Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Author: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This latest Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will again form the standard scientific reference for all those concerned with climate change and its consequences, including students and researchers in environmental science, meteorology, climatology, biology, ecology and atmospheric chemistry. It provides invaluable material for decision makers and stakeholders: international, national, local; and in all branches: government, businesses, and NGOs. This volume provides: • An authoritative and unbiased overview of the physical science basis of climate change • A more extensive assessment of changes observed throughout the climate system than ever before • New dedicated chapters on sea-level change, biogeochemical cycles, clouds and aerosols, and regional climate phenomena • A more extensive coverage of model projections, both near-term and long-term climate projections • A detailed assessment of climate change observations, modelling, and attribution for every continent • A new comprehensive atlas of global and regional climate projections for 35 regions of the world
Das als Durchbruch gefeierte Abkommen von Paris (2015) hat erneut bestätigt, dass es auf die Fähigkeit der Politik zur Zusammenarbeit ankommt, weltweit, national und in Netzwerken, wenn die Stabilisierung des Weltklimas gelingen soll. Das Handbuch informiert über die wichtigsten Institutionen (IPCC, UN-Klimaregime), Akteure (USA, EU, China, Entwicklungsländer) und Kooperationsformen des noch jungen globalen Politikfeldes.
For science to remain a legitimate and trustworthy source of knowledge, society will have to engage in the collective processes of knowledge co-production, which not only includes science, but also other types of knowledge. This process of change has to include a new commitment to knowledge creation and transmission and its role in a plural society. This book proposes to consider new ways in which science can be used to sustain our planet and enrich our lives. It helps to release and reactivate social responsibility within contemporary science and technology. It reviews critically relevant cases of contemporary scientific practice within the Cartesian paradigm, relabelled as 'innovation research', promoted as essential for the progress and well-being of humanity, and characterised by high capital investment, centralised control of funding and quality, exclusive expertise, and a reductionism that is philosophical as well as methodological. This is an accessible and relevant book for scholars in Science and Technology Studies, History and Philosophy of Science, and Science, Engineering and Technology Ethics. Providing an array of concrete examples, it supports scientists, engineers and technical experts, as well as policy-makers and other non-technical professionals working with science and technology to re-direct their approach to global problems, in a more integrative, self-reflective and humble direction.
Jean P. Palutikof,Sarah L. Boulter,Jon Barnett,David Rissik
Author: Jean P. Palutikof,Sarah L. Boulter,Jon Barnett,David Rissik
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
The book advances knowledge about climate change adaptationpractices through a series of case studies. It presents importantevidence about adaptation practices in agriculture, businesses, thecoastal zone, community services, disaster management, ecosystems,indigneous populations, and settlements and infrastructure. Inaddition to 38 case studies across these sectors, the book containshorizon-scoping essays from international experts in adaptationresearch, including Hallie Eakin, Susanne Moser, Jonathon Overpeck,Bill Solecki, and Gary Yohe. Australia’s social-ecological systems have a long historyof adapting to climate variability and change, and in recentdecades has been a world-leader in implementing and researchingadaptation, making this book of universal relevance to all thoseworking to adapt our environment and societies to climatechange.
