Climate Change

Past, Present, and Future

Author: Marie-Antoinette Méli?res,Chloé Maréchal

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118708520

Category: Nature

Page: 416

View: 348

The book use an approach that explains the mechanisms but is equation-free. It is written from the point of view of a physicist and treats the physical processes in detail providing a deep understanding in particular of the energy balance and the greenhouse effect. It avoids technical jargon and presents the issues in a simple and clear manner. In addition to the fuller explanations, the approach is innovative. The record of past climates is used as a benchmark to assess current climate changes and to apprehend the true magnitude of coming changes that stem from human activity. It is for this reason that such emphasis is given to understanding the mechanisms (Parts 1 and 2) and the lessons from past climates (Part 3). The central subject of the book is thus that of Work Package 1 of IPCC, namely “Climate changes in the past and to come”. Although many topics are covered, the book focuses on the fundamental mechanisms that underlie climate equilibrium. These are discussed in depth and placed in a hierarchy, which provides a better perspective of the different factors, parameters and mechanisms that drive the variations in the average climate. One of its novelties is to present the notion of average climate in terms of energy required to maintain the climate. This allows the reader to understand the basic role of the available energy on the Earth and to generalise the concept of climate on the scale of the whole planet. In this way the fundamental importance of the greenhouse effect is introduced, as well as the average temperature as an indicator of climate change, i.e., the pertinence of the temperature – energy parameter. This is why it describes the average climate in terms of the three key components : temperature, rainfall and wind. Special attention is given to the energy balance of the planet in all its aspects and to understanding clearly the mechanism of the greenhouse effect and the physical notion of temperature. These last two form the basis of the perturbation generated by human activity and the means of quantifying its impact. By presenting the detailed climate archives over the last few million years (Part 3, Lessons of the Past), in particular the glacial - interglacial cycles of the Quaternary era, the mechanism that drives the natural climate changes is revealed, and the lessons to be learnt from the past follow naturally. Emphasis is laid on the means of characterizing and quantifying global climate change: -Global warming is accompanied by an average rise in temperature that increases with latitude. Mean latitudes experience a rise in temperature twice as great as that of the overall average (a finding that is confirmed by the recent warming and which is forecast in the models for the 21st century). -Throughout the whole of the Quaternary era (last few million years) the warm interglacial periods never encountered a rise in the average temperature greater than 2°C beyond the current warm period. This provides a reference for the global warming that is approaching. -Finally, with respect to biodiversity, the glacial - interglacial cycles of the past illustrate how the impact of large temperature changes can affect the biosphere, and promote greater biodiversity at lower latitudes. These points serve to circumscribe the magnitude of the changes, both in the climate and in the biosphere, that are in store in the 21st century. The whole of Part 4 (Recent evolution in the climate) summarizes the consequences of the recent global warming. The interest here is to illustrate the observed impact on the planet of a global climate change. This highlights the predictions of the models, which are entirely consistent with these observations (Part 5).

Climate Change in Deserts

Past, Present and Future

Author: Martin Williams

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 131606073X

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 1426

Reconstructing climatic changes in deserts and their margins at a variety of scales in space and time, this book draws upon evidence from land and sea, including desert dunes, wind-blown dust, river and lake sediments, glacial moraines, plant and animal fossils, isotope geochemistry, speleothems, soils, and prehistoric archaeology. The book summarises the Cenozoic evolution of the major deserts of the Americas, Eurasia, Africa and Australia and the causes of historic floods and droughts. The book then considers the causes and consequences of desertification and proposes four key conditions for achieving ecologically sustainable use of natural resources in arid and semi-arid areas. Climate Change in Deserts is an invaluable reference for researchers and advanced students interested in the climate and geomorphology of deserts: geographers, geologists, ecologists, archaeologists, soil scientists, hydrologists, climatologists and natural resource managers.

