Anthropological and Historical Studies in Critical Demography
Author: Simon Szreter,Hania Sholkamy,A. Dharmalingam
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Category: Social Science
Throughout its history as a social science, demography has been associated with an exclusively quantitative orientation for studying social problems. As a result, demographers tend to analyse population issues scientifically through sets of fixed social categories that are divorced from dynamic relationships and local contexts and processes. This volume questions these fixed categories in two ways. First, it examines the historical and political circumstances in which such categories had their provenance, and, second, it reassesses their uncritical applications over space and time in a diverse range of empirical case studies, encouraging throughout a constructive interdisciplinary dialogue involving anthropologists, demographers, historians, and sociologists. This volume seeks to examine the political complexities that lie at the heart of population studies by focusing on category formation, category use, and category critique. It shows that this takes the form of a dialectic between the needs for clarity of scientific and administrative analysis and the recalcitrant diversity of the social contexts and human processes that generate population change. The critical reflections of each chapter are enriched by meticulous ethnographic fieldwork and historical research drawn from every continent. This volume, therefore, exemplifies a new methodology for research in population studies, one that does not simply accept and re-use the established categories of population science but seeks critically and reflexively to explore, test, and re-evaluate their meanings in diverse contexts. It shows that for demography to realise its full potential it must urgently re-examine and contextualize the social categories used today in population research.
Author: Susan F. Martin,Sanjula Weerasinghe,Abbie Taylor
Category: Political Science
Whether it is the stranding of tens of thousands of migrant workers at the Libyan–Tunisian border, or the large-scale displacement triggered by floods in Pakistan and Colombia, hardly a week goes by in which humanitarian crises have not precipitated human movement. While some people move internally, others internationally, some temporarily and others permanently, there are also those who become "trapped" in place, unable to move to greater safety. Responses to these "crisis migrations" are varied and inadequate. Only a fraction of "crisis migrants" are protected by existing international, regional or national law. Even where law exists, practice does not necessarily guarantee safety and security for those who are forced to move or remain trapped. Improvements are desperately needed to ensure more consistent and effective responses. This timely book brings together leading experts from multi-disciplinary backgrounds to reflect on diverse humanitarian crises and to shed light on a series of exploratory questions: In what ways do people move in the face of crisis situations? Why do some people move, while others do not? Where do people move? When do people move, and for how long? What are the challenges and opportunities in providing protection to crisis migrants? How might we formulate appropriate responses and sustainable solutions, and upon what factors should these depend? This volume is divided into four parts, with an introductory section outlining the parameters of "crisis migration," conceptualizing the term and evaluating its utility. This section also explores the legal, policy and institutional architecture upon which current responses are based. Part II presents a diverse set of case studies, from the earthquake in Haiti and the widespread violence in Mexico, to the ongoing exodus from Somalia, and environmental degradation in Alaska and the Carteret Islands, among others. Part III focuses on populations that may be at particular risk, including non-citizens, migrants at sea, those displaced to urban areas, and trapped populations. The concluding section maps the global governance of crisis migration and highlights gaps in current provisions for crisis-related movement across multiple levels. This valuable book brings together previously diffuse research and policy issues under the analytical umbrella of "crisis migration." It lays the foundations for assessing and addressing real challenges to the status quo, and will be of interest to scholars, policy makers, and practitioners committed to seeking out improved responses and ensuring the dignity and safety of millions who move in the context of humanitarian crises.
Wissensproduktion durch britische Volkszählungen und Umfragen vom 19. Jahrhundert bis ins digitale Zeitalter
Author: Kerstin Brückweh
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Dieses Buch führt ins Zentrum gesellschaftlicher Debatten um Big Data und das digitale Zeitalter. Denn die Idee, dass Menschen und Gesellschaften nichts weiter als die Summe ihrer Daten seien, ist im Kern der über 200-jährigen Methodengeschichte angelegt. Für Großbritannien wird dies im Rahmen von Volkszählungen und Umfragen an Akteuren, Methoden, Gesellschaftsklassifikationen sowie an Fragen nach Race, Ethnicity und Disabilites gezeigt.