National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Committee on Understanding and Monitoring Abrupt Climate Change and Its Impacts
Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Committee on Understanding and Monitoring Abrupt Climate Change and Its Impacts
Publisher: National Academies Press
Climate is changing, forced out of the range of the past million years by levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases not seen in the Earth's atmosphere for a very, very long time. Lacking action by the world's nations, it is clear that the planet will be warmer, sea level will rise, and patterns of rainfall will change. But the future is also partly uncertain -- there is considerable uncertainty about how we will arrive at that different climate. Will the changes be gradual, allowing natural systems and societal infrastructure to adjust in a timely fashion? Or will some of the changes be more abrupt, crossing some threshold or "tipping point" to change so fast that the time between when a problem is recognized and when action is required shrinks to the point where orderly adaptation is not possible? Abrupt Impacts of Climate Change is an updated look at the issue of abrupt climate change and its potential impacts. This study differs from previous treatments of abrupt changes by focusing on abrupt climate changes and also abrupt climate impacts that have the potential to severely affect the physical climate system, natural systems, or human systems, often affecting multiple interconnected areas of concern. The primary timescale of concern is years to decades. A key characteristic of these changes is that they can come faster than expected, planned, or budgeted for, forcing more reactive, rather than proactive, modes of behavior. Abrupt Impacts of Climate Change summarizes the state of our knowledge about potential abrupt changes and abrupt climate impacts and categorizes changes that are already occurring, have a high probability of occurrence, or are unlikely to occur. Because of the substantial risks to society and nature posed by abrupt changes, this report recommends the development of an Abrupt Change Early Warning System that would allow for the prediction and possible mitigation of such changes before their societal impacts are severe. Identifying key vulnerabilities can help guide efforts to increase resiliency and avoid large damages from abrupt change in the climate system, or in abrupt impacts of gradual changes in the climate system, and facilitate more informed decisions on the proper balance between mitigation and adaptation. Although there is still much to learn about abrupt climate change and abrupt climate impacts, to willfully ignore the threat of abrupt change could lead to more costs, loss of life, suffering, and environmental degradation. Abrupt Impacts of Climate Change makes the case that the time is here to be serious about the threat of tipping points so as to better anticipate and prepare ourselves for the inevitable surprises.
The ongoing global warming is setting off changes in global climatewhat has come to be known as climate changewith dire consequences on the ecosystem of the earth and on human life, being experienced by the world for over the last many decades in the form of climatic extremes, erratic rainfall, floods, droughts, cyclones, having adverse impact on water resources, agriculture, health, human settlements, biodiversity, loss of glaciers, rise in sea level, ocean acidification, etc. All these have been scientifically established through the Assessment Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The causes of this rising threat are mainly indiscriminate human activities of burning of fossil-fuels, deforestation, intensive agriculture, and animal husbandry, industrial emissions, etc., causing continual rise of emissions of greenhouse gases. The general perception is that decision making and action is slow, and the threat is increasing by the day. There is lack of public awareness toward the danger. Since human activities are the cause, it is through modification of human activities that the danger can be averted. The purpose of this book is to explain the whole phenomenon of climate change in easy language and lucid style, for creating public awareness. Aware people can prevail upon the governments and authorities to take up the mitigation and adaptation efforts in right earnest, and also on their part, they can conduct their daily activities with thought of abating the challenge.
Institutionalizing Integrated Coastal Zone Management and Coastal Climate Change Adaptation in South Asia
Author: Tony George Puthucherril
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Utilizing the coastal problems of South Asia, including sea level rise, Towards Sustainable Coastal Development: Institutionalizing Integrated Coastal Zone Management and Coastal Climate Change Adaptation in South Asia investigates the role of law and regional regimes in facilitating linkages between integrated coastal zone management and coastal climate change adaptation to contribute to sustainable coastal development.
Climate change poses a risk to business operations and to markets--but at the same time, it can bring opportunities for some businesses. With chapters on the nature, science and politics of climate change risk, as well as how to assess, then how to cope with it, and recommendations for incorporating climate change risks into a Company Climate Risk System, this concise guide serves the needs of business students and practitioners across a wide range of sectors, public and private.
Britain faces extraordinary challenges, from climate change to growing inequality and global economics, but as a nation it has no plan for the future. This unique book asks a simple question: how can Britain organise itself, not just for survival but to build a fairer and sustainable society? The arguments refer to the high ambitions of those who pioneered the planning movement and campaigned for a clear set of progressive values, but whose drive for utopia has now been forgotten. The book takes a distinctive approach to exploring the value to society of social town planning and offers a doorway for how planning, both morally and practically, can help to meet key challenges of the 21st century. It challenges the widely held view that it’s impossible to achieve a better future by suggesting that there is real choice in how society develops and pointing to contemporary examples of utopia. This accessible book makes essential reading for students in the built environment and the wider social sciences who have an interest in UK and European examples of sustainable communities.