It's Getting Hot in Here

The Past, Present, and Future of Climate Change

Author: Bridget Heos

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 0544750594

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 224

View: 1438

Tackling the issue of global warming head-on for a teen audience, Bridget Heos examines the science behind it, the history of climate change on our planet, and the ways in which humans have affected the current crisis we face. It’s Getting Hot in Here illustrates how interconnected we are not just with everyone else on the planet, but with the people who came before us and the ones who will inherit the planet after us. This eye-opening approach to one of today’s most pressing issues focuses on the past human influences, the current state of affairs, the grim picture for the future—and how young readers can help to make a positive change.

The Oceans and Rapid Climate Change

Past, Present, and Future

Author: Dan Seidov,Bernd J. Haupt,Mark A. Maslin

Publisher: American Geophysical Union

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 293

View: 1665

Explores the role of the ocean in fast climate changes in the past and conceivable future. The first half of the 16 papers present data interpretation, hypotheses based on data analyses, and ideas that shed new light on past climates and their evolution. The remaining papers describe climate system models that focus on the global ocean, starting with simpler, ocean-only models that develop into full, three-dimensional models of entire climate systems. Topics include the key climate transitions during the Quaternary period, stochastic resonance in the North Atlantic, and the relationship between glacial- to-interglacial changes of ocean circulation and eolian sediment transport. No index. c. Book News Inc.

Sea-Level Rise for the Coasts of California, Oregon, and Washington:

Past, Present, and Future

Author: Committee on Sea Level Rise in California, Oregon, and Washington,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Ocean Studies Board,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309255945

Category: Science

Page: 201

View: 5105

Tide gauges show that global sea level has risen about 7 inches during the 20th century, and recent satellite data show that the rate of sea-level rise is accelerating. As Earth warms, sea levels are rising mainly because ocean water expands as it warms; and water from melting glaciers and ice sheets is flowing into the ocean. Sea-level rise poses enormous risks to the valuable infrastructure, development, and wetlands that line much of the 1,600 mile shoreline of California, Oregon, and Washington. As those states seek to incorporate projections of sea-level rise into coastal planning, they asked the National Research Council to make independent projections of sea-level rise along their coasts for the years 2030, 2050, and 2100, taking into account regional factors that affect sea level. Sea-Level Rise for the Coasts of California, Oregon, and Washington: Past, Present, and Future explains that sea level along the U.S. west coast is affected by a number of factors. These include: climate patterns such as the El Niño, effects from the melting of modern and ancient ice sheets, and geologic processes, such as plate tectonics. Regional projections for California, Oregon, and Washington show a sharp distinction at Cape Mendocino in northern California. South of that point, sea-level rise is expected to be very close to global projections. However, projections are lower north of Cape Mendocino because the land is being pushed upward as the ocean plate moves under the continental plate along the Cascadia Subduction Zone. However, an earthquake magnitude 8 or larger, which occurs in the region every few hundred to 1,000 years, would cause the land to drop and sea level to suddenly rise.

Earth's Climate

Past and Future

Author: William F. Ruddiman

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 0716784904

Category: Science

Page: 388

View: 9694

'Earth's Climate' summarises the major lessons to be learned from 550 million years of climate changes, as a way of evaluating the climatological impact on and by humans in this century. The book also looks ahead to possible effects during the next several centuries of fossil fuel use.

Arctic Sustainability Research

Past, Present and Future

Author: Andrey N Petrov

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1351614630

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 9304

The Arctic is one of the world's regions most affected by cultural, socio-economic, environmental, and climatic changes. Over the last two decades, scholars, policymakers, extractive industries, governments, intergovernmental forums, and non-governmental organizations have turned their attention to the Arctic, its peoples, resources, and to the challenges and benefits of impending transformations. Arctic sustainability is an issue of increasing concern as well as the resilience and adaptation of Arctic societies to changing conditions. This book offers key insights into the history, current state of knowledge and the future of sustainability, and sustainable development research in the Arctic. Written by an international, interdisciplinary team of experts, it presents a comprehensive progress report on Arctic sustainability research. It identifies key knowledge gaps and provides salient recommendations for prioritizing research in the next decade. Arctic Sustainability Research will appeal to researchers, academics, and policymakers interested in sustainability science and the practices of sustainable development, as well as those working in polar studies, climate change, political geography, and the history of science.

