There are about 780 million pigs in the world, nearly half of them in Asia. For at least 40,000 years, pigs have been a major source of animal protein in all except Muslim, Hindu, and Jewish cultures, and in some societies they have played an essential role far beyond that of providing meat, manure for fertilizer, and leather. This book, fully illustrated with color paintings and black-and-white illustrations, is an encyclopedic work that describes every breed, variety, and local type of pig in the world, as well as wild and feral pigs, important extinct breeds, and the huge number of commercial hybrids. Valerie Porter first introduces the pig: its origin in the wild state, biology, domestication, and hybridization. She then groups the species accounts in geographical sections, by country of origin, placing each region's pigs in a cultural as well as an agricultural context. She traces the development of each breed, with ample reference to influential breeds that no longer exist or are rare. The preservation of ancient breeds, both European and oriental, is vital today, she maintains, because the search for the perfect animal requires that the genetic pool be as varied as possible. Porter describes the settings for pigs of all kinds and the factors that have shaped them. She covers the historical movements of pig-keeping cultures and thus the spread of domestication; the arrival of domesticated pigs in unlikely places in the company of navigators and explorers; historical and current national pig industries; and the often complicated and intriguing detective stories involving the history of different breeds. With its comprehensive coverage, this book will be an invaluable reference forprofessional agriculturalists, particularly those in developing countries, teachers and students of veterinary science and animal science, and commercial firms. Because of the author's accessible writing style, it is sure to attract other interested readers.
This encyclopedic guide traces the domestication of cattle, looking at the evolution and eventual extinction of different types and breeds. Its later chapters also touch on the wild species of the cattle family and some of their unusual interesting domesticates. Each chapter is separated according to the breed's country of origin, setting the region's cattle in a cultural as well as an agricultural context. Their main roles are also explored both historically and currently, from the production of meat or milk to representing currency or social status.
Livestock production systems are the result of an interaction between domestic animals and the environment, modulated by man, that dates back to Neolithic times. As a consequence of this interaction among the wide diversity of animal resources, natural habitats and population needs, very different farming systems have developed across the Mediterranean Basin. Understanding the mechanisms and effects of these relationships is key to design the farming systems best adapted to each condition, guaranteeing an adequate balance between target animal production and environmental outcomes provided by these systems. This is indeed a multidimensional topic, influenced by animal genetics, feeding resources, flock management, and economic and social aspects inside and outside the household. Therefore, this book focuses on the basis of the animal-environment interactions and the impact of human activities on the type and magnitude of these interactions. In this context, the issue of sustainability of livestock production is evaluated considering economic, social and environmental aspects. This book contributes to upgrade the state of the art in Mediterranean conditions, providing indicators and procedures of application across a wide range of systems, and hence of interest for researchers, students and professionals concerned with livestock production and the environment.
The hardy, multipurpose Dominique chickens that came to the New World with the Pilgrims and later travelled in pioneer saddlebags to help settle the West were once too numerous to count, by 1990 a mere 500 hens survived. This is but a single example of the diminishing diversity of farm animals: half of once-common livestock breeds are endangered, others are already extinct. The need to preserve farm animal diversity is increasingly urgent, says the author of this definitive book on endangered breeds of livestock and poultry. Farmyard animals may hold critical keys for our survival, Jan Dohner warns, and with each extinction, genetic traits of potentially vital importance to our agricultural future or to medical progress are forever lost. This comprehensive book features: * complete information on the history, characteristics, qualities, and traits of 138 endangered livestock breeds (goats, sheep, swine, cattle, horses, other equines) and 53 poultry breeds (chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese) * where these breeds may be seen today * the degree of rarity of each breed in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada * information on feral livestock populations * 160 colour photographs and over 80 black and white photos and historical illustrations
Publisher: The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI)
Category: Business & Economics
'Biodiversity' is becoming the keyword for sustaining human society and the ecosystem. The impacts of development on biological diversity, over exploitation of resources of commercial value, changes in land use and land cover, and fragmentation of habitats have led to fastest rate of decline in biodiversity in the 20th Century. This publication provides an insight into the concept of biodiversity, its value and uses, aspects of conservation of material and traditional knowledge, the linkage between ethnic communities and biodiversity, and several other topics of interest in a lucid and user-friendly manner.
Milking your family cow and experiencing the simple joys that comes with it are explained in this guidebook by veteran dairy farmer and cheesemaker Phil Hasheider.This book leads you through all the steps needed to make your dream a reality and the processes involved to make your own dairy products. You will learn the practical dos and donts of buying a cow, milking, feeding, and assisting her when she gives birth to a calf. You may not have the experience yet, but time will take care of that as you learn. Your adventure starts here and this book will guide you along your journey with your family cow.