The book use an approach that explains the mechanisms but is equation-free. It is written from the point of view of a physicist and treats the physical processes in detail providing a deep understanding in particular of the energy balance and the greenhouse effect. It avoids technical jargon and presents the issues in a simple and clear manner. In addition to the fuller explanations, the approach is innovative. The record of past climates is used as a benchmark to assess current climate changes and to apprehend the true magnitude of coming changes that stem from human activity. It is for this reason that such emphasis is given to understanding the mechanisms (Parts 1 and 2) and the lessons from past climates (Part 3). The central subject of the book is thus that of Work Package 1 of IPCC, namely “Climate changes in the past and to come”. Although many topics are covered, the book focuses on the fundamental mechanisms that underlie climate equilibrium. These are discussed in depth and placed in a hierarchy, which provides a better perspective of the different factors, parameters and mechanisms that drive the variations in the average climate. One of its novelties is to present the notion of average climate in terms of energy required to maintain the climate. This allows the reader to understand the basic role of the available energy on the Earth and to generalise the concept of climate on the scale of the whole planet. In this way the fundamental importance of the greenhouse effect is introduced, as well as the average temperature as an indicator of climate change, i.e., the pertinence of the temperature – energy parameter. This is why it describes the average climate in terms of the three key components : temperature, rainfall and wind. Special attention is given to the energy balance of the planet in all its aspects and to understanding clearly the mechanism of the greenhouse effect and the physical notion of temperature. These last two form the basis of the perturbation generated by human activity and the means of quantifying its impact. By presenting the detailed climate archives over the last few million years (Part 3, Lessons of the Past), in particular the glacial - interglacial cycles of the Quaternary era, the mechanism that drives the natural climate changes is revealed, and the lessons to be learnt from the past follow naturally. Emphasis is laid on the means of characterizing and quantifying global climate change: -Global warming is accompanied by an average rise in temperature that increases with latitude. Mean latitudes experience a rise in temperature twice as great as that of the overall average (a finding that is confirmed by the recent warming and which is forecast in the models for the 21st century). -Throughout the whole of the Quaternary era (last few million years) the warm interglacial periods never encountered a rise in the average temperature greater than 2°C beyond the current warm period. This provides a reference for the global warming that is approaching. -Finally, with respect to biodiversity, the glacial - interglacial cycles of the past illustrate how the impact of large temperature changes can affect the biosphere, and promote greater biodiversity at lower latitudes. These points serve to circumscribe the magnitude of the changes, both in the climate and in the biosphere, that are in store in the 21st century. The whole of Part 4 (Recent evolution in the climate) summarizes the consequences of the recent global warming. The interest here is to illustrate the observed impact on the planet of a global climate change. This highlights the predictions of the models, which are entirely consistent with these observations (Part 5).