Paleoclimates

Understanding Climate Change Past and Present

Author: Thomas M. Cronin

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231144946

Category: Science

Page: 441

View: 7930

"When combined with computer model simulations, paleoclimatic reconstructions are used to test hypotheses about the causes of climatic change, such as greenhouse gases, solar variability, earth's orbital variations, and hydrological, oceanic, and tectonic processes, This book is a comprehensive, state-of-the art synthesis of paleoclimate research covering all geological timescales, emphasizing topics that shed light on modern trends in the earth's climate." --Book Jacket.

The Attacking Ocean

The Past, Present, and Future of Rising Sea Levels

Author: Brian Fagan

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 1608196941

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 2383

A history of climate change describes the dramatic evolution and stabilization of the oceans before the rise of humans approximately 6,000 years ago, tracing a significant rise in global temperatures since 1860 and how a rising sea level is affecting world populations.

Climate Adaptation Futures

Author: Jean P. Palutikof,Sarah L. Boulter,Andrew J. Ash,Mark Stafford Smith,Martin Parry,Marie Waschka,Daniela Guitart

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118529472

Category: Science

Page: 424

View: 9272

Adaptation is the poor cousin of the climate change challenge - the glamour of international debate is around global mitigation agreements, while the bottom-up activities of adaptation, carried out in community halls and local government offices, are often overlooked. Yet, as international forums fail to deliver reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, the world is realising that effective adaptation will be essential across all sectors to deal with the unavoidable impacts of climate change. The need to understand how to adapt effectively, and to develop appropriate adaptation options and actions, is becoming increasingly urgent. This book reports the current state of knowledge on climate change adaptation, and seeks to expose and debate key issues in adaptation research and practice. It is framed around a number of critical areas of adaptation theory and practice, including: Advances in adaptation thinking, Enabling frameworks and policy for adaptation, Engaging and communicating with practitioners, Key challenges in adaptation and development, Management of natural systems and agriculture under climate change, Ensuring water security under a changing climate, Urban infrastructure and livelihoods, and The nexus between extremes, disaster management and adaptation. It includes contributions from many of the leading thinkers and practitioners in adaptation today. The book is based on key contributions from the First International Conference on Climate Change Adaptation ‘Climate Adaptation Futures’, held on the Gold Coast, Australia, in June 2010. That three-day meeting of over 1000 researchers and practitioners in adaptation from 50 countries was the first of its kind. Readership: The book is essential reading for a wide range of individuals involved in climate change adaptation, including: Researchers, Communication specialists, Decision-makers and policy makers (e.g. government staff, local council staff), On-ground adaptation practitioners (e.g. aid agencies, government workers, NGOs), Postgraduate and graduate students, and Consultants.

Climate Variability and Change in High Elevation Regions: Past, Present & Future

Author: Henry F. Diaz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401512523

Category: Science

Page: 283

View: 418

Glaciers in the Andes are particularly important natural archives of present and past climatic and environmental changes, in significant part because of the N-S trend of this topographic barrier and its influence on the atmospheric circulation of the southern hemisphere. Strong gradients in the seasonality and amount of precipitation exist between the equator and 30° S. Large differences in amount east and west of the Andean divide also occur, as well as a change from tropical summer precipitation (additionally modified by the seasonal shift of the circulation belts) to winter precipitation in the west wind belt (e. g. , Yuille, 1999; Garraud and Aceituno, 2001). The so-called 'dry axis' lies between the tropical and extra tropical precipitation regimes (Figure 1). The high mountain desert within this axis responds most sensitively to the smallest changes in effective moisture. An important hydro-meteorological feature on a seasonal to inter-annual time-scale is the occurrence of EN SO events, which strongly control the mass balance of glaciers in this area (e. g. , Wagnon et ai. , 2001; Francou et ai. , in press). The precipitation pattern is an important factor for the interpretation of climatic and environmental records extracted from ice cores, because much of this information is related to conditions at the actual time of precipitation, and this is especially so for stable isotope records. Several ice cores have recently been drilled to bedrock in this area. From Huascanin (Thompson et ai. , 1995), Sajama (Thompson et ai.