Outbreaks of E. Coli and Salmonella from eating tainted meat or chicken and Mad Cow Disease have consumers and the media focused on food safety-related topics. This handbook aimed at students as well as consumers is an excellent starting point for locating both print and electronic resources with timely information about food safety issues, organizations and associations, and careers in the field.
Whether you’re raising one cow or a herd, this comprehensive guide shows you everything you need to know to successfully manage your beef cattle operation. Heather Smith Thomas stresses the importance of understanding bovine behavior while covering breed selection, calving, feeding, housing, medical care, and humane slaughter practices. Along with in-depth information on raising grass-fed animals and dealing with toxic pasture plants, you’ll also find advice on creating a viable business plan and identifying niche markets for your beef.
The Oxford Handbook of Criminal Law reflects the continued transformation of criminal law into a global discipline, providing scholars with a comprehensive international resource, a common point of entry into cutting edge contemporary research and a snapshot of the state and scope of the field. To this end, the Handbook takes a broad approach to its subject matter, disciplinarily, geographically, and systematically. Its contributors include current and future research leaders representing a variety of legal systems, methodologies, areas of expertise, and research agendas. The Handbook is divided into four parts: Approaches & Methods (I), Systems & Methods (II), Aspects & Issues (III), and Contexts & Comparisons (IV). Part I includes essays exploring various methodological approaches to criminal law (such as criminology, feminist studies, and history). Part II provides an overview of systems or models of criminal law, laying the foundation for further inquiry into specific conceptions of criminal law as well as for comparative analysis (such as Islamic, Marxist, and military law). Part III covers the three aspects of the penal process: the definition of norms and principles of liability (substantive criminal law), along with a less detailed treatment of the imposition of norms (criminal procedure) and the infliction of sanctions (prison or corrections law). Contributors consider the basic topics traditionally addressed in scholarship on the general and special parts of the substantive criminal law (such as jurisdiction, mens rea, justifications, and excuses). Part IV places criminal law in context, both domestically and transnationally, by exploring the contrasts between criminal law and other species of law and state power and by investigating criminal law's place in the projects of comparative law, transnational, and international law.
This handbook of nutrition and diet provides information on food nutrients and their functions; food safety and distribution; food composition, consumption and utilization; adequacy of diet; and the nutritional management of diseases and disorders. It also discusses the effects of nutrition and diet on diseases of the bones, teeth, hair, kidneys, liver and nervous system.
No one can deny the fact that the cow is the primary dairy animal species to provide humans with nutritious dairy foods through its abundance of lacteal secretion. The goat or other minor dairy species will never be able to compete with the cow in terms of the volume of milk production. Yet, the contribution of milks from other secondary domesticated dairy species to the survival and well-being of mankind around the world is immense and invaluable. Testament to the importance of non-bovine milk is that more people drink the milk of goats than that of any other single species in the world. In developing and under-developed counties, the secondary dairy species play a crucial role in supplying the food and nutritional needs of the people in those regions. Due to the unavailability of cow milk and the low consumption of meat, the milks of minor species such as goat, buffalo, sheep, and camel are critical daily food sources of protein, phosphate and calcium. Furthermore, because of important and inherent hypoallergenic properties, milks of certain species such as goat milk have been recommended as substitutes in diets for those with cow milk allergies. Editors Park and Haenlein have assembled dairy and nutrition experts from around the world to contribute to the Handbook of Milk of Non-Bovine Mammals. Secondary dairy species addressed are the goat, sheep, buffalo, mare, camel, yak, deer (reindeer), sow, llama, alpaca, moose, musk ox, caribou, ass, elk, pinniped, polar bear and human. The book comprehensively covers the most important aspects of milk production including: trends and methods of raw milk production in different regions; compositional, nutritional, therapeutic, physico-chemical, and microbiological characteristics of the milks; processing technology; and types, distribution and consumption of the manufactured products from minor species milks. Of special note is coverage comparing specific human health attributes of milk from the various species, including nutritional, allergenic, immunological, and cultural factors. Because secondary dairy species have such a significant impact on human well-being and survival in many parts of the world, the Handbook of Milk of Non-Bovine Mammals is an essential reference book of leading-edge information for dairy scientists, nutritionists, food chemists, allergy specialists, health professionals, and allied professionals.
Battaglia (animal and veterinary science, University of Idaho) describes in detail the skills and techniques used by those who manage livestock, with a focus on maintaining and maximizing animal well- being and productivity. The book presents techniques for managing all species of animal agriculture
The Oxford Handbook of Modern African History represents an invaluable tool for historians and others in the field of African studies. This collection of essays, produced by some of the finest scholars currently working in the field, provides the latest insights into, and interpretations of, the history of Africa - a continent with a rich and complex past. An understanding of this past is essential to gain perspective on Africa's current challenges, and this accessible and comprehensive volume will allow readers to explore various aspects - political, economic, social, and cultural - of the continent's history over the last two hundred years. Since African history first emerged as a serious academic endeavour in the 1950s and 1960s, it has undergone numerous shifts in terms of emphasis and approach, changes brought about by political and economic exigencies and by ideological debates. This multi-faceted Handbook is essential reading for anyone with an interest in those debates, and in Africa and its peoples. While the focus is determinedly historical, anthropology, geography, literary criticism, political science and sociology are all employed in this ground-breaking study of Africa's past.
