Since 1945, "The Annual Deming Conference on Applied Statistics" has been an important event in the statistics profession. In Clinical Trial Biostatistics and Biopharmaceutical Applications, prominent speakers from past Deming conferences present novel biostatistical methodologies in clinical trials as well as up-to-date biostatistical applications from the pharmaceutical industry. Divided into five sections, the book begins with emerging issues in clinical trial design and analysis, including the roles of modeling and simulation, the pros and cons of randomization procedures, the design of Phase II dose-ranging trials, thorough QT/QTc clinical trials, and assay sensitivity and the constancy assumption in noninferiority trials. The second section examines adaptive designs in drug development, discusses the consequences of group-sequential and adaptive designs, and illustrates group sequential design in R. The third section focuses on oncology clinical trials, covering competing risks, escalation with overdose control (EWOC) dose finding, and interval-censored time-to-event data. In the fourth section, the book describes multiple test problems with applications to adaptive designs, graphical approaches to multiple testing, the estimation of simultaneous confidence intervals for multiple comparisons, and weighted parametric multiple testing methods. The final section discusses the statistical analysis of biomarkers from omics technologies, biomarker strategies applicable to clinical development, and the statistical evaluation of surrogate endpoints. This book clarifies important issues when designing and analyzing clinical trials, including several misunderstood and unresolved challenges. It will help readers choose the right method for their biostatistical application. Each chapter is self-contained with references.
Current and Controversial Issues in Design and Analysis
Author: Stephen L. George,Xiaofei Wang,Herbert Pang
Publisher: CRC Press
Cancer Clinical Trials: Current and Controversial Issues in Design and Analysis provides statisticians with an understanding of the critical challenges currently encountered in oncology trials. Well-known statisticians from academic institutions, regulatory and government agencies (such as the U.S. FDA and National Cancer Institute), and the pharmaceutical industry share their extensive experiences in cancer clinical trials and present examples taken from actual trials. The book covers topics that are often perplexing and sometimes controversial in cancer clinical trials. Most of the issues addressed are also important for clinical trials in other settings. After discussing general topics, the book focuses on aspects of early and late phase clinical trials. It also explores personalized medicine, including biomarker-based clinical trials, adaptive clinical trial designs, and dynamic treatment regimes.
With Applications to Cancer Clinical Trials Using R
Author: Jianrong Wu
Publisher: CRC Press
Statistical Methods for Survival Trial Design: With Applications to Cancer Clinical Trials Using R provides a thorough presentation of the principles of designing and monitoring cancer clinical trials in which time-to-event is the primary endpoint. Traditional cancer trial designs with time-to-event endpoints are often limited to the exponential model or proportional hazards model. In practice, however, those model assumptions may not be satisfied for long-term survival trials. This book is the first to cover comprehensively the many newly developed methodologies for survival trial design, including trial design under the Weibull survival models; extensions of the sample size calculations under the proportional hazard models; and trial design under mixture cure models, complex survival models, Cox regression models, and competing-risk models. A general sequential procedure based on the sequential conditional probability ratio test is also implemented for survival trial monitoring. All methodologies are presented with sufficient detail for interested researchers or graduate students.