Water 4.0

The Past, Present, and Future of the World's Most Vital Resource

Author: David Sedlak

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 030019935X

Category: Nature

Page: 349

View: 1554

Turn on the faucet, and water pours out. Pull out the drain plug, and the dirty water disappears. Most of us give little thought to the hidden systems that bring us water and take it away when we’re done with it. But these underappreciated marvels of engineering face an array of challenges that cannot be solved without a fundamental change to our relationship with water, David Sedlak explains in this enlightening book. To make informed decisions about the future, we need to understand the three revolutions in urban water systems that have occurred over the past 2,500 years and the technologies that will remake the system.div /DIVdivThe author starts by describing Water 1.0, the early Roman aqueducts, fountains, and sewers that made dense urban living feasible. He then details the development of drinking water and sewage treatment systems—the second and third revolutions in urban water. He offers an insider’s look at current systems that rely on reservoirs, underground pipe networks, treatment plants, and storm sewers to provide water that is safe to drink, before addressing how these water systems will have to be reinvented. For everyone who cares about reliable, clean, abundant water, this book is essential reading./DIV

Persistent Pollution – Past, Present and Future

School of Environmental Research - Organized by Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht

Author: Markus Quante,Ralf Ebinghaus,Götz Flöser

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642174193

Category: Science

Page: 417

View: 2159

This book evolved from the 5th School of Environmental Research entitled „Persistent Pollution – Past, Present and Future", which has set a focus on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), heavy metals and aerosols. - reconstruction of past changes based on the scientific analysis of natural archives such as ice cores and peat deposits, - evaluation of the present environmental state by the integration of measurements and modelling and the establishment of cause-effect-patterns, - assessment of possible environmental future scenarios including emission and climate change perspectives.

Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater Ecosystems

Author: Martin Kernan,Richard W. Battarbee,Brian R. Moss

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444391275

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 488

This text examines the impact of climate change on freshwater ecosystems, past, present and future. It especially considers the interactions between climate change and other drivers of change including hydromorphological modification, nutrient loading, acid deposition and contamination by toxic substances using evidence from palaeolimnology, time-series analysis, space-for-time substitution, laboratory and field experiments and process modelling. The book evaluates these processes in relation to extreme events, seasonal changes in ecosystems, trends over decadal-scale time periods, mitigation strategies and ecosystem recovery. The book is also concerned with how aspects of hydrophysical, hydrochemical and ecological change can be used as early indicators of climate change in aquatic ecosystems and it addresses the implications of future climate change for freshwater ecosystem management at the catchment scale. This is an ideal book for the scientific research community, but is also accessible to Masters and senior undergraduate students.

