Writing in a popular and well illustrated style, leading young scientists describe their research and give their visions of future developments. Topics include studies of atoms and molecules in motion; development of new processes and materials; nature's secrets of biological growth and form, progress in understanding the human body and mind. Introduced by Robert May, the book conveys the excitement and enthusiasm of the young authors. The book offers definitive reviews for anyone with a general interest in the future directions of science.
Written with the non-scientist in mind, this book employs the molecule and its interactions to explain the characteristics of living organisms in terms of the underlying chemistry of life. Following introductory chapters on the fundamentals of life, attention then turns to small molecules such as hormones and neurotransmitters and subsequently to macromolecules including proteins and nucleic acids. The interactions between small and macromolecules remains a central point throughout the book. These include enzymatic catalysis, hormone action, neurotransmission, regulation of metabolism, biosynthesis of macromolecules, the mechanism of action of drugs, taste, olfaction, learning and memory, and chemical communication. A second central point of emphasis is the sensitive relationship between chemical structure and biological activity. Examples abound and include why subtle changes in fatty acid architecture have positive or negative outcomes for human health in omega-three fatty acids and trans fats and how modest changes in the chemical decoration of the steroid skeleton provide the difference between male and female sex hormones. Beyond these examples taken from the chemistry of small molecules, the book includes a thoughtful consideration of genomics, including the relationship between genome structure and species. The theme of human health appears throughout the book. Cardiovascular medicine, cancer, metabolic diseases, and diseases of the nervous system receive significant attention including consideration of how a variety of drugs work in combating these issues. In sum, the goal of this book is to inform the non-scientist community in a way that will lead to increased understanding of the relationship between chemistry and life.
John William Hill,Stuart J. Baum,Rhonda J. Scott-Ennis
An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry
Author: John William Hill,Stuart J. Baum,Rhonda J. Scott-Ennis
Publisher: Pearson College Division
Renowned for its lively, easy-to-follow writing style, this popular introduction to chemistry offers a strong foundation in the fundamentals of the science, and relates its essential principles to health, sports, lifestyles, the environment and other subjects of direct interest to readers. Separates the material into three distinct areas of study (general, organic and biological), offering clear explanations of matter and measurement, atoms, chemical reactions, gases, acids and bases, hydrocarbons, aldehydes and ketones, stereoisomerism, lipids, nucleic acids and protein synthesis, and much more. Includes "Special Topics" mini-chapters covering such diverse areas as electrolytes, sight and odor, digestion, drugs, and hormones, and explores many newsworthy topics including acid rain, the greenhouse effect, anabolic steroids, designer drugs, AIDS, osteoporosis, chromium supplements, arteriosclerosis, lead poisoning, blood doping, hemophilia, and cancer risks. Offers boxed essays and many examples that illustrate chemistry's application to the real world.
Marvin Hackerrt,John W. Hill,Roger K. Sandwick,Stuart J. Baum,Dorothy M. Feigl
Applications to Chemical and Life Sciences : With 187 Figures and 39 Tables
Author: Bernard Valeur
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This first volume in the new "Springer Series on Fluorescence" brings together fundamental and applied research from this highly interdisciplinary field ranging from chemistry and physics to biology and medicine. Special attention is given to supramolecular systems, sensor applications, confocal microscopy and protein-protein interactions. This carefully edited collection of state-of-the-art articles will serve as an invaluable tool for practitioners and novices and provide inspiration for new developments and applications.
"WHAT DOES NOT NEED TO BE BIG, WILL BE SMALL", a word by an engineer at a recent conference on chips technology. This sentence is particularly true for chemistry. Microfabrication technology emerged from microelectronics into areas like mechanics and now chemistry and biology. The engineering of micron and submicron sized features on the surface of silicon, glass and polymers opens a whole new world. Micromotors smaller than human hair have been fabricated and they work fine. It is the declared goal of the authors to bring these different worlds together in this volume. Authors have been carefully chosen to guarantee for the quality of the contents. An engineer, a chemist or a biologist will find new impulses from the various chapters in this book.
Ideas in Chemistry and Molecular Sciences gives an account of the most recent results of research in life sciences in Europe based on a selection of leading young scientists participating in the 2008 European Young Chemists Award competition. In addition to this, the authors provide the state of the art of their field of research and the perspective or preview of future directions.
This book is a compact and simultaneously comprehensive introduction to the theory and practice of optical spectroscopy. The author skillfully leads the reader from the basics to practical applications. The main topics covered are: - theory of optical spectroscopy - components of spectrometers (light sources, filters, lenses and mirror chromators, detectors, cuvettes) - evaluation of data and interpretation of spectra Such important methods as absorption and luminescence spectroscopy, scattering and reflection spectroscopy, photoaccustic spectroscopy, spectroscopy of atoms, polarimetry and near infrared spectroscopy are covered in depth. A useful appendix with the addresses of pertinent equipment manufacturers rounds off the work.
