This encyclopedic guide traces the domestication of cattle, looking at the evolution and eventual extinction of different types and breeds. Its later chapters also touch on the wild species of the cattle family and some of their unusual interesting domesticates. Each chapter is separated according to the breed's country of origin, setting the region's cattle in a cultural as well as an agricultural context. Their main roles are also explored both historically and currently, from the production of meat or milk to representing currency or social status.
There are about 780 million pigs in the world, nearly half of them in Asia. For at least 40,000 years, pigs have been a major source of animal protein in all except Muslim, Hindu, and Jewish cultures, and in some societies they have played an essential role far beyond that of providing meat, manure for fertilizer, and leather. This book, fully illustrated with color paintings and black-and-white illustrations, is an encyclopedic work that describes every breed, variety, and local type of pig in the world, as well as wild and feral pigs, important extinct breeds, and the huge number of commercial hybrids. Valerie Porter first introduces the pig: its origin in the wild state, biology, domestication, and hybridization. She then groups the species accounts in geographical sections, by country of origin, placing each region's pigs in a cultural as well as an agricultural context. She traces the development of each breed, with ample reference to influential breeds that no longer exist or are rare. The preservation of ancient breeds, both European and oriental, is vital today, she maintains, because the search for the perfect animal requires that the genetic pool be as varied as possible. Porter describes the settings for pigs of all kinds and the factors that have shaped them. She covers the historical movements of pig-keeping cultures and thus the spread of domestication; the arrival of domesticated pigs in unlikely places in the company of navigators and explorers; historical and current national pig industries; and the often complicated and intriguing detective stories involving the history of different breeds. With its comprehensive coverage, this book will be an invaluable reference forprofessional agriculturalists, particularly those in developing countries, teachers and students of veterinary science and animal science, and commercial firms. Because of the author's accessible writing style, it is sure to attract other interested readers.
Livestock production systems are the result of an interaction between domestic animals and the environment, modulated by man, that dates back to Neolithic times. As a consequence of this interaction among the wide diversity of animal resources, natural habitats and population needs, very different farming systems have developed across the Mediterranean Basin. Understanding the mechanisms and effects of these relationships is key to design the farming systems best adapted to each condition, guaranteeing an adequate balance between target animal production and environmental outcomes provided by these systems. This is indeed a multidimensional topic, influenced by animal genetics, feeding resources, flock management, and economic and social aspects inside and outside the household. Therefore, this book focuses on the basis of the animal-environment interactions and the impact of human activities on the type and magnitude of these interactions. In this context, the issue of sustainability of livestock production is evaluated considering economic, social and environmental aspects. This book contributes to upgrade the state of the art in Mediterranean conditions, providing indicators and procedures of application across a wide range of systems, and hence of interest for researchers, students and professionals concerned with livestock production and the environment.
This reference guide gives general details about the swallows and martins of the world. These include appearance, the basic coloration and differences between the sexes and immatures and the function of other areas of colouring. Several species within the same geographical area are often segregated by feeding in different habitats or at different heights or by eating different size-classes of insects. The two sub-families, one being the two river martins, the other containing about 72 species mainly in the genus hirundo, are dealt with, including their distribution and migration patterns. Feeding, courtship and breeding habits are considered, together with details of nesting sites, clutch size, incubation and life-span. Finally, the population sizes of the various species are examined, noting that whilst many have expanded their range by using man-made structures, forest species probably remain small and one species, the Red Sea swallow is known from only one specimen. The book follows the same approach, style and presentation as "The Herons Handbook" published in 1985. It is illustrated by the winner of the prestigious "British Birds Illustrator of the Year Award" and the author has contributed to many scientific papers and journals including BBC's "Wildlife Magazine".
Publisher: The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI)
Category: Business & Economics
'Biodiversity' is becoming the keyword for sustaining human society and the ecosystem. The impacts of development on biological diversity, over exploitation of resources of commercial value, changes in land use and land cover, and fragmentation of habitats have led to fastest rate of decline in biodiversity in the 20th Century. This publication provides an insight into the concept of biodiversity, its value and uses, aspects of conservation of material and traditional knowledge, the linkage between ethnic communities and biodiversity, and several other topics of interest in a lucid and user-friendly manner.
This handbook of nutrition and diet provides information on food nutrients and their functions; food safety and distribution; food composition, consumption and utilization; adequacy of diet; and the nutritional management of diseases and disorders. It also discusses the effects of nutrition and diet on diseases of the bones, teeth, hair, kidneys, liver and nervous system.
The Oxford Handbook of Modern African History represents an invaluable tool for historians and others in the field of African studies. This collection of essays, produced by some of the finest scholars currently working in the field, provides the latest insights into, and interpretations of, the history of Africa - a continent with a rich and complex past. An understanding of this past is essential to gain perspective on Africa's current challenges, and this accessible and comprehensive volume will allow readers to explore various aspects - political, economic, social, and cultural - of the continent's history over the last two hundred years. Since African history first emerged as a serious academic endeavour in the 1950s and 1960s, it has undergone numerous shifts in terms of emphasis and approach, changes brought about by political and economic exigencies and by ideological debates. This multi-faceted Handbook is essential reading for anyone with an interest in those debates, and in Africa and its peoples. While the focus is determinedly historical, anthropology, geography, literary criticism, political science and sociology are all employed in this ground-breaking study of Africa's past.