Climate Change: Multidecadal and Beyond

Author: Chih-Pei Chang,Michael Ghil,Mojib Latif,John M Wallace

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814579947

Category: Science

Page: 388

View: 7431

This book focuses on two major challenges in the climate sciences: 1) to describe the decadal-to-centennial variations in instrumental and proxy records; and 2) to distinguish between anthropogenic variations and natural variability. The National Taiwan University invited some of the world's leading experts across the areas of observational analysis, mathematical theory, and modeling to discuss these two issues. The outcome of the meeting is the 23 chapters in this book that review the state of the art in theoretical, observational and modeling research on internal, unforced and externally forced climate variability. The main conclusion of this research is that internal climate variability on decadal and longer time scales is so large that sidestepping it may lead to false estimates of the climate's sensitivity to anthropogenic forcing. Contents:Attribution of Climate Change in the Presence of Internal Variability (John M Wallace, Clara Deser, Brian V Smoliak, and Adam S Phillips)A Mathematical Theory of Climate Sensitivity or, How to Deal With Both Anthropogenic Forcing and Natural Variability? (Michael Ghil)Fluctuation-dissipation Theorem with Application to Climate Change Studies with Seasonal Impact (Xiaoming Wang)Parametrization of Cross-scale Interaction in Multiscale Systems (Jeroen Wouters and Valerio Lucarini)Dynamics of Nonlinear Error Growth and the "Spring Predictability Barrier" for El Niño Predictions (Wansuo Duan and Mu Mu)An Adaptive Approach for Nonlinear and Nonstationary Data Analysis (Norden E Huang)Internal Southern Ocean Centennial Variability: Dynamics, Impacts and Implications for Global Warming (Mojib Latif, Torge Martin, Wonsun Park, and Mohammad H Bordbar)Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and Climate (Rong Zhang)North Atlantic Multi-Decadal Variability — Mechanisms and Predictability (Noel S Keenlyside, Jin Ba, Jennifer Mecking, Nour-Eddine Omrani, Mojib Latif, Rong Zhang, and Rym Msadek)A Review of the Dynamics of Pacific Interdecadal Climate Variability (Zhengyu Liu)Global-Scale Decadal Hyper Modes (Dietmar Dommenget)Evidence for a Recurrent Multi-Decadal Oscillation in Global Temperature and Possible Impacts on 21st Century Climate Projections (Ka-Kit Tung and Jiansong Zhou)Variability of Sea Ice Extent Over Decadal and Longer Timescales (John E Walsh and William L Chapman)Multi-year Prediction and Predictability (Timothy DelSole, Michael K Tippett, and Liwei Jia)Decadal Hydroclimate Variability Across the Americas (Richard Seager)The Interhemispheric Pattern and Long-Term Variations in the Tropical Climate over the 20th and 21st Centuries (John C H Chiang)Climate of China in the Holocene (Wang Shaowu, Wen Xinyu, and Huang Jianbin)North Atlantic Hurricane Activity: Past, Present and Future (Rym Msadek, Gabriel A Vecchi, and Thomas R Knutson)Observed Variations of Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Activity on Decadal Time Scales and Longer (Johnny C L Chan)Record-Breaking Increase of Tropical Cyclone Heavy Rainfall in Taiwan in the First Decade of 21st Century (Chih-Pei Chang, Hung-Chi Kuo, and Chung-Hsiung Sui)Multi-Decadal Variability in Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall Using Proxy Data (Bhupendra N Goswami, Ramesh H Kripalani, Hemant P Borgaonkar, and Bhaskar Preethi)The South-Flood North-Drought Pattern Over Eastern China and the Drying of the Gangetic Plain (Sumant Nigam, Yongjing Zhao, Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas, and Tianjun Zhou)Impacts of Aerosols on the Asian Monsoon — An Interim Assessment (William K M Lau and Kyu-Myong Kim) Readership: Graduate students, academics and researchers in atmospheric sciences, oceanography, mathematics, and climate change. Keywords:Climate Change;Multidecadal Variability;Climate Variability Asia-Pacific Weather