Author: Karl E. Peace,Ding-Geng Chen,Sandeep Menon
This BASS book Series publishes selected high-quality papers reflecting recent advances in the design and biostatistical analysis of biopharmaceutical experiments – particularly biopharmaceutical clinical trials. The papers were selected from invited presentations at the Biopharmaceutical Applied Statistics Symposium (BASS), which was founded by the first Editor in 1994 and has since become the premier international conference in biopharmaceutical statistics. The primary aims of the BASS are: 1) to raise funding to support graduate students in biostatistics programs, and 2) to provide an opportunity for professionals engaged in pharmaceutical drug research and development to share insights into solving the problems they encounter.The BASS book series is initially divided into three volumes addressing: 1) Design of Clinical Trials; 2) Biostatistical Analysis of Clinical Trials; and 3) Pharmaceutical Applications. This book is the first of the 3-volume book series. The topics covered include: A Statistical Approach to Clinical Trial Simulations, Comparison of Statistical Analysis Methods Using Modeling and Simulation for Optimal Protocol Design, Adaptive Trial Design in Clinical Research, Best Practices and Recommendations for Trial Simulations in the Context of Designing Adaptive Clinical Trials, Designing and Analyzing Recurrent Event Data Trials, Bayesian Methodologies for Response-Adaptive Allocation, Addressing High Placebo Response in Neuroscience Clinical Trials, Phase I Cancer Clinical Trial Design: Single and Combination Agents, Sample Size and Power for the Mixed Linear Model, Crossover Designs in Clinical Trials, Data Monitoring: Structure for Clinical Trials and Sequential Monitoring Procedures, Design and Data Analysis for Multiregional Clinical Trials – Theory and Practice, Adaptive Group-Sequential Multi-regional Outcome Studies in Vaccines, Development and Validation of Patient-reported Outcomes, Interim Analysis of Survival Trials: Group Sequential Analyses, and Conditional Power – A Non-proportional Hazards Perspective.
Author: Alex Dmitrienko,Ajit C. Tamhane,Frank Bretz
Publisher: CRC Press
Useful Statistical Approaches for Addressing Multiplicity Issues Includes practical examples from recent trials Bringing together leading statisticians, scientists, and clinicians from the pharmaceutical industry, academia, and regulatory agencies, Multiple Testing Problems in Pharmaceutical Statistics explores the rapidly growing area of multiple comparison research with an emphasis on pharmaceutical applications. In each chapter, the expert contributors describe important multiplicity problems encountered in pre-clinical and clinical trial settings. The book begins with a broad introduction from a regulatory perspective to different types of multiplicity problems that commonly arise in confirmatory controlled clinical trials, before giving an overview of the concepts, principles, and procedures of multiple testing. It then presents statistical methods for analyzing clinical dose response studies that compare several dose levels with a control as well as statistical methods for analyzing multiple endpoints in clinical trials. After covering gatekeeping procedures for testing hierarchically ordered hypotheses, the book discusses statistical approaches for the design and analysis of adaptive designs and related confirmatory hypothesis testing problems. The final chapter focuses on the design of pharmacogenomic studies based on established statistical principles. It also describes the analysis of data collected in these studies, taking into account the numerous multiplicity issues that occur. This volume explains how to solve critical issues in multiple testing encountered in pre-clinical and clinical trial applications. It presents the necessary statistical methodology, along with examples and software code to show how to use the methods in practice.
The second volume in the Wiley reference series in Biostatistics. Featuring articles from the prestigious Encyclopedia of Biostatistics, many of which have been fully revised and updated to include recent developments, Biostatistics in Clinical Trials also includes up to 25% newly commissioned material reflecting the latest thinking in: Bayesian methods Benefit/risk assessment Cost-effectiveness Ethics Fraud With exceptional contributions from leading experts in academia, government and industry, Biostatistics in Clinical Trials has been designed to complement existing texts by providing extensive, up-to-date coverage and introducing the reader to the research literature. Offering comprehensive coverage of all aspects of clinical trials Biostatistics in Clinical Trials: Includes concise definitions and introductions to numerous concepts found in current literature Discusses the software and textbooks available Uses extensive cross-references helping to facilitate further research and enabling the reader to locate definitions and related concepts Biostatistics in Clinical Trials offers both academics and practitioners from various disciplines and settings, such as universities, the pharmaceutical industry and clinical research organisations, up-to-date information as well as references to assist professionals involved in the design and conduct of clinical trials.
The premise of Quality by Design (QbD) is that the quality of the pharmaceutical product should be based upon a thorough understanding of both the product and the manufacturing process. This state-of-the-art book provides a single source of information on emerging statistical approaches to QbD and risk-based pharmaceutical development. A comprehensive resource, it combines in-depth explanations of advanced statistical methods with real-life case studies that illustrate practical applications of these methods in QbD implementation.