METEOROLOGY TODAY, 11th Edition combines market-leading content in weather, climate, and earth science with the interactive learning experience you expect from Cengage Learning. Grounded in the scientific method, this student-friendly and highly visual text shows you how to observe, calculate, and synthesize information as a budding scientist, systematically analyzing meteorological concepts and issues. Specific discussions center on severe weather systems, such as tornadoes, thunderstorms, and hurricanes, as well as everyday elements, such as wind, precipitation, condensation, masses and fronts, and the seasons. Events and issues dominating today's news cycles also receive thorough attention, and include analysis of Superstorm Sandy, the Oklahoma tornadoes, and recent findings from the US National Climate Assessment and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. METEOROLOGY TODAY, 11th Edition is a dynamic learning tool packed with self-testing features such as end-of-chapter summaries, key terms, review questions, exercises and problems, live animations, web links, and more. Whether you choose a bound book or interactive eBook, METEOROLOGY TODAY, 11th Edition takes your learning to atmospheric heights! Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Franklin Allen,Jere R. Behrman,Nancy Birdsall,Shahrokh Fardoust,Dani Rodrik,Andrew Steer,Arvind Subramanian
Policy Implications for Citizens Worldwide in the 21st Century
Author: Franklin Allen,Jere R. Behrman,Nancy Birdsall,Shahrokh Fardoust,Dani Rodrik,Andrew Steer,Arvind Subramanian
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Category: Business & Economics
Substantial progress in the fight against extreme poverty was made in the last two decades. But the slowdown in global economic growth and significant increases in income inequality in many developed and developing countries raise serious concerns about the continuation of this trend into the 21st century. The time has come to seriously think about how improvements in official global governance, coupled with and reinforced by rising activism of 'global citizens' can lead to welfare-enhancing and more equitable results for global citizens through better national and international policies. This book examines the factors that are most likely to facilitate the process of beneficial economic growth in low-, middle-, and high-income countries. It examines past, present, and future economic growth; demographic changes; the hyperglobalization of trade; the effect of finance on growth; climate change and resource depletion; and the sense of global citizenship and the need for global governance in order to draw longer-term implications, identify policy options for improving the lives of average citizens around the world, and make the case for the need to confront new challenges with truly global policy responses. The book documents how demographic changes, convergence, and competition are likely to bring about massive shifts in the sectoral and geographical composition of global output and employment, as the center of gravity of the global economy moves toward Asia and emerging economies elsewhere. It shows that the legacies of the 2008-09 crisis-high unemployment levels, massive excess capacities, and high debt levels-are likely to reduce the standard of living of millions of people in many countries over a long period of adjustment and that fluctuations in international trade, financial markets, and commodity prices, as well as the tendency of institutions at both the national and international level to favor the interests of the better-off and more powerful pose substantial risks for citizens of all countries. The chapters and their policy implications are intended to stimulate public interest and facilitate the exchange of ideas and policy dialogue.
Author: Ian Shennan,Antony J. Long,Benjamin P. Horton
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Measuring sea-level change – be that rise or fall – isone of the most pressing scientific goals of our time and requiresrobust scientific approaches and techniques. This Handbookaims to provide a practical guide to readers interested in thischallenge, from the initial design of research approaches throughto the practical issues of data collection and interpretation froma diverse range of coastal environments. Building on thirtyyears of international research, the Handbook comprises 38 chaptersthat are authored by leading experts from around the world. The Handbook will be an important resource to scientists interestedand involved in understanding sea-level changes across a broadrange of disciplines, policy makers wanting to appreciate ourcurrent state of knowledge of sea-level change over differenttimescales, and many teachers at the university level, as well asadvanced-level undergraduates and postgraduate research students,wanting to learn more about sea-level change. Additional resources for this book can be found at: ahref="http://www.wiley.com/go/shennan/sealevel"www.wiley.com\go\shennan\sealevel/a
