macro-to-micro illustrations designed by Production Solutions and Precision Graphics give students visual impressions of the atomic and molecular organization of everyday things and are a fantastic learning tool. I want to thank Denne Wesolowski for the hours of proofreading all the pages. I also appreciate all the hard work in the field put in by the marketing team and Erin Gardner, marketing manager. I am extremely grateful to an incredible group of peers for their careful assessment of all the new ideas for the text; for their suggested additions, corrections, changes, and deletions; and for providing an incredible amount of feedback about Â�improvements for the book. In addition, I appreciate the time scientists took to let us take photos and discuss their work with them. I admire and appreciate every one of you. If you would like to share your experience with chemistry or have questions and comments about this text, I would appreciate hearing from you. Karen Timberlake Email: [email protected]
This modern textbook stands out from other standard textbooks. The framework for the learning units is based on fundamental principles of inorganic chemistry, such as symmetry, coordination, and periodicity. Specific examples of chemical reactions are presented to exemplify and demonstrate these principles. Numerous new illustrations, a new layout, and large numbers of exercises following each chapter round out this new edition.
Continuing the exceptional tradition of the previous editions, Quantum Mechanics, Fourth Edition provides essential information about atomic and subatomic systems and covers some modern applications of the field. Supported by a Web page that contains a bibliography, color versions of some of the illustrations, and links to other relevant sites, the book shows how cutting-edge research topics of quantum mechanics have been applied to various disciplines. It first demonstrates how to obtain a wave equation whose solutions determine the energy levels of bound systems. The theory is then made more general and applied to a number of physical examples. Later chapters describe the connection between relativity and quantum mechanics, give some examples of how quantum mechanics has been used in information processing, and, finally, discuss the conceptual and philosophical implications of the subject. New to the Fourth Edition: A chapter on quantum information processing that includes applications to the encryption and de-encryption of coded messages A chapter on relativistic quantum mechanics and introductory quantum field theory Updated material on the conceptual foundations of quantum physics containing discussions of non-locality, hidden variables, and parallel universes Expanded information on tunneling microscopy and the Bose-Einstein condensate Presenting up-to-date information on the conceptual and philosophical aspects of quantum mechanics, this revised edition is suitable both for undergraduates studying physics, chemistry, or mathematics and for researchers involved in quantum physics.