Also available as an e-book Competence-competence and corruption have, for different reasons, been mainstays of international dispute resolution thought and practice for the longest time. In the last few years, their intersection has become increasingly important and problematic. These lectures seek to define the problem and to provide acceptable solutions where possible. They attempt to derive support from both a stringent dogmatic approach and pragmatic attention to real-life expectations and conduct. More so than in other areas of private international law, the intersection between the powers of the arbitrator and the illegality of the subject matter or the parties’ conduct poses a particular challenge. That challenge is to postulate proper solutions under the law, including principles of transnational or international law, to conduct which can take on a multiplicity of appearances owing to conflicting cultural understandings of what is and is not legal in commercial life. The statement that bribery and corruption offend transnational or international public policy does not relieve the arbitrator from the burden of scrutinizing that statement doctrinally and exploring its consequences in a period of ever-increasing globalization of economic activity and investment.
International arbitral and judicial awards are of considerable importance, for they are a "subsidiary means for the determination of the rules of law" as provided in Article 38 of the Statute of the International Court of Justice. They are also important from the point of view of the progressive development of international law, a task which Article 13 of the Charter places under the responsibility of the General Assembly of the United Nations. This Volume XXVI contains decisions of the Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission as well as additional decisions of the Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission.
The Collection of ICC Arbitral Awards 1996-2000 contains extracts of cases handled by the ICC Court of Arbitration, one of the world's most respected arbitral institutions. This most recent collection supplements three previous and successful volumes containing awards from the periods 1974-1985, 1986-1990 and 1991-1995. This collection is a practical reference tool, containing three types of useful indexes incorporating information from all three volumes: - A consolidated analytical table, in both English and French, contains extensive cross-references based on the terminology used in awards and case notes; - A chronological index lists the awards - A key word index, also provided in both languages, allows the reader to locate the material of interest quickly and easily In addition to providing a wealth of information in a highly accessible manner, this book includes case notes and expert commentaries of the awards. This publication is an indispensable reference work for anyone interested in international arbitration and in the reasoning of international arbitrators on the interpretation and application of contractual clauses, international conventions, and the law of international trade. It is invaluable to both scholars and practitioners involved in the drafting and negotiation of international commercial contracts and the resolution of international commercial disputes.
The book aims to explore the remedy of damages in international sales transactions. Its focus is on the international contract law instruments such as the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG), the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts, and the Principles of European Contract Law. The issues addressed in the book include: the basis for the right to claim damages, definition and purpose of damages, the idea of limiting damages, principles underlying the award of damages, classification of losses and heads of recoverable losses, causation, foreseeability, mitigation, standards of proving losses and methods of calculating and determining the amount of damages. The book draws on the experience of some major legal systems in dealing with contract damages as well as on the body of cases and scholarly writings on the international instruments. In doing so, the book attempts to provide a justification for the existing rules on damages, highlights the problems in their interpretation and application, and proposes solutions to the existing problems in the light of relevant policies and goals pursued by the international instruments. The work will be of interest to practitioners involved in international commercial transactions, scholars and students interested in international commercial and comparative contract law.
Structured in two parts, part one examines the doctrine of res judicata in domestic and international litigation whilst part two determines whether and how the res judicata doctrine may be applied by international commercial arbitral tribunals. Dr Schaffstein identifies situations in which res judicata issues are likely to arise before international commercial arbitral tribunals and provides serviceable solutions. The book presents the keyfeatures of the doctrine of res judicata in the laws of England, the United States, France, and Switzerland, i.e. major representatives of the common law system on the one hand and the civil law system on the other hand.The book also presents the doctrine of res judicata in the context of private international law, alongside its crucial aspects and application in public international law by international courts and tribunals.
Over the past twenty years, the volume of international litigation and arbitration has increased exponentially. As the number of new international courts and tribunals has proliferated, the diversity and volume of advocates appearing before the international courts has also increased. With this increase, the ethical standards that apply to counsel have become a growing field of interest to practitioners of public international law. Problems threatening the integrity of the international judicial process and concerns about divergent ethical standards amongst counsel have multiplied in the international judicial system, prompting early attempts by senior members of the 'international bar' to articulate common ethical standards. Professional Ethics at the International Bar examines the question of how to articulate common ethical standards for counsel appearing before international courts and tribunals, and the legal powers and practical ability of international courts to prescribe and enforce such standards. It conducts original research into both the theory and practice of the issues arising from this nascent process of professionalization. Using various sources, including interviews with judges, registrars, and senior practitioners, it argues that the professionalization of advocacy through the articulation of common ethical standards is both desirable and feasible in order to protect the integrity and fairness of the international judicial process.