The nature and directionality of halogen bonding; the sigma hole, by Timothy Clark, Peter Politzer, Jane S. Murray Solid-state NMR study of halogen-bonded adducts, by David Bryce Infrared and Raman measurements of halogen bonding in cryogenic solutions, by Wouter Herrebout Halogen bonding in the gas phase, by Anthony C. Legon Halogen bonding in solution, Mate Erdelyi Unconventional motifs for halogen bonding, by Kari Rissanen Halogen bonding in supramolecular synthesis, Christer Aakeröy Halogen bond in synthetic organic chemistry, Stefan M. Huber Anion recognition in solution via halogen bonding, Mark S. Taylor Anion transport with halogen bonds, by Stefan Matile Halogen bonding in silico drug design, by Pavel Hobza, Kevin Riley Biological halogen bonds: An old dog with new tricks, by P. Shing Ho Principles and applications of halogen bonding in medicinal chemistry, by Frank M. Boeckler Halogen bond in molecular conductors and magnets, by Marc Foumigué Halogen bonding towards design of organic phosphors, by Wei Jun Jin Halogen bond in photoresponsive materials, by Pierangelo Metrangolo, Giuseppe Resnati, Arri Priimagi
Nel 1953 L. S. Miller riuscì a sintetizzare, per via abiotica, diverse sostanze organiche e tra queste parecchi amminoacidi, componenti delle nostre proteine. Questo esperimento sembrò anche una conferma della teoria del brodo prebiotico. La scoperta sollevò un grande entusiasmo tra gli scienziati e sembrava, in quel periodo, che in poco tempo sarebbe arrivata anche la sintesi della vita in provetta. Ben presto però alcuni ostacoli risultarono insormontabili e così dopo quasi 60 anni siamo ancora all'esperienza di Miller. Partendo da questo dato sperimentale l'autore, in questo saggio, presenta il risultato di 25 anni di ricerche sulla chimica prebiotica. In particolare illustra indizi sperimentali su: la selezione degli amminoacidi naturali e la scomparsa dell'amminoacido destro, l'origine di un codice genetico rudimentale e l'interdipendenza acidi nucleici-proteine. Questi dati ci indicano, che la vita ha avuto probabilmente origine sulla terraferma, che il brodo prebiotico non è mai esistito e inoltre sollevano anche seri dubbi sull'esistenza di un progenitore comune a tutti gli organismi viventi. Infine viene presentata la teoria sull'origine della vita.
Calculator Programming for Chemistry and the Life Sciences illustrates the power of the programmable calculator as a tool that provides new dimensions to scientific research. This book is divided into four chapters. Each chapter provides calculation, examples, instructions, design, and programs. This text includes the application of calculator programming in the determination of molecular formulas, coordinate transformations, potentiometric titrations, and correlation analysis. This book is of great value to scientists and students with no experience in the use of computers.
Antoine Lavoisier, the author of the "chemical revolution," also did much to estabish the foundations for the fields of organic chemistry and biochemistry. Here, Frederic Lawrence Holmes gives us an intimate portrait of Lavoisier's investigations, ranging over twenty years, from 1773 to 1792, on respiration, fermentation, and plant and animal matter. These studies, Holmes finds, were not simply belated applications of Lavoisier's established chemical theories, but intimately bound from the beginning to his more widely known research on combustion and calcination.
National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Board on Life Sciences,Board on Physics and Astronomy,Committee on Research at the Intersection of the Physical and Life Sciences
Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Board on Life Sciences,Board on Physics and Astronomy,Committee on Research at the Intersection of the Physical and Life Sciences
Publisher: National Academies Press
Traditionally, the natural sciences have been divided into two branches: the biological sciences and the physical sciences. Today, an increasing number of scientists are addressing problems lying at the intersection of the two. These problems are most often biological in nature, but examining them through the lens of the physical sciences can yield exciting results and opportunities. For example, one area producing effective cross-discipline research opportunities centers on the dynamics of systems. Equilibrium, multistability, and stochastic behavior--concepts familiar to physicists and chemists--are now being used to tackle issues associated with living systems such as adaptation, feedback, and emergent behavior. Research at the Intersection of the Physical and Life Sciences discusses how some of the most important scientific and societal challenges can be addressed, at least in part, by collaborative research that lies at the intersection of traditional disciplines, including biology, chemistry, and physics. This book describes how some of the mysteries of the biological world are being addressed using tools and techniques developed in the physical sciences, and identifies five areas of potentially transformative research. Work in these areas would have significant impact in both research and society at large by expanding our understanding of the physical world and by revealing new opportunities for advancing public health, technology, and stewardship of the environment. This book recommends several ways to accelerate such cross-discipline research. Many of these recommendations are directed toward those administering the faculties and resources of our great research institutions--and the stewards of our research funders, making this book an excellent resource for academic and research institutions, scientists, universities, and federal and private funding agencies.