Gesellschaftliche Ungleichheit wurde lange Zeit vor allem anhand von »Klasse« thematisiert. Inzwischen hat sich der Fokus um andere Konfliktlinien erweitert. In diesem Band werden die unterschiedlichen Relationen von Ungleichheit in den Dimensionen von Klasse, Geschlecht und Ethnizität bestimmt und in einen gesellschaftstheoretischen Horizont gestellt. Mit Beiträgen von Brigitte Aulenbacher, Regina Becker-Schmidt, Mechthild Bereswill, Hans- Jürgen Bieling, Wolfgang Gabbert, Christoph Görg, Sabine Hark, Lars Kohlmorgen, Helga Krüger, Sybille Küster, Helma Lutz, Shalini Randeria, Markus Schroer und Thomas Schwinn.
Union of International Associations,Union of International Associations Staff
Guide to Global and Civil Society Networks: Organization Descriptions and Cross-Reference
Author: Union of International Associations,Union of International Associations Staff
Category: Political Science
Yearbook of International Organizations is the most comprehensive reference resource and provides current details of international non-governmental (NGO) and intergovernmental organizations (IGO). Collected and documented by the Union of International Associations (UIA), detailed information on international organizations worldwide can be found here. Besides historical and organizational information, details on activities, events or publications, contact details, biographies of the leading individuals as well as the presentation of networks of organizations are included.
For the Yearbook of International Organizations, the most up-to-date and comprehensive reference to international organizations, the UIA has selected the most important 31,086 organizations from its extensive database of current and previous organizations. Yearbook provides profiles of 5,546 intergovernmental and 25,540 international non-governmental organizations active in nearly 300 countries and territories in the world today. Organization descriptions listed in Volume 1 are numbere sequentially to facilitate quick and easy cross-referencing from the other Yearbook Volumes. Users can refer to Volumes 2 and 3 to locate organizations by region or subject respectively, and comprehensive indexes are included. Naturally, the high standards of accuracy, consistency and detail set by previous editions of the Yearbook of International Organizations have been maintained for this edition.
Residents of Haiti - one of the poorest and most unstable countries in the world - face a grim reality of starvation, violence, lack of economic opportunity, and minimal health care. For years, aid organizations have sought to alleviate the problems by creating health and family planning clinics, including one modern (and, by local standards, luxurious) center in the heart of Cite Soleil. During its height of service in the 1980s and 1990s, the clinic boasted nineteen staff members, an array of modern contraceptives, an accessible location, and convenient hours - but very few clients. Why did this initiative fail so spectacularly despite surveys finding that residents would like to have fewer children? Why don't poor women heed the message of family planning, when smaller families seem to be in their best interest? In Reproducing Inequities, M. Catherine Maternowska argues that we too easily overlook the political dynamics that shape choices about family planning.
This book assembles researchers in demography, statistics, political science, sociology, anthropology, history, geography, economics and law to offer fresh insight on the demographic causes and consequences of armed conflict. Cause studies consider migration, ethnicity, population growth and youth bulges. Studies on consequences of conflict include mortality from conflict, casualty estimation for prosecution of war crimes, and case studies of conflicts in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Cambodia, Kenya, Mali, Rwanda, Sudan and Uganda.
This book explores the complex roles of mobile, transient, and displaced populations in the worldwide spread of disease. While biomedical events cause disease, social forces such as poverty and marginalization magnify them by giving them opportunities to take hold. From Katrina to Darfur, and from influenza to AIDS, an expert panel of health and social scientists brings the social context of epidemics into clear focus.
It is widely assumed that the “nonclassical” nature of the Russian empire and its equally “nonclassical” modernity made Russian intellectuals immune to the racial obsessions of Western Europe and the United States. Homo Imperii corrects this perception by offering the first scholarly history of racial science in prerevolutionary Russia and the early Soviet Union. Marina Mogilner places this story in the context of imperial self-modernization, political and cultural debates of the epoch, different reformist and revolutionary trends, and the growing challenge of modern nationalism. By focusing on the competing centers of race science in different cities and regions of the empire, Homo Imperii introduces to English-language scholars the institutional nexus of racial science in Russia that exhibits the influence of imperial strategic relativism. Reminiscent of the work of anthropologists of empire such as Ann Stoler and Benedict Anderson, Homo Imperii reveals the complex