Thunder & Lightning

Weather Past, Present, Future

Author: Lauren Redniss

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 0679644725

Category: Nature

Page: 272

View: 1689

Note: This eBook file contains many richly detailed full-color images and makes use of unconventional page layouts. Because of this, readers will be required to zoom in on each page to read the text and see the finer detail of the artwork. [It has not been optimized for devices that display only in black and white.] From the National Book Award finalist Lauren Redniss, author of Radioactive, comes a dazzling fusion of storytelling, visual art, and reportage that grapples with weather in all its dimensions: its danger and its beauty, why it happens and what it means. WINNER OF THE PEN/E. O. WILSON LITERARY SCIENCE WRITING AWARD • NAMED ONE OF THE BEST BOOKS OF THE YEAR BY SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE, KIRKUS REVIEWS, AND SHELF AWARENESS Weather is the very air we breathe—it shapes our daily lives and alters the course of history. In Thunder & Lightning, Lauren Redniss tells the story of weather and humankind through the ages. This wide-ranging work roams from the driest desert on earth to a frigid island in the Arctic, from the Biblical flood to the defeat of the Spanish Armada. Redniss visits the headquarters of the National Weather Service, recounts top-secret rainmaking operations during the Vietnam War, and examines the economic impact of disasters like Hurricane Katrina. Drawing on extensive research and countless interviews, she examines our own day and age, from our most personal decisions—Do I need an umbrella today?—to the awesome challenges we face with global climate change. Redniss produced each element of Thunder & Lightning: the text, the artwork, the covers, and every page in between. She created many of the images using the antiquated printmaking technique copper plate photogravure etching. She even designed the book’s typeface. The result is a book unlike any other: a spellbinding combination of storytelling, art, and science. Praise for Thunder & Lightning “[An] aesthetically charged and deeply researched account . . . a wild rainstorm of a book, pelting the reader with ideas and inspiration.”—Nature “A gorgeous and illuminating illustrated study of weather in all its tempestuous variety . . . Redniss’s combo of fact, folklore, and vibrant etched copperplate prints enthralls.”—O: The Oprah Magazine “Eerily beautiful . . . Contains plenty of scientific explanation (including more than a few nods toward global warming), but also far-flung personal stories that illuminate the beauty, wonder and chaos inherent in the elements.”—The New York Times “Magical . . . Redniss has . . . shown us how human beings live with nature—fighting, coexisting, taming, predicting via leech barometer and radar and intuition.”—The New York Times Book Review “[A] twenty-first-century genius . . . The reader willing to put herself fully in Redniss’s hands will be rewarded with a delicious feeling of being enveloped by a phenomenon that eclipses the chiming trivialities of daily life.”—Elle “Redniss is one of the most creative science writers of our time—her combination of beautiful artwork, reporting, and poetic prose brings science to life in ways that words alone simply cannot.”—Rebecca Skloot “Redniss combines her own dual punch of expressive art and impressive erudition to give an entirely new take on all that happens above our heads.”—Adam Gopnik “A strange and wonderful thing, the work of a first-class mind that refuses to submit to any categories or precedent.”—Dave Eggers

Climate Change

Biological and Human Aspects

Author: Jonathan Cowie

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139465392

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 2562

In recent years climate change has become recognised as the foremost environmental problem of the twenty-first century. Not only will climate change potentially affect the multibillion dollar energy strategies of countries worldwide, but it also could seriously affect many species, including our own. A fascinating introduction to the subject, this textbook provides a broad review of past, present and likely future climate change from the viewpoints of biology, ecology and human ecology. It will be of interest to a wide range of people, from students in the life sciences who need a brief overview of the basics of climate science, to atmospheric science, geography, and environmental science students who need to understand the biological and human ecological implications of climate change. It will also be a valuable reference for those involved in environmental monitoring, conservation, policy-making and policy lobbying.

The Weather Makers

How Man Is Changing the Climate and What It Means for Life on Earth

Author: Tim Flannery

Publisher: Open Road + Grove/Atlantic

ISBN: 1555846335

Category: Nature

Page: 400

View: 3231

The #1 international bestseller on climate change that’s been endorsed by policy makers, scientists, writers and energy executives around the world. Tim Flannery’s The Weather Makers contributed in bringing the topic of global warming to worldwide prominence. For the first time, a scientist provided an accessible and comprehensive account of the history, current status, and future impact of climate change, writing what has been acclaimed by reviewers everywhere as the definitive book on global warming. With one out of every five living things on this planet committed to extinction by the levels of greenhouse gases that will accumulate in the next few decades, we are reaching a global climatic tipping point. The Weather Makers is both an urgent warning and a call to arms, outlining the history of climate change, how it will unfold over the next century, and what we can do to prevent a cataclysmic future. Originally somewhat of a global warming skeptic, Tim Flannery spent several years researching the topic and offers a connect-the-dots approach for a reading public who has received patchy or misleading information on the subject. Pulling on his expertise as a scientist to discuss climate change from a historical perspective, Flannery also explains how climate change is interconnected across the planet. This edition includes a new afterword by the author. “An authoritative, scientifically accurate book on global warming that sparkles with life, clarity, and intelligence.” —The Washington Post