Author: Klaus Ambos-Spies,Steven Homer,Uwe Schoening
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This volume brings together the recent research of a group of the invited participants in the workshop on Structure and Complexity Theory held in Dagstuhl, Germany in February 1992. The aim of the meeting was to present and discuss new developments in central, active areas of complexity theory and to formulate future goals and research directions. The eleven articles collected in this volume reflect the state of the art in complexity theory and provide a current view of the work of some of its strongest researchers.
Modern cryptology increasingly employs mathematically rigorous concepts and methods from complexity theory. Conversely, current research topics in complexity theory are often motivated by questions and problems from cryptology. This book takes account of this situation, and therefore its subject is what may be dubbed "cryptocomplexity'', a kind of symbiosis of these two areas. This book is written for undergraduate and graduate students of computer science, mathematics, and engineering, and can be used for courses on complexity theory and cryptology, preferably by stressing their interrelation. Moreover, it may serve as a valuable source for researchers, teachers, and practitioners working in these fields. Starting from scratch, it works its way to the frontiers of current research in these fields and provides a detailed overview of their history and their current research topics and challenges.
Während die Kryptologie Konzepte und Methoden aus der Komplexitätstheorie verwendet, ist die Forschung in der Komplexitätstheorie wiederum oft durch Fragen aus der Kryptologie motiviert. Der Band hebt die enge Verflechtung dieser beiden Gebiete hervor und führt auf verständlicher Weise in das faszinierende Gebiet der „Kryptokomplexität" ein. Das Buch enthält zahlreiche Abbildungen und Übungsaufgaben sowie ein ausführliches Stichwort- und Literaturverzeichnis. Es eignet sich für Studierende der Informatik, Mathematik oder Ingenieurswissenschaften.
Although chaos theory refers to the existence between seemingly random events, it has been gaining the attention of science, technology and managements fields. The shift from traditional procedures to the dynamics of chaos and complexity theory has resulted in a new element of complexity thinking, allowing for a greater capability for analyzing and understanding key business processes. Chaos and Complexity Theory for Management: Nonlinear Dynamics explores chaos and complexity theory and its relationship with the understanding of natural chaos in the business environment. Utilizing these theories aids in comprehending the development of businesses as a complex adaptive system.
Computational complexity theory is the study of the quantitative laws that govern computing. During the last 25 years, this field has grown into a rich mathematical theory. Currently one of the most active research areas in computer science, complexity theory is of considerable interest to mathematicians as well, since some of the key open problems in this field raise basic questions about the nature of mathematics. Many experts in complexity theory believe that, in coming decades, the strongest influence on the development of mathematics will come from the extended use of computing and from concepts and problems arising in computer science.This volume contains the proceedings of the AMS Short Course on Computational Complexity Theory, held at the Joint Mathematics Meetings in Atlanta in January 1988. The purpose of the short course was to provide an overview of complexity theory and to describe some of the current developments in the field. The papers presented here represent contributions by some of the top experts in this burgeoning area of research.
This volume provides a survey of the subject in the form of a collection of articles written by experts, that together provides a comprehensive guide to research. The editors'aim has been to provide an accessible description of the current stae of complexity theory, and to demonstrate the breadth of techniques and results that make this subject so exciting. Thus, papers run the gamut from sublogarithmic space to exponential time, and from new combinatorial techniques to interactive proof systems.