Methods and Applications of Statistics in Clinical Trials,Volume 2: Planning, Analysis, and Inferential Methods includesupdates of established literature from the Wiley Encyclopedia ofClinical Trials as well as original material based on the latestdevelopments in clinical trials. Prepared by a leading expert, thesecond volume includes numerous contributions from currentprominent experts in the field of medical research. In addition,the volume features: • Multiple new articles exploring emerging topics, such asevaluation methods with threshold, empirical likelihood methods,nonparametric ROC analysis, over- and under-dispersed models, andmulti-armed bandit problems • Up-to-date research on the Cox proportional hazardmodel, frailty models, trial reports, intrarater reliability,conditional power, and the kappa index • Key qualitative issues including cost-effectivenessanalysis, publication bias, and regulatory issues, which arecrucial to the planning and data management of clinical trials
Grundlagen der Buchführung für Industrie- und Handelsbetriebe
Author: Manfred Bornhofen,Martin C. Bornhofen
Category: Business & Economics
Der vorliegende Band Buchführung 1 bietet Ihnen in bewährter Didaktik einen schnellen und leicht verständlichen Zugang zu den Grundlagen der Buchführung. Der an den Anforderungen der Praxis ausgerichtete Aufgabenteil umfasst Aufgaben mit unterschiedlichem Schwierigkeitsgrad. Weitere Aufgaben und Lösungen zur Verstärkung des Lernerfolgs enthält das zur Buchführung 1 erhältliche Lösungsbuch. – Dem Werk liegen die in der Praxis am häufigsten verwendeten DATEV-Kontenrahmen SKR 04 und SKR 03 zugrunde. Sie sind kompatibel mit den wichtigsten übrigen Kontenrahmen (z. B. GKR und IKR). – Die 29., überarbeitete Auflage berücksichtigt die bis zum 31.05.2017 maßgebliche Rechtslage. Rechtsänderungen, die sich ab 01.06.2017 noch für 2017 ergeben, können Sie kostenlos als „Online Plus“ auf der Homepage zum Buch abrufen. Damit wird der komplette Rechtsstand für das Jahr 2017 garantiert. – Ihr zusätzlicher Mehrwert: eBook inside! Ab der 29., überarbeiteten Auflage 2017 erscheint die gesamte Bornhofen Edition auf vielfachen Wunsch erstmalig mit eBook inside, um das digitale Arbeiten mit dem Unterrichts- und Lernstoff zu erleichtern – ein Meilenstein in der Geschichte dieser Lehrbücher und relevanter Mehrwert für alle Lehrenden und Lernenden. Begleitend zum Lehrbuch ist auch ein Lösungsbuch mit weiteren Prüfungsaufgaben und Lösungen zur Rechtslage des Jahres 2017 (ISBN 978-3-658-16534-5) erhältlich.
A complete guide to the key statistical concepts essential for the design and construction of clinical trials As the newest major resource in the field of medical research, Methods and Applications of Statistics in Clinical Trials, Volume 1: Concepts, Principles, Trials, and Designs presents a timely and authoritative reviewof the central statistical concepts used to build clinical trials that obtain the best results. The referenceunveils modern approaches vital to understanding, creating, and evaluating data obtained throughoutthe various stages of clinical trial design and analysis. Accessible and comprehensive, the first volume in a two-part set includes newly-written articles as well as established literature from the Wiley Encyclopedia of Clinical Trials. Illustrating a variety of statistical concepts and principles such as longitudinal data, missing data, covariates, biased-coin randomization, repeated measurements, and simple randomization, the book also provides in-depth coverage of the various trial designs found within phase I-IV trials. Methods and Applications of Statistics in Clinical Trials, Volume 1: Concepts, Principles, Trials, and Designs also features: Detailed chapters on the type of trial designs, such as adaptive, crossover, group-randomized, multicenter, non-inferiority, non-randomized, open-labeled, preference, prevention, and superiority trials Over 100 contributions from leading academics, researchers, and practitioners An exploration of ongoing, cutting-edge clinical trials on early cancer and heart disease, mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission trials, and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Methods and Applications of Statistics in Clinical Trials, Volume 1: Concepts, Principles, Trials, and Designs is an excellent reference for researchers, practitioners, and students in the fields of clinicaltrials, pharmaceutics, biostatistics, medical research design, biology, biomedicine, epidemiology,and public health.
