Categories and Contexts

Anthropological and Historical Studies in Critical Demography

Author: Simon Szreter,Hania Sholkamy,A. Dharmalingam

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191533696

Category: Social Science

Page: 424

View: 3760

Throughout its history as a social science, demography has been associated with an exclusively quantitative orientation for studying social problems. As a result, demographers tend to analyse population issues scientifically through sets of fixed social categories that are divorced from dynamic relationships and local contexts and processes. This volume questions these fixed categories in two ways. First, it examines the historical and political circumstances in which such categories had their provenance, and, second, it reassesses their uncritical applications over space and time in a diverse range of empirical case studies, encouraging throughout a constructive interdisciplinary dialogue involving anthropologists, demographers, historians, and sociologists. This volume seeks to examine the political complexities that lie at the heart of population studies by focusing on category formation, category use, and category critique. It shows that this takes the form of a dialectic between the needs for clarity of scientific and administrative analysis and the recalcitrant diversity of the social contexts and human processes that generate population change. The critical reflections of each chapter are enriched by meticulous ethnographic fieldwork and historical research drawn from every continent. This volume, therefore, exemplifies a new methodology for research in population studies, one that does not simply accept and re-use the established categories of population science but seeks critically and reflexively to explore, test, and re-evaluate their meanings in diverse contexts. It shows that for demography to realise its full potential it must urgently re-examine and contextualize the social categories used today in population research.

Humanitarian Crises and Migration

Causes, Consequences and Responses

Author: Susan F. Martin,Sanjula Weerasinghe,Abbie Taylor

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135085544

Category: Political Science

Page: 400

View: 3106

Whether it is the stranding of tens of thousands of migrant workers at the Libyan–Tunisian border, or the large-scale displacement triggered by floods in Pakistan and Colombia, hardly a week goes by in which humanitarian crises have not precipitated human movement. While some people move internally, others internationally, some temporarily and others permanently, there are also those who become "trapped" in place, unable to move to greater safety. Responses to these "crisis migrations" are varied and inadequate. Only a fraction of "crisis migrants" are protected by existing international, regional or national law. Even where law exists, practice does not necessarily guarantee safety and security for those who are forced to move or remain trapped. Improvements are desperately needed to ensure more consistent and effective responses. This timely book brings together leading experts from multi-disciplinary backgrounds to reflect on diverse humanitarian crises and to shed light on a series of exploratory questions: In what ways do people move in the face of crisis situations? Why do some people move, while others do not? Where do people move? When do people move, and for how long? What are the challenges and opportunities in providing protection to crisis migrants? How might we formulate appropriate responses and sustainable solutions, and upon what factors should these depend? This volume is divided into four parts, with an introductory section outlining the parameters of "crisis migration," conceptualizing the term and evaluating its utility. This section also explores the legal, policy and institutional architecture upon which current responses are based. Part II presents a diverse set of case studies, from the earthquake in Haiti and the widespread violence in Mexico, to the ongoing exodus from Somalia, and environmental degradation in Alaska and the Carteret Islands, among others. Part III focuses on populations that may be at particular risk, including non-citizens, migrants at sea, those displaced to urban areas, and trapped populations. The concluding section maps the global governance of crisis migration and highlights gaps in current provisions for crisis-related movement across multiple levels. This valuable book brings together previously diffuse research and policy issues under the analytical umbrella of "crisis migration." It lays the foundations for assessing and addressing real challenges to the status quo, and will be of interest to scholars, policy makers, and practitioners committed to seeking out improved responses and ensuring the dignity and safety of millions who move in the context of humanitarian crises.