Complexity as a paradigm has been underutilized by social work, but this cutting-edge pocket guide makes a convincing argument for its use. Every agency worker has been faced with a deluge of records, making it difficult to grasp onto structures and trends undergirding behavior. Complexity theory studies the interactions of competitive and cooperative tendencies of agents such as individuals, families, groups, or communities, making the case that there is a hidden order in things that are seemingly chaotic. Exploring their interactions involves identifying a set of simple rules that the agents follow, revealing patterns that emerge without a predetermined template. Readers will learn how to frame their research using the components found in complex systems by using their existing knowledge of research methods and applying basic mathematical concepts. Concepts such as bordering between chaos and equilibrium, diverse perspectives, diverse heuristics, robustness, and wisdom of crowds are considered and applied to social work research studies. Basic introductions on game theory, graph theory, Boolean logic, decision theory, and network science provide the necessary mathematical background for understanding interconnectedness and networking. The next part of the book is a hands-on guide to the agent-based modeling software NetLogo. By inputting initial parameters and rules, the outputted models provide valuable information for visualizing unintended consequences, including how conflict can foster cooperation and how threats to a social network can improve the network's robustness and resiliency. The result is both a user-friendly introduction to using complexity theory in a socio-environmental context and a framework that provides an overarching structure for investigating process, outcomes, and the collective behavior of groups.
As an important research field in mathematics, chaos theory impacts many different disciplines such as physics, engineering, economics, and biology. Most recently, however, chaos theory has also been applied to the social sciences, helping to explain the complex and interdependent nature of international politics. Chaos and Complexity Theory in World Politics aims to bring attention to new developments in global politics within the last few years. Demonstrating various issues in international relations and the application of chaos theory within this field, this publication serves as an essential reference for researchers and professionals, as well as useful educational material for academicians and students.
The concept of “chaos”, and chaos theory, though it is a field of study specifically in the field of mathematics with applications in physics, engineering, economics, management, and education, has also recently taken root in the social sciences. As a method of analyzing the way in which the digital age has connected society more than ever, chaos and complexity theory serves as a tactic to tie world events and cope with the information overload that is associated with heightened social connectivity. The Handbook of Research on Chaos and Complexity Theory in the Social Sciences explores the theories of chaos and complexity as applied to a variety of disciplines including political science, organizational and management science, economics, and education. Presenting diverse research-based perspectives on mathematical patterns in the world system, this publication is an essential reference source for scholars, researchers, mathematicians, social theorists, and graduate-level students in a variety of disciplines.
Contributions by eminent scholars from around the globe provide analysis of complexity in learning environments from a cognitive perspective and offer suggestions for educational practice and future research on complexity.
The proceedings of the 2017 Symposium on Chaos, Complexity and Leadership illuminate current research results and academic work from the fields of physics, mathematics, education, economics, as well as management and social sciences. The text explores chaotic and complex systems, as well as chaos and complexity theory in view of their applicability to management and leadership. This proceedings explores non-linearity as well as data-modelling and simulation in order to uncover new approaches and perspectives. Effort will not be spared in bringing theory into practice while exploring leadership and management-laden concepts. This book will cover the analysis of different chaotic developments from different fields within the concepts of chaos and complexity theory. Researchers and students in the field will find answers to questions surrounding these intertwined and compelling fields.
An Overview with Implications to Urban Planning and Design
Author: Juval Portugali,Han Meyer,Egbert Stolk,Ekim Tan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Today, our cities are an embodiment of the complex, historical evolution of knowledge, desires and technology. Our planned and designed activities co-evolve with our aspirations, mediated by the existing technologies and social structures. The city represents the accretion and accumulation of successive layers of collective activity, structuring and being structured by other, increasingly distant cities, reaching now right around the globe. This historical and structural development cannot therefore be understood or captured by any set of fixed quantitative relations. Structural changes imply that the patterns of growth, and their underlying reasons change over time, and therefore that any attempt to control the morphology of cities and their patterns of flow by means of planning and design, must be dynamical, based on the mechanisms that drive the changes occurring at a given moment. This carefully edited post-proceedings volume gathers a snapshot view by leading researchers in field, of current complexity theories of cities. In it, the achievements, criticisms and potentials yet to be realized are reviewed and the implications to planning and urban design are assessed.
This book brings together contributions by leading researchers in computational complexity theory written in honor of Somenath Biswas on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday. They discuss current trends and exciting developments in this flourishing area of research and offer fresh perspectives on various aspects of complexity theory. The topics covered include arithmetic circuit complexity, lower bounds and polynomial identity testing, the isomorphism conjecture, space-bounded computation, graph isomorphism, resolution and proof complexity, entropy and randomness. Several chapters have a tutorial flavor. The aim is to make recent research in these topics accessible to graduate students and senior undergraduates in computer science and mathematics. It can also be useful as a resource for teaching advanced level courses in computational complexity.