The first edition of Basic Statistics and Pharmaceutical Statistical Applications successfully provided a practical, easy-to-read, basic statistics book. This second edition not only updates the previous edition, but expands coverage in the area of biostatistics and how it relates to real-world professional practice. Taking you on a roller coaster ride through the world of statistics, Dr. De Muth clearly details the methodology necessary to summarize data and make informed decisions about observed outcomes. What's new or different in the Second Edition? New chapters cover: Measures of association primarily with nominal and ordinal data and and more than 15 tests Survival statistics including actuarial analysis and an introduction to multiple regression with survival data using proportional hazards regression An introduction to the topic of evidence-based practice with discussions of sensitivity and specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios Odds ratios and relative risk ratios that provide valuable information for dealing with probability, odds, and risk New sections address Power and sample size determination for two-sample Z-tests of proportions Clinical equivalence and noninferiority studies, process capability, and tolerance limits Methods for assessing repeatability and reproducibility Expanded information includes: Chi square, repeated measures designs, Latin Square designs, nine multiple comparison tests, and outlier testing Inverse prediction with linear regression, handling of multiple data points at different levels of independent variable, and assessment of parallelism of slopes for two samples Additional types of bivariate correlations and various assessments for independence and randomness More nonparametric tests including new information on post hoc comparisons for a significant Kruskal-Wallis test, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test, and the Anderson-Darling test, as well as runs and range tests Eight new tables useful for the interpretation of some of the new inferential statistics De Muth provides concrete examples that enable you to effectively manage information in your day-to-day problem solving and reporting of findings. By avoiding heavy-duty mathematics and theory, even the mathematically challenged can benefit and increase their confidence in using statistics procedures.
Focusing on group sequential procedures, summarizes the sequential statistical methods used in anticancer, antiviral, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal drug research and screening. The clinical and preclinical applications are mainly presented as case studies, many of which form part of New Drug
The Tutorials in Biostatistics have become a very popular feature of the prestigious Wiley journal, Statistics in Medicine (SIM). The introductory style and practical focus make them accessible to a wide audience including medical practitioners with limited statistical knowledge. This book represents the first of two volumes presenting the best tutorials published in SIM, focusing on statistical methods in clinical studies. Topics include the design and analysis of clinical trials, epidemiology, survival analysis, and data monitoring. Each tutorial is focused on a medical problem, has been fully peer-reviewed and edited, and is authored by leading researchers in biostatistics. Many articles include an appendix on the latest developments since publication in the journal and additional references. This will appeal to statisticians working in medical research, as well as statistically-minded clinicians, biologists, epidemiologists and geneticists. It will also appeal to graduate students of biostatistics.
Emphasizing the role of good statistical practices (GSP) in drug research and formulation, this book outlines important statistics applications for each stage of pharmaceutical development to ensure the valid design, analysis, and assessment of drug products under investigation and establish the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical compounds. Coverage include statistical techniques for assay validation and evaluation of drug performance characteristics, testing population/individual bioequivalence and in vitro bioequivalence according to the most recent FDA guidelines, basic considerations for the design and analysis of therapeutic equivalence and noninferiority trials.
Practical and Clinical Applications, Fifth Edition
Author: Sanford Bolton,Charles Bon
Publisher: CRC Press
Through the use of practical examples and solutions, Pharmaceutical Statistics: Practical and Clinical Applications, Fifth Edition provides the most complete and comprehensive guide to the various statistical applications and research issues in the pharmaceutical industry, particularly in clinical trials and bioequivalence studies.
All students of pharmaceutical sciences and clinical research need a solid knowledge and understanding of the nature, methods, application, and importance of statistics. Introduction to Statistics in Pharmaceutical Clinical Trials is an ideal introduction to statistics presented in the context of clinical trials conducted during pharmaceutical drug development. This novel approach both teaches the computational steps needed to conduct analyses and provides a conceptual understanding of how these analyses provide information that forms the rational basis for decision making throughout the drug development process.