International Handbook on Gender and Demographic Processes

Author: Nancy E. Riley,Jan Brunson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9402412905

Category: Social Science

Page: 359

View: 7881

This handbook presents a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of gender in demography, addressing the many different influences of gender that arise from or influence demographic processes. It collects in one volume the key issues and perspectives in this area, whereby demography is broadly defined. The purpose in casting a wide net is to cover the range of work being done within demography, but at the same time to open up our perspectives to neighboring fields to encourage better conversations around these issues. The chapters in this handbook carefully document definition and measurement issues, and take up parts of the demographic picture and focus on how gender plays a role in outcomes. In other cases, gender often plays a cross-cutting role in social processes; rather than having a single or easily distinguishable role, it often combines with other social institutions and even other statuses and inequalities to affect outcomes. Thus, a key factor in this volume is how gender interacts with race/ethnicity, class, nationality, and sexuality in any demographic setting. While each section contains chapters that are broad overviews of the current state of knowledge and behavior, the handbook also includes chapters that focus on specific cultures or events in order to examine how gender operates in a particular circumstance.

Population in the Human Sciences

Concepts, Models, Evidence

Author: Philip Kreager,Bruce Winney,Stanley J. Ulijaszek,Cristian Capelli

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199688206

Category: Population

Page: 592

View: 1574

This title addresses the need for review and assessment of the framework of interdisciplinary population studies. Limitations to prevailing post-war paradigms like the Evolutionary Synthesis and Demographic Transition were becoming evident by the 1970s. Subsequent decades have witnessed an immense expansion of population modelling and related empirical inquiry. The volume presents revised papers of an international symposium marking 40 years of the Human Sciences programme at the University of Oxford.

Twentieth Century Population Thinking

A Critical Reader of Primary Sources

Author: The Population Knowledge Network

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317479629

Category: Social Science

Page: 246

View: 3088

This reader on the history of demography and historical perspectives on "population" in the twentieth century features a unique collection of primary sources from around the globe, written by scholars, politicians, journalists, and activists. Many of the sources are available in English for the first time. Background information is provided on each source. Together, the sources mirror the circumstances under which scientific knowledge about "population" was produced, how demography evolved as a discipline, and how demographic developments were interpreted and discussed in different political and cultural settings. Readers thereby gain insight into the historical precedents on debates on race, migration, reproduction, natural resources, development and urbanization, the role of statistics in the making of the nation state, and family structures and gender roles, among others. The reader is designed for undergraduate and graduate students as well as scholars in the fields of demography and population studies as well as to anyone interested in the history of science and knowledge.

Yearbook of International Organizations 2010/2011

Guide to Global and Civil Society Networks: Organization Descriptions and Cross-Reference

Author: Union of International Associations,Union of International Associations Staff

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783110230314

Category: Political Science

Page: 2984

View: 9440

Yearbook of International Organizations is the most comprehensive reference resource and provides current details of international non-governmental (NGO) and intergovernmental organizations (IGO). Collected and documented by the Union of International Associations (UIA), detailed information on international organizations worldwide can be found here. Besides historical and organizational information, details on activities, events or publications, contact details, biographies of the leading individuals as well as the presentation of networks of organizations are included.

Yearbook of International Organizations 2005/2006

2 Parts

Author: Union of International Associations

Publisher: K G Saur

ISBN: 9783598245213

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 2973

View: 5721

For the Yearbook of International Organizations, the most up-to-date and comprehensive reference to international organizations, the UIA has selected the most important 31,086 organizations from its extensive database of current and previous organizations. Yearbook provides profiles of 5,546 intergovernmental and 25,540 international non-governmental organizations active in nearly 300 countries and territories in the world today. Organization descriptions listed in Volume 1 are numbere sequentially to facilitate quick and easy cross-referencing from the other Yearbook Volumes. Users can refer to Volumes 2 and 3 to locate organizations by region or subject respectively, and comprehensive indexes are included. Naturally, the high standards of accuracy, consistency and detail set by previous editions of the Yearbook of International Organizations have been maintained for this edition.

Internal Migration in the Developed World

Are we becoming less mobile?