Author: William E. Doll,M. Jayne Fleener,John St. Julien
Publisher: Peter Lang
Although the fields of chaos and complexity are important in a number of disciplines, they have not yet been influential in education. This book remedies this dilemma by gathering essays by authors from around the world who have studied and applied chaos and complexity theories to their teaching. Rich in its material, recursive in its interweaving of themes, conversational in its relationships, and rigorous in its analysis, the book is essential reading for undergraduates, graduate students, and professionals who deal with these important topics.
Aus dem Amerikanischen übersetzt und mit einem Nachwort von Werner Raub und Thomas Voss
Author: Robert Axelrod
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Wie ist Kooperation möglich in einer Welt von Egoisten, in der es keine zentrale Autorität gibt? Axelrod entwickelt aus der Spieltheorie - auf der Basis des "Gefangenendilemmas" - eine verblüffende Lösung. Nicht die raffinierteste, auch nicht die aggressivste, nicht die sanfteste Strategie sichert langfristig Erfolg, sondern die grundsätzlich wohlwollende, aber stets vergeltungsbereite: TIT FOR TAT, "wie Du mir, so ich Dir". Axelrod schließt daraus, dass in der globalen arbeitsteiligen Wirtschaftsweise geradezu ein innerer Zwang zur Kooperation besteht. Gewinnbringende Kooperationen sind für Unternehmen nützlicher als blinder Wettbewerb.
This book covers the proceedings from the 2016 International Symposium on Chaos, Complexity and Leadership, and reflects current research results of chaos and complexity studies and their applications in various fields. Included are research papers in the fields of applied nonlinear methods, modeling of data and simulations, as well as theoretical achievements of chaos and complex systems. Also discussed are leadership and management applications of chaos and complexity theory.
In this Very Short Introduction, John Holland presents an introduction to the science of complexity. Using examples from biology and economics, he shows how complexity science models the behaviour of complex systems.
Psycholinguistic Evidence from L2 Learners of English
Author: Annalisa Baicchi
This book presents the current state of the art on Construction Grammar models and usage-based language learning research. It reports on three psycholinguistic experiments conducted with the participation of university-level Italian learners of English, whose second language proficiency corresponds to levels B1 and B2 of the ‘Common European Framework of Reference for Languages’ (CEFR). This empirical research on the role of constructions in the facilitation of language learning contributes to assessing how bilinguals deal with L2 constructions in the light of sentence-sorting, sentence-elicitation, and sentence-completion tasks. Divided into two parts, the book first introduces the main theoretical prerequisites and then reports on the experimental studies. It provides a comprehensive review of the current research in a range of disciplines, including complexity theories, cognitive semantics, construction grammars, usage-based linguistics, and language learning.
Tourism studies often deal with complex mixes of external and local factors and the attitudes, perceptions and actions of tourists themselves. In seeking to understand individual elements of this mix, or the results of interactions between them, tourism authorities, managers and researchers often collect quantitative data, but until now the few existing guides to understanding quantitative data have been either very simple or very complicated. This book provides a guide to dealing with real-world data and goes beyond the methods usually covered in introductory textbooks. The first part considers key issues associated with using well known methods to produce valid and reliable models of real-world phenomena, emphasizing issues in data selection, approaches to factor and cluster analysis, and mathematical modelling using regression methods (including logistic regression) and structural equation modelling. The second part covers new approaches to modelling: maximum likelihood estimation, simulation and agent-based modelling. Each chapter includes extensive references to additional reading, and an appendix summarises the software introduced in the book. The book provides many practical examples of applications to tourism research, considers practical issues associated with application of quantitative techniques, and discusses common pitfalls and how to identify and remedy them. The result is a guide to quantitative methods in tourism that de-mystifies both simple and apparently complex techniques and makes them more accessible to tourism researchers.