Examining the notion, nature, and extent of consent in both commercial arbitration and investment arbitration, this book provides practitioners and academics with a thorough, case-related analysis of an issue which raises many questions. Whilst considering the evolution of arbitration and its consensual nature - enlargement of the parties' freedom to consent to arbitration, and development from commercial arbitration to investment arbitration - it addresses important theoretical questions to offer practical solutions. These include: how consent to arbitrate is expressed and when mutual consent to arbitration is reached; which law shall govern the arbitration agreement or, more particularly, consent as an element of the substantive validity of it; and, conversely, according to which law will a possible lack of consent be judged; how consent should be interpreted; which relationship exists between consent as part of the substantive validity of an arbitration agreement and its formal validity; which, if any, are the implied terms when consenting to arbitration; how consent to arbitrate influences procedural aspects (counterclaims, joinder, consolidation), and which solutions adopted by treaties, national laws or arbitration rules are, or would be, the most respectful of parties' consent in this respect; what in investment arbitration is the relationship between consent and most-favoured-nation clauses or the influence of umbrella clauses. The book includes original arguments and puts forward new suggestions with regard to the changeable consensual character of arbitration. It also provides a particular focus on problems that frequently arise in practice of international arbitration, for example issues related to complex multiparty arbitration and to jurisdictional questions in investment arbitration.
Author: Elliott Geisinger ,Elena Trabaldo – de Mestral
Publisher: Juris Publishing, Inc.
Sports Arbitration: A Coach for Other Players? is not about sports arbitration. The reader may thus ask: Well, what is it about? Arbitration can take inspiration from other human activities, for instance sports. Does it follow that arbitration in general can take inspiration from sports arbitration? Can sports arbitration serve as an example, be it for better or worse? And if so, what are the limits of this? These questions are highly topical in today's world of arbitration. Faced with the increased duration and costs of arbitral proceedings, and with the perception that litigators instead of business people have taken over the process, more and more users are calling for a return to fast, inexpensive forms of dispute resolution that are conducted by persons of the trade. This has resulted in a series of initiatives to introduce trade-specific forms of dispute resolution based on fast-track arbitration proceedings in a wide range of business sectors.
Martijn W. Hesselink,Jacobien W. Rutgers,Odavia Bueno Diaz,Manolo Scotton,Muriel Veldman
Author: Martijn W. Hesselink,Jacobien W. Rutgers,Odavia Bueno Diaz,Manolo Scotton,Muriel Veldman
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
The rules presented in this volume of "Principles of European Law" deal with commercial agency, franchise and distribution contracts, and with other contracts where one party uses the other party's skill and efforts to bring its products to the market. Although these Principles are not directly applicable to other long-term (commercial) contracts, some of the Articles may be applied to such contracts by way of analogy where appropriate. The economic function of all three contracts is that they are instrumental in bringing products to the market. They are so-called vertical agreements, as they are agreements between economic actors on different levels in the production and distribution chain. Obviously, the economic importance of these contracts is enormous since they form the connection between producers and retailers who sell the products to consumers and other final users. There are only very few economic sectors where producers regularly sell their products directly to final consumer users. Goodwill compensation after the ending of a distribution contract, the moment at which the agent's commission is due, the franchisor's obligation to maintain the good reputation of the network are but a few examples of issues where specific rules are needed in order to give legal practice some guidance and to provide practitioners with a reasonable degree of legal certainty.
Denial of justice is one of the oldest bases of liability in international law and the modern understanding of denial of justice is examined by Paulsson in this book, which was originally published in 2005. The possibilities for prosecuting the offence of denial of justice have evolved in fundamental ways and it is now settled law that States cannot disavow international responsibility by arguing that their courts are independent of the government. Even more importantly, the doors of international tribunals have swung wide open to admit claimants other than states: non-governmental organisations, corporations and individuals, and Paulsson examines several recent cases of great importance in his book.
Oxford University Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities
Author: University of Oxford. Faculty of Law
Publisher: Hart Pub Limited
There are two golden rules for the citation of legal authorities. One is consistency. The other is consideration for the reader. Legal writing is more persuasive when the author refers to legal materials in a clear, consistent and familiar way. The Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA) helps authors to achieve consistency in citing cases, legislation and secondary sources. And it helps authors to make life easier for their readers.OSCOLA is widely used by law schools and legal publishers both in the United Kingdom and abroad. This latest revision of OSCOLA (the fourth edition) is the first to be published in hard copy, and provides more detailed coverage of both primary and secondary legal sources.The editors are Donal Nolan and Sandra Meredith.Shortlisted for the Halsbury Legal Awards 2013 in the Award for Academic Contribution category.
International arbitration law readily lends itself to a legal theory analysis. The fundamentally philosophical notions of autonomy and freedom are at the heart of its field of study. Similarly essential are the questions of legitimacy raised by the parties' freedom to favor a private form of dispute resolution over national courts, to choose their judges, to tailor the procedure as they deem appropriate, and to determine the rules of law that will govern the dispute even where the chosen rules are not those of a given legal system, as well as by the arbitrators' freedom to determine their own jurisdiction, to shape the conduct of the proceedings and, in the absence of an agreement among the parties, to choose the rules applicable to the merits of the dispute. The present work, which is based on a Course given at The Hague Academy of International Law in the Summer of 2007, seeks to identify the philosophical postulates that underlie this field of study, to show their profound coherence and the practical consequences that follow from these postulates in the resolution of international disputes.