Material is organized into 5 parts for easy and ready use, broadening the usefulness of the book, making it the most comprehensive, hands-on AI manual available. This manual prepares users for the "real world" by exposing them to the latest technology and techniques used in the reproduction and the practice of artificial insemination (AI) in livestock. Part One provides information on the advantages and considerations of artificial insemination, basic livestock genetics, the anatomy and reproductive processes of the cow and bull, and semen collection methods. It relates statistics on AI usage and general information about NAAB and CSS. Part Two deals with semen characteristics, including evaluation, processing, and extension; freezing and cryogenic storage; and care of the refrigerator unit. The various tests for semen quality are discussed in detail as is custom selection of semen. Part Three explains insemination techniques for dairy and beef cattle, inseminator training, pregnancy determination in cattle, conception rates, and breeding problems. The exercise on "Embryo Transfer and Related Practices" explains the advances and techniques involved in the field. Part Four includes an overview of sire selection, sire health, sire management, AI organization, and career opportunities. Part Five explains the use and techniques for artificial insemination in dairy goats and other farm animals. For herd operators and persons involved in genetic development—of particular use to people interested in livestock improvement. For those who are anticipating careers in some phase of the AI industry.
The study of the history of Southeast Asia is still growing, evolving, deepening and changing as an academic field. Over the past few decades historians have added nuance to traditional topics such as Islam and nationalism, and created new ones, such as gender, globalization and the politics of memory. The Routledge Handbook of Southeast Asian History looks at the major themes that have developed in the study of modern Southeast Asian history since the mid-18th century. Contributions by experts in the field are clustered under three major headings - Political History, Economic History, and Social and Cultural History – and chapters challenge the boundaries between topics and regions. Alongside the rise and fall of colonialism, topics include conflict in Southeast Asia, tropical ecology, capitalism and its discontents, the major religions of the region, gender, and ethnicity. The Handbook provides a stimulating introduction to the most important themes within the subject area, and is an invaluable reference work for any student and researcher on Southeast Asia and Asian and World history.
Africa has the longest and arguably the most diverse archaeological record of any of the continents. It is where the human lineage first evolved and from where Homo sapiens spread across the rest of the world. Later, it witnessed novel experiments in food-production and unique trajectories to urbanism and the organisation of large communities that were not always structured along strictly hierarchical lines. Millennia of engagement with societies in other parts of the world confirm Africa's active participation in the construction of the modern world, while the richness of its history, ethnography, and linguistics provide unusually powerful opportunities for constructing interdisciplinary narratives of Africa's past. This Handbook provides a comprehensive and up-to-date synthesis of African archaeology, covering the entirety of the continent's past from the beginnings of human evolution to the archaeological legacy of European colonialism. As well as covering almost all periods and regions of the continent, it includes a mixture of key methodological and theoretical issues and debates, and situates the subject's contemporary practice within the discipline's history and the infrastructural challenges now facing its practitioners. Bringing together essays on all these themes from over seventy contributors, many of them living and working in Africa, it offers a highly accessible, contemporary account of the subject for use by scholars and students of not only archaeology, but also history, anthropology, and other disciplines.
Offering perspectives on the history, prevalence and genetics of obesity, this book examines the origins and etiology of obesity. It considers the relationship between behavioural neuroscience and obesity.
Revised and expanded throughout, this latest edition of the bestselling Seeds Handbook: Biology, Production, Processing, and Storage includes valuable information on all areas of seed biology, production, and processing. The author, one of the most respected and prolific scientists in the field, identifies current developments in seed testing and certification, storage, transportation, and distribution. Tracking the evolution and advancement of seed industries and technologies, he fully covers the development and supply of high-quality seeds for every key agronomic and horticulture crop. Contains methods to enhance the genetic and physiological characteristics of more than 80 major and minor crops With an abundance of current research and additional figures and illustrations, this edition of the Seeds Handbook offers chapters on modern biotechnological issues such as the production of synthetic seeds, loss-reduction biotechnologies, and new strategies in the seed production industry. It provides in-depth information on burgeoning areas of seed science including tissue culture and cellular totipotency, induction and regeneration protocols, development and maturation, hormone requirements, drying and storage of somatic embryos, protective encapsulation, and crop applications. With an eye to the future, it looks at challenges in the provision and enhancement of seeds for crop plants, practical methods of seed production and micropropagation, genetically modified seeds, and world food security.