Author: Tony Champion,Thomas Cooke,Ian Shuttleworth

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317114485

Category: Science

Page: 306

View: 6740

The frequency with which people move home has important implications for national economic performance and the well-being of individuals and families. Much contemporary social and migration theory posits that the world is becoming more mobile, leading to the recent ‘mobilities turn’ within the social sciences. Yet, there is mounting evidence to suggest that this may not be true of all types of mobility, nor apply equally to all geographical contexts. For example, it is now clear that internal migration rates have been falling in the USA since at least the 1980s. To what extent might this trend be true of other developed countries? Drawing on detailed empirical literature, Internal Migration in the Developed World examines the long-term trends in internal migration in a variety of more advanced countries to explore the factors that underpin these changes. Using case studies of the USA, UK, Australia, Japan, Sweden, Germany and Italy, this pioneering book presents a critical assessment of the extent to which global structural forces, as opposed to national context, influence internal migration in the Global North. Internal Migration in the Developed World fills the void in this neglected aspect of migration studies and will appeal to a wide disciplinary audience of researchers and students working in Geography, Migration Studies, Population Studies and Development Studies.

Governing China's population

from Leninist to neoliberal biopolitics

Author: Susan Greenhalgh,Edwin A. Winckler

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 394

View: 1914

'Governing China's Population' tells the story of political and cultural shifts, from the perspectives of both regime and society.

Reproducing Inequities

Poverty and the Politics of Population in Haiti

Author: M. Catherine Maternowska

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 221

View: 2467

Residents of Haiti - one of the poorest and most unstable countries in the world - face a grim reality of starvation, violence, lack of economic opportunity, and minimal health care. For years, aid organizations have sought to alleviate the problems by creating health and family planning clinics, including one modern (and, by local standards, luxurious) center in the heart of Cite Soleil. During its height of service in the 1980s and 1990s, the clinic boasted nineteen staff members, an array of modern contraceptives, an accessible location, and convenient hours - but very few clients. Why did this initiative fail so spectacularly despite surveys finding that residents would like to have fewer children? Why don't poor women heed the message of family planning, when smaller families seem to be in their best interest? In Reproducing Inequities, M. Catherine Maternowska argues that we too easily overlook the political dynamics that shape choices about family planning.

Abstracts of the Annual Meeting

Author: American Anthropological Association

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Anthropology

Page: N.A

View: 1796

The Demography of Armed Conflict

Author: Helge Brunborg,Ewa Tabeau,Henrik Urdal

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781402051340

Category: Social Science

Page: 396

View: 7066

This book assembles researchers in demography, statistics, political science, sociology, anthropology, history, geography, economics and law to offer fresh insight on the demographic causes and consequences of armed conflict. Cause studies consider migration, ethnicity, population growth and youth bulges. Studies on consequences of conflict include mortality from conflict, casualty estimation for prosecution of war crimes, and case studies of conflicts in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Cambodia, Kenya, Mali, Rwanda, Sudan and Uganda.

Global Human Trafficking

Critical Issues and Contexts

Author: Molly Dragiewicz

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134710380

Category: Social Science

Page: 222

View: 9747

Human trafficking has moved from relative obscurity to a major area of research, policy and teaching over the past ten years. Research has sprung from criminology, public policy, women’s and gender studies, sociology, anthropology, and law, but has been somewhat hindered by the failure of scholars to engage beyond their own disciplines and favoured methodologies. Recent research has begun to improve efforts to understand the causes of the problem, the experiences of victims, policy efforts, and their consequences in specific cultural and historical contexts. Global Human Trafficking: Critical issues and contexts foregrounds recent empirical work on human trafficking from an interdisciplinary, critical perspective. The collection includes classroom-friendly features, such as introductory chapters that provide essential background for understanding the trafficking literature, textboxes explaining key concepts, discussion questions for each chapter, and lists of additional resources, including films, websites, and additional readings for each chapter. The authors include both eminent and emerging scholars from around the world, drawn from law, anthropology, criminology, sociology, cultural studies, and political science and the book will be useful for undergraduate and graduate courses in these areas, as well as for scholars interested in trafficking.