Lure, Lore and Life : an Autobiography of Goh Lai Yoong
Author: Lai Yoong Goh
Publisher: World Scientific
Category: Biography & Autobiography
This autobiography presents a personal account of the life of a woman academic, over a span of 60 years, from incidents in her childhood, through the education process from primary to pre-university education in British Malaya to two doctorates from University College London. As the story unfolds, it is immediately apparent that her journey in academia has been far from ordinary.She gives credit to the excellent early education she received in Ipoh ? a medium-sized town in Malaya ? from highly qualified and dedicated nuns and teachers in the Convent of the Holy Infant Jesus. Hers was a career carved out by Providence, as she ?drifted? to various international centers of learning, depending on the sponsorship of scholarships available at the time. Her drive and passion for chemistry (actually with other attributes as well) allowed her to rub shoulders with some of the best minds in the field. Her association with numerous colleagues, mentors and scientists, unintentionally and unknowingly, laid the groundwork for a sort of global networking, which in turn influenced her career path in subtle yet significant ways. This proved immensely useful later as she balanced the rigorous demands of teaching, research and family. She has shown that it is not impossible for a woman to make a success of family and life in academia.Indeed, her story will encourage young women venturing into science and academia. It also shows that developing countries ? more than their developed counterparts ? have a good deal to gain from their professional citizens by removing obstacles such as unduly early mandatory retirement and poor support for active researchers. It is a refreshing glimpse into the author's generation in science and academia and a repository of important insights for students and scientists in developing and emerging economies.
National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Chemical Sciences Roundtable
A Workshop Summary to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable
Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Chemical Sciences Roundtable
Publisher: National Academies Press
Going green is a hot topic in both chemistry and chemical engineering. Green chemistry is the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. Green engineering is the development and commercialization of economically feasible industrial processes that reduce the risk to human health and the environment. This book summarizes a workshop convened by the National Research Council to explore the widespread implementation of green chemistry and chemical engineering concepts into undergraduate and graduate education and how to integrate these concepts into the established and developing curricula. Speakers highlighted the most effective educational practices to date and discussed the most promising educational materials and software tools in green chemistry and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to inform the Chemical Sciences Roundtable, which provides a science-oriented, apolitical forum for leaders in the chemical sciences to discuss chemically related issues affecting government, industry, and universities.
Experimental Overviews and Computational Methodologies
Author: G. Wilse Robinson
Publisher: World Scientific
The central theme, which threads through the entire book, concerns computational modeling methods for water. Modeling results for pure liquid water, water near ions, water at interfaces, water in biological microsystems, and water under other types of perturbations such as laser fields are described. Connections are made throughout the book with statistical mechanical theoretical methods on the one hand and with experimental data on the other. The book is expected to be useful not only for theorists and computer analysts interested in the physical, chemical, biological and geophysical aspects of water, but also for experimentalists in these fields.
How did life begin on the early Earth? We know that life today is driven by the universal laws of chemistry and physics. By applying these laws over the past ?fty years, en- mous progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms that are the foundations of the living state. For instance, just a decade ago, the ?rst human genome was published, all three billion base pairs. Using X-ray diffraction data from crystals, we can see how an enzyme molecule or a photosynthetic reaction center steps through its catalytic function. We can even visualize a ribosome, central to all life, translate - netic information into a protein. And we are just beginning to understand how molecular interactions regulate thousands of simultaneous reactions that continuously occur even in the simplest forms of life. New words have appeared that give a sense of this wealth of knowledge: The genome, the proteome, the metabolome, the interactome. But we can’t be too smug. We must avoid the mistake of the physicist who, as the twentieth century began, stated con?dently that we knew all there was to know about physics, that science just needed to clean up a few dusty corners. Then came relativity, quantum theory, the Big Bang, and now dark matter, dark energy and string theory. Similarly in the life sciences, the more we learn, the better we understand how little we really know. There remains a vast landscape to explore, with great questions remaining.
Ruth M. Lynden-Bell,Simon Conway Morris,John D. Barrow,John L. Finney,Charles Harper
Author: Ruth M. Lynden-Bell,Simon Conway Morris,John D. Barrow,John L. Finney,Charles Harper
Publisher: CRC Press
Reflecting a rich technical and interdisciplinary exchange of ideas, Water and Life: The Unique Properties of H20 focuses on the properties of water and its interaction with life. The book develops a variety of approaches that help to illuminate ways in which to address deeper questions with respect to the nature of the universe and our place within it. Grouped in five broad parts, this collection examines the arguments of Lawrence J. Henderson and other scholars on the "fitness" of water for life as part of the physical and chemical properties of nature considered as a foundational environment within which life has emerged and evolved. Leading authorities delve into a range of themes and questions that span key areas of ongoing debate and uncertainty. They draw from the fields of chemistry, biology, biochemistry, planetary and earth sciences, physics, astronomy, and their subspecialties. Several chapters also deal with humanistic disciplines, such as the history of science and theology, to provide additional perspectives. Bringing together highly esteemed researchers from multidisciplinary fields, this volume addresses fundamental questions relating to the possible role of water in the origin of life in the cosmos. It supports readers in their own explorations of the origin and meaning of life and the role of water in maintaining life.