This rewritten and updated second edition provides comprehensive information on the wide-ranging applications of statistics in the pharmacological field. Focusing on practical aspects, it sets out to bridge the gap between industry and academia.;Reflecting the changes that have taken place since publication of the first edition, this volume covers new topics such as: cancer clinical trials, clinical trials of AIDS patients and animal tumorigenicity studies; the development of antiepileptic drugs; the role of epidemiology in postmarketing trials and adverse drug experience; computer-assisted new drug application (CANDA) submissions; contract research organizations; interim analysis in clinical trials; and room-temperature tests for the stability of drugs.;This work is intended as: a reference for statisticians, biostatisticians, pharmacologists, administrators, managers, and scientists in the pharmaceutical industry; and a text for graduate students taking courses in applied statistics or pharmaceutical statistics.
Building on its best-selling predecessors, Basic Statistics and Pharmaceutical Statistical Applications, Third Edition covers statistical topics most relevant to those in the pharmaceutical industry and pharmacy practice. It focuses on the fundamentals required to understand descriptive and inferential statistics for problem solving. Incorporating new material in virtually every chapter, this third edition now provides information on software applications to assist with evaluating data. New to the Third Edition Use of Excel® and Minitab® for performing statistical analysis Discussions of nonprobability sampling procedures, determining if data is normally distributed, evaluation of covariances, and testing for precision equivalence Expanded sections on regression analysis, chi square tests, tests for trends with ordinal data, and tests related to survival statistics Additional nonparametric procedures, including the one-sided sign test, Wilcoxon signed-ranks test, and Mood’s median test With the help of flow charts and tables, the author dispels some of the anxiety associated with using basic statistical tests in the pharmacy profession and helps readers correctly interpret their results using statistical software. Through the text’s worked-out examples, readers better understand how the mathematics works, the logic behind many of the equations, and the tests’ outcomes.
Group sequential methods answer the needs of clinical trial monitoring committees who must assess the data available at an interim analysis. These interim results may provide grounds for terminating the study-effectively reducing costs-or may benefit the general patient population by allowing early dissemination of its findings. Group sequential methods provide a means to balance the ethical and financial advantages of stopping a study early against the risk of an incorrect conclusion. Group Sequential Methods with Applications to Clinical Trials describes group sequential stopping rules designed to reduce average study length and control Type I and II error probabilities. The authors present one-sided and two-sided tests, introduce several families of group sequential tests, and explain how to choose the most appropriate test and interim analysis schedule. Their topics include placebo-controlled randomized trials, bio-equivalence testing, crossover and longitudinal studies, and linear and generalized linear models. Research in group sequential analysis has progressed rapidly over the past 20 years. Group Sequential Methods with Applications to Clinical Trials surveys and extends current methods for planning and conducting interim analyses. It provides straightforward descriptions of group sequential hypothesis tests in a form suited for direct application to a wide variety of clinical trials. Medical statisticians engaged in any investigations planned with interim analyses will find this book a useful and important tool.
Sample size calculation plays an important role in clinical research. It is not uncommon, however, to observe discrepancies among study objectives (or hypotheses), study design, statistical analysis (or test statistic), and sample size calculation. Focusing on sample size calculation for studies conducted during the various phases of clinical research and development, Sample Size Calculation in Clinical Research explores the causes of discrepancies and how to avoid them. This volume provides formulas and procedures for determination of sample size required not only for testing equality, but also for testing non-inferiority/superiority, and equivalence (similarity) based on both untransformed (raw) data and log-transformed data under a parallel-group design or a crossover design with equal or unequal ratio of treatment allocations. It contains a comprehensive and unified presentation of statistical procedures for sample size calculation that are commonly employed at various phases of clinical development. Each chapter includes, whenever possible, real examples of clinical studies from therapeutic areas such as cardiovascular, central nervous system, anti-infective, oncology, and women's health to demonstrate the clinical and statistical concepts, interpretations, and their relationships and interactions. The book highlights statistical procedures for sample size calculation and justification that are commonly employed in clinical research and development. It provides clear, illustrated explanations of how the derived formulas and/or statistical procedures can be used.