Since the late 18th century, when it emerged as a source of heating and, later, steam power, coal has brought untold benefits to mankind. Even today, coal generates almost 45 percent of the world's power. Our modern technological society would be inconceivable without coal and the energy it provides. Unfortunately, that society will not survive unless we wean ourselves off coal. The largest single source of greenhouse gases, coal is responsible for 43 percent of the world's carbon emissions. Richard Martin, author of SuperFuel, argues that to limit catastrophic climate change, we must find a way to power our world with less polluting energy sources, and we must do it in the next couple of decades—or else it is "game over." It won't be easy: as coal plants shut down across the United States, and much of Europe turns to natural gas, coal use is growing in the booming economies of Asia— particularly China and India. Even in Germany, where nuclear power stations are being phased out in the wake of the Fukushima accident, coal use is growing. Led by the Sierra Club and its ambitious "Beyond Coal" campaign, environmentalists hope to drastically reduce our dependence on coal in the next decade. But doing so will require an unprecedented contraction of an established, lucrative, and politically influential worldwide industry. Big Coal will not go gently. And its decline will dramatically change lives everywhere—from Appalachian coal miners and coal company executives to activists in China's nascent environmental movement. Based on a series of journeys into the heart of coal land, from Wyoming to West Virginia to China's remote Shanxi Province, hundreds of interviews with people involved in, or affected by, the effort to shrink the industry, and deep research into the science, technology, and economics of the coal industry, Coal Wars chronicles the dramatic stories behind coal's big shutdown—and the industry's desperate attempts to remain a global behemoth. A tour de force of literary journalism, Coal Wars will be a milestone in the climate change battle.
*Includes pictures *Includes accounts of the coal wars from Mother Jones and other important participants *Includes online resources and a bibliography for further reading *Includes a table of contents "I'm not a humanitarian, I'm a hell-raiser." - Mother Jones America is famous around the world for being the land of opportunity, and in many respects it has been for the nearly 400 years since its colonization. However, that opportunity has always come at some sort of price. In the times of wooden sailing vessels, men and women risked life and limb to sail across the Atlantic on small, creaking ships, but later, transportation became safer and easier with the invention of the coal powered steam engine. Over time, coal came to be used to power other advances in industry and technology, such as plants that produced steel and electricity. By the dawn of the 20th century, it seemed that there was nothing that the country could not accomplish, and that the future was brighter than ever. But then, as always, there was the price. The vast majority of people burning coal to heat their farms and homes, and those watching skyscrapers rise over the city's landscape, likely never stopped to think about the price thousands of miners across the country were paying for these and other conveniences. Many never knew that coal had to be dug from the ground, typically in dark mines where dust poisoned miners' lungs, and that these men barely made enough to feed and clothe their families despite their hard days of toil. The people using the coal wanted it to be cheap, the miners wanted to earn enough money to survive, and the companies wanted to turn a profit. In some ways, it seems safe to say that conflict was inevitable, but while there were numerous labor disputes during the early decades of the 20th century, few were as violent as the one that erupted in the hills of West Virginia in 1912. In fact, this conflict, which lasted about a decade, has rightly been called a war because men and women killed and were killed on its battlefields, culminating with the largest domestic insurrection since the Civil War in 1921. The coal companies' army was a hired force, professional gunfighters brought in to stop miners. But while they had the best training and the best weapons, they did not have Mother Jones - Mary Harris Jones - perhaps the most inspirational union organizer in United States history. With the help of Frank Keeney and other miners like him, Jones successfully brought the owners to their knees and won the right to unionize for miners who had only dreamed it might be possible. Now that a century has passed and mining is at least somewhat safer than it was, those working today can thank Jones and Keeney, not to mention the ones who died at the hand of hired guns, for what freedom they do have to fight for a living wage. The West Virginia Coal Wars: The History of the 20th Century Conflict Between Coal Companies and Miners looks at the tumultuous fight on both sides of the lines. Along with pictures of important people, places, and events, you will learn about the West Virginia mine wars like never before, in no time at all.