Could everything we know about fossil fuels be wrong? For decades, environmentalists have told us that using fossil fuels is a self-destructive addiction that will destroy our planet. Yet at the same time, by every measure of human well-being, from life expectancy to clean water to climate safety, life has been getting better and better. How can this be? The explanation, energy expert Alex Epstein argues in The Moral Case for Fossil Fuels, is that we usually hear only one side of the story. We’re taught to think only of the negatives of fossil fuels, their risks and side effects, but not their positives—their unique ability to provide cheap, reliable energy for a world of seven billion people. And the moral significance of cheap, reliable energy, Epstein argues, is woefully underrated. Energy is our ability to improve every single aspect of life, whether economic or environmental. If we look at the big picture of fossil fuels compared with the alternatives, the overall impact of using fossil fuels is to make the world a far better place. We are morally obligated to use more fossil fuels for the sake of our economy and our environment. Drawing on original insights and cutting-edge research, Epstein argues that most of what we hear about fossil fuels is a myth. For instance . . . Myth: Fossil fuels are dirty. Truth: The environmental benefits of using fossil fuels far outweigh the risks. Fossil fuels don’t take a naturally clean environment and make it dirty; they take a naturally dirty environment and make it clean. They don’t take a naturally safe climate and make it dangerous; they take a naturally dangerous climate and make it ever safer. Myth: Fossil fuels are unsustainable, so we should strive to use “renewable” solar and wind. Truth: The sun and wind are intermittent, unreliable fuels that always need backup from a reliable source of energy—usually fossil fuels. There are huge amounts of fossil fuels left, and we have plenty of time to find something cheaper. Myth: Fossil fuels are hurting the developing world. Truth: Fossil fuels are the key to improving the quality of life for billions of people in the developing world. If we withhold them, access to clean water plummets, critical medical machines like incubators become impossible to operate, and life expectancy drops significantly. Calls to “get off fossil fuels” are calls to degrade the lives of innocent people who merely want the same opportunities we enjoy in the West. Taking everything into account, including the facts about climate change, Epstein argues that “fossil fuels are easy to misunderstand and demonize, but they are absolutely good to use. And they absolutely need to be championed. . . . Mankind’s use of fossil fuels is supremely virtuous—because human life is the standard of value and because using fossil fuels transforms our environment to make it wonderful for human life.”
Biochar is the carbon-rich product which occurs when biomass (such as wood, manure or crop residues) is heated in a closed container with little or no available air. It can be used to improve agriculture and the environment in several ways, and its persistence in soil and nutrient-retention properties make it an ideal soil amendment to increase crop yields. In addition to this, biochar sequestration, in combination with sustainable biomass production, can be carbon-negative and therefore used to actively remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, with potentially major implications for mitigation of climate change. Biochar production can also be combined with bioenergy production through the use of the gases that are given off in the pyrolysis process. The first edition of this book, published in 2009, was the definitive work reviewing the expanding research literature on this topic. Since then, the rate of research activity has increased at least ten-fold, and biochar products are now commercially available as soil amendments. This second edition includes not only substantially updated chapters, but also additional chapters: on environmental risk assessment; on new uses of biochar in composting and potting mixes; a new and controversial field of studying the effects of biochar on soil carbon cycles; on traditional use with very recent discoveries that biochar was used not only in the Amazon but also in Africa and Asia; on changes in water availability and soil water dynamics; and on sustainability and certification. The book therefore continues to represent the most comprehensive compilation of current knowledge on all aspects of biochar.
This volume provides various examples and dimensions, chemical, biological, climatic, or related to extreme (hazards). It describes, by reciprocity, the vulnerability of ecosystems, resources, heritage, human health and, consequently, economic and social sectors. it considers climate scenarios and socio-economic status indicators research, design strategies and patterns of adaptation, development of innovative monitoring systems, analysis of perceptions of major hazards and valuation of ecosystem services.
The global food system is characterized by large numbers of people experiencing food insecurity and hunger on the one hand, and vast amounts of food waste and overconsumption on the other. This book brings together experiences from different countries addressing the challenges associated with food security. Seen through various disciplinary lenses the different cases included are countries at various stages of food security, with diverse stories of success as well as failures in their efforts. China, Brazil and India, as well as less developed countries in Africa and Asia, such as Malawi, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Myanmar, Bangladesh and the Philippines. The authors pay special attention to the environmental and socio-economic challenges in the respective chapters and how they contribute to food insecurity. Each of the case studies identifies and analyzes which factors or drivers (environmental, economic, policy, technology, markets) have been the most powerful shapers of the food system and their future impact. The case studies identify interventions at regional, national and local level that contribute positively to food security, highlighting solutions that are effective and easy to implement for all levels of decision makers, from farmers to policy makers. Overall, the book provides insights in order to foster a greater understanding of the issues surrounding food security and support progress towards the goal of a sustainable food system for all.