Critical Gerontology Comes of Age

Advances in Research and Theory for a New Century

Author: Chris Wellin

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351806459

Category: Psychology

Page: 246

View: 3415

Critical Gerontology Comes of Age reflects on how baby boomers, caretakers, and health professionals are perceiving and adapting to historical, social, political, and cultural changes that call into question prior assumptions about aging and life progression. Through an exploration of earlier and later-life stages and the dynamic changes in intergenerational relations, chapter authors reexamine the research, methods, and scope of critical gerontology, a multidisciplinary field that speaks to the experiences of life in the 21st century. Topics include Medicare, privatization of home care, incarceration, outreach to LGTBQ elders, migration, and chronic illness. Grounded in innovative research and case studies, this volume reflects multiple perspectives and is accessible to lay readers, advanced undergraduates and graduate students, and professionals in many fields.

World Population and Human Capital in the Twenty-First Century

An Overview

Author: Wolfgang Lutz,William P. Butz,Samir K. C.

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198813422

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 680

View: 7217

Condensed into a detailed analysis and a selection of continent-wide datasets, this revised edition of World Population & Human Capital in the Twenty-First Century addresses the role of educational attainment in global population trends and models. Presenting the full chapter text of the original edition alongside a concise selection of data, it summarizes past trends in fertility, mortality, migration, and education, and examines relevant theories to identify key determining factors. Deriving from a global survey of hundreds of experts and five expert meetings on as many continents, World Population & Human Capital in the Twenty-First Century: An Overview emphasizes alternative trends in human capital, new ways of studying ageing and the quantification of alternative population, and education pathways in the context of global sustainable development. It is an ideal companion to the county specific online Wittgenstein Centre Data Explorer.

Developing EU–Japan Relations in a Changing Regional Context

A Focus on Security, Law and Policies

Author: Dimitri Vanoverbeke,Takao Suami,Takako Ueta,Nicholas Peeters,Frederik Ponjaert

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351664948

Category: Political Science

Page: 188

View: 8363

Relations between the EU and East Asia have consistently expanded in recent years, particularly between the EU and Japan. Against the background of negotiations on an economic and strategic partnership agreement, the EU–Japan relationship is set to become the single most comprehensive ‘region-to-state’ relationship the world has known today, accounting for more than a third of world GDP and a combined population of more than 600 million people. This book addresses the potential role of the EU, in cooperation with Japan, to craft a stable and prosperous mode of governance in the Asian region. In today’s globalized world seemingly defined by waxing Chinese power and waning American power, the book reflects the lack of appreciation for an EU-Japan concert in maintaining and developing multilateral principles. It aims towards fortifying this relationship by acknowledging that in order to enhance the credibility and capabilities of such an alliance, it is necessary to take stock of where the partnership stands today, what kind of obstacles still need to be overcome and which options have been left untouched. By introducing state-of-the-art empirical research in multiple fields, this book will be of key interest to students and scholars of international relations, comparative regionalism, the European Union and Japanese politics.

International Encyclopedia of Social & Behavioral Sciences

Author: N.A

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 0080548059

Category: Social Science

Page: 17500

View: 6653

This Encyclopedia is the first attempt in a generation to map the social and behavioral sciences on a grand scale. Not since the publication in 1968 of the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, edited by David L. Sills, has there been such an ambitious project to describe the state of the art in all the fields encompassed within the social and behavioral sciences. Available in both print (26 volumes) and online editions, it comprises 4,000 articles, commissioned by 52 Section Editors, and includes 90,000 bibliographic references as well as comprehensive name and subject indexes.

Just One Child

Science and Policy in Deng’s China

Author: Susan Greenhalgh

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520253396

Category: History

Page: 403

View: 6282

Population politics are a major issue in China. Susan Greenhaigh explores the origins and development of the one-child policy from the late 1970s to the present day, showing how sociopolitical life in China has been subject to scientization and statisticalization.