1920 Alabama Coal Strike, Battle of Blair Mountain, Battle of Evarts, Battle of Virden, Bituminous Coal Miners' Strike of 1894, Coal Creek
Author: Source Wikipedia
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 33. Chapters: 1920 Alabama coal strike, Battle of Blair Mountain, Battle of Evarts, Battle of Virden, Bituminous Coal Miners' Strike of 1894, Coal Creek War, Coal Strike of 1902, Colorado Coalfield War (1913-1914), Columbine Mine massacre, Harlan County War, Hartford Coal Mine Riot, Herrin massacre, Illinois Coal Wars, Lattimer massacre, Ludlow Massacre, Paint Creek-Cabin Creek strike of 1912, Pana Massacre, Westmoreland County coal strike of 1910-1911, West Virginia Coal Wars. Excerpt: The Ludlow Massacre was an attack by the Colorado National Guard and Colorado Fuel & Iron Company camp guards on a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners and their families at Ludlow, Colorado on April 20, 1914. The massacre resulted in the violent deaths of between 19 and 25 people; sources vary but all sources include two women and eleven children, asphyxiated and burned to death under a single tent. The deaths occurred after a daylong fight between militia and camp guards against striking workers. Ludlow was the deadliest single incident in the southern Colorado Coal Strike, lasting from September 1913 through December 1914. The strike was organized by the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) against coal mining companies in Colorado. The three largest companies involved were the Rockefeller family-owned Colorado Fuel & Iron Company (CF&I), the Rocky Mountain Fuel Company (RMF), and the Victor-American Fuel Company (VAF). In retaliation for Ludlow, the miners armed themselves and attacked dozens of mines over the next ten days, destroying property and engaging in several skirmishes with the Colorado National Guard along a 40-mile front from Trinidad to Walsenburg. The entire strike would cost between 69 and 199 lives. Thomas Franklin Andrews described it as the "deadliest strike in the history of the United States." The Ludlow Massacre...
Unions, Strikes, and Violence in Depression-Era Central Washington
Author: David Bullock
Strikes are a way of life for central Washington coal miners and their families, but April 3, 1934, is different. This time, people are afraid. Wives and mothers pelt cars with rocks, rotten eggs, and cow pies. They curse and assault anyone who crosses their picket line. On a normal shift, the striking laborers are at the workplace ten or more hours. They dress, prepare equipment, and travel in the mine shaft--up to an hour each way--on their own time. The miners and their families want safer working conditions, fair wages, and a six-hour workday. When their national union leaders seem unsympathetic, some miners create a local union and decide to strike. But this time, conflicting union alliances turn residents of Roslyn, Cle Elem, and Ronald against each other, and the violent battle leaves deep scars. A refreshingly balanced yet personal account, Coal Wars captures a dual union movement and depicts the region's melting pot as well as sociopolitical effects of New Deal policies.
This book offers a bold and original perspective on the 1914 Ludlow Massacre and the “Great Coalfield War.” In a story of transformation, Andrews illuminates the causes and consequences of the militancy that erupted in colliers’ strikes over the course of nearly half a century.
Maria Montoya,Laura A. Belmonte,Carl J. Guarneri,Steven Hackel,Ellen Hartigan-O'Connor
Author: Maria Montoya,Laura A. Belmonte,Carl J. Guarneri,Steven Hackel,Ellen Hartigan-O'Connor
Publisher: Cengage Learning
GLOBAL AMERICANS speaks to an increasingly diverse population of students who seek to understand the place of the United States in a shifting global, social, cultural, and political landscape. America’s national experience and collective history have always been subject to transnational forces and affected by global events and conditions. In recognition of this reality, this insightful new text presents a history of North America and then the United States in which world events and processes are central rather than colorful sidelights. The narrative recovers the global aspects of America’s past and helps students understand the origins of the interconnected world in which they live. By weaving together stories, analysis, interpretation, visual imagery, and primary sources from across time and place, this book presents a revised history that reflects America’s -- and Americans’ -- relationship to events and peoples across the continent and beyond. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Managing Industrial Decline examines the dramatic decline of the British coal industry through the lens of comparative business history, challenging the prevailing belief that the industry's decline was due primarily to global economic factors and instead demonstrating that entrepreneurial failings of individual coal firms contributed significantly to the problem. Through a comparative analysis of company histories, Dintenfass shows how the full range of business operations at British coal firms, including labor management policies, technological choices, and marketing practices, affected their performance. The histories of individual firms demonstrate that the managements could improve productivity, increase sale prices, and sustain profitability, even as the coal trade succumbed to cyclical depression and secular decline. According to Dintenfass, comparisons between the individual firms and the regional coal industries to which they belonged show that neighboring firms were slow to introduce the modest innovations that the successful firms pioneered. Since there were few barriers to the implementation of these strategies, it appears that Britain's coal masters miscalculated their costs and benefits, contributing to the problem by failing to adopt inexpensive and accessible second-best solutions to production and commercial problems. Managing Industrial Decline, breaks new ground in the field of business history and restores entrepreneurship to its proper place in the analysis of industrial decline.