This new and updated English language edition of an acclaimed French language text guides practitioners through the international arbitration process from beginning to end. It covers each step of arbitral procedure, from the conclusion of the arbitration agreement to the enforcement of the arbitral award, from a comparative standpoint, helping practitioners decide which jurisdiction / institution's rules they wish to be bound by. beginning, middle and end of an international commercial arbitration; compares the rules in each of the major arbitration jurisdictions at each stage of the process; pinpoints strengths and weaknesses of arbitration in each jurisdiction; supplies detailed advice on topics such as the arbitration agreement, how to progress a case, the award and enforcement of the award; reproduces a comprehensive selection of comparative materials, drawn from the UNCITRAL and UN texts, as well as national legislation from Sweden, Belgium, Germany, England, Italy, Holland, France and Switzerland; and features materials on the form and content of arbitral deliberations not normally available in the public domain.
This book studies the situation where unexpected circumstances render the performance of a contract much more difficult or onerous, as well as those circumstances which frustrate the purpose of the transaction. The complexity of modern contractual relationships and, in general, of the social and economic environment, requires similar weight to be given to values other than the classical values of freedom, security, and certainty. Cooperation, solidarity, and flexibility have gained importance. In this context, the recognition of a change of circumstances as a remedy for the affected party may be considered as another aspect of the renewed importance of justice and fairness as a counterbalance to the general principle of freedom of contract. In particular, the affected party is entitled to rely on a proper set of remedies directed at the restoration of the agreement until the limit of an adequate sacrifice for the debtor, which includes the duty to renegotiate and, in the case of the renegotiations failing, the revision of the contract by the courts. Thus, the contract may be considered to be a union of balanced interests, an instrument of loyal cooperation, and a result of the mutual confidence between the parties. The study includes a comparative analysis of European and Latin American jurisdictions, as well as US contract law. In addition to national jurisdictions, the book also examines how modern model codes or restatements of international contract law deal with this problem. Because of its broad comparative analysis, this is a useful tool to national and regional legislators, as well as to judges and parties involved in cases in which a supervening and unforeseen change of circumstances has severely altered the performance of the contract. (Series: Ius Commune Europaeum - Vol. 94)
The agreement of disputing parties to each make a unilateral appointment of an arbitrator is among the most distinctive features of arbitral practice. A detailed examination, long overdue, of how this feature affects the actual process of arbitration is presented in this book. The study includes a historical analysis of unilateral nominations, a critical assessment of how the unilateral appointments system currently works and an empirical study of challenges of arbitrators. The author's critical assessment addresses several issues including: - limits to the right of the parties to make unilateral appointments; - the principle of equality of the parties in the constitution of the arbitral tribunal; - arbitrators' duty to be impartial and independent; - specific problems of bias in tribunals with party-appointed members; - the question of whether a different standard of impartiality and independence in party-appointed arbitrators makes any sense; - the presumption that party-appointed arbitrators can do things that presiding arbitrators cannot; and - the question of whether it is worth keeping the system of unilateral appointments as the default method for the constitution of multiple-member tribunals, or keeping it at all. The empirical study, in which the author offers a comparative analysis of challenges of arbitrators taking into account the method of appointment of the arbitrator, reveals interesting differences and coincidences between party-appointed and non-party-appointed arbitrators. The book ends with some suggestions on how the system of unilateral appointments could be improved, namely in order to increase the trust of each party in the arbitrator appointed by the other party and to allow an accurate match between what arbitration end-users may want from party-appointed arbitrators and what they ultimately get. For both its thorough and well-informed analysis and its sound recommendations, the book is sure to be welcomed by professionals in the arbitral community worldwide, as well as by arbitration law academics.
It often seems today that no dispute is barred from resolution by arbitration. Even the fundamental question of whether a dispute falls under the exclusive jurisdiction of a judicial body may itself be arbitrable. Arbitrability is thus an elusive concept; yet a systematic study of it, as this book shows, yields innumerable guidelines and insights that are of substantial value to arbitral practice. Although the book takes the form of a collection of essays, it is designed as a comprehensive commentary on practical issues that emerge from the idea of arbitrability. Fifteen leading academics and practitioners from Europe and the United States each explore different facets of arbitrability always with a perspective open to international developments and comparative evaluation of standards. The presentation falls into two parts: in the first the focus is on the general features of arbitrability, its rationale and the laws applicable to it. In the second, arbitrability is specifically examined in the context of administrative, criminal, corporate, IP, financial, commercial, and criminal law This book has its origins in an International Conference on Arbitrability held at Athens in September 2005. Seven papers presented there are here reviewed and updated, and nine others are added. The subject of the book and arbitrability and is one that is much talked about, but seldom if ever given the in-depth treatment presented here. Arbitrators and other practitioners in the field will welcome the way the analysis moves logically from theory to practice regarding every issue, and academics will recognize a definitive treatment of arbitrability as understood and applied in the settlement of disputes today.