An exploration of the aesthetic challenges of representing Western European and American coal-mining experiences in art, literature and film. It features 19 essays offering critical analyses of topics such as gender, class and ethnicity as portrayed in 19th- and 20th-century works.
Arthurdale, FDR's New Deal, and the Costs of Economic Planning
Author: C. J Maloney
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Business & Economics
How New Deal economic policies played out in the small town of Arthurdale, West Virginia Today, the U.S. government is again moving to embrace New Deal-like economic policies. While much has been written about the New Deal from a macro perspective, little has been written about how New Deal programs played out on the ground. In Back to the Land, author CJ Maloney tells the true story of Arthurdale, West Virginia, a town created as a "pet project" of the Roosevelts. Designed to be (in the words of Eleanor Roosevelt) "a human experiment station", she was to create a "New American" citizen who would embrace a collectivist form of life. This book tells the story of what happened to the people resettled in Arthurdale and how the policies implemented there shaped America as we know it. Arthurdale was the foundation upon which modern America was built. Details economic history at the micro level, revealing the true effects of New Deal economic policies on everyday life Addresses the pros and cons of federal government economic policies Describes how good intentions and grand ideas can result in disastrous consequences, not only in purely materialistic terms but, most important, in respect for the rule of law Back to the Land is a valuable addition to economic and historical literature.
Today visitors to the New River Gorge see a steep gorge filled with a lush hardwood forest. Before the railroad, the New River, with its whitewater rapids, was a barrier to trade, but with the 1873 completion of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad, the gorge came alive. By the 1890s, more than 30,000 people lived and worked in the gorge. Towns like Kaymoor, Nuttallburg, and Thurmond were hives of activity and melting pots of American immigrants who dug the coal that helped build the American dream. Times changed. By 1960, the easiest coal was gone, and miners moved to Midwest factories. Nature began to reclaim the gorge. The 1970s brought a rebirth. Whitewater rafters took on the rapids, and bridge builders built the New River Gorge Bridge. The forest has returned, and if you look under the canopy, you will see that the railroads, coal camps, and mine tipples have given way to rafters, rock climbers, and mountain bikers.
Written by one of the country's foremost urban historians, "The Great Rent Wars" tells the fascinating but little-known story of the battles between landlords and tenants in the nation's largest city from 1917 through 1929. These conflicts were triggered by the post-war housing shortage, which prompted landlords to raise rents, drove tenants to go on rent strikes, and spurred the state legislature, a conservative body dominated by upstate Republicans, to impose rent control in New York, a radical and unprecedented step that transformed landlord-tenant relations. "The Great Rent Wars" traces the tumultuous history of rent control in New York from its inception to its expiration as it unfolded in New York, Albany, and Washington, D.C. At the heart of this story are such memorable figures as Al Smith, Fiorello H. La Guardia, and Oliver Wendell Holmes, as well as a host of tenants, landlords, judges, and politicians who have long been forgotten. Fogelson also explores the heated debates over landlord-tenant law, housing policy, and other issues that are as controversial today as they were a century ago.
G.C. "Red" Jones's classic memoir of growing up in rural eastern Kentucky during the Depression is a story of courage, persistence, and eventual triumph. His priceless and detailed recollections of hardscrabble farming, of the impact of Prohibition on an individualistic people, of the community-destroying mine wars of "Bloody Harlan," and of the drastic dislocations brought by World War II are essential to understanding this seminal era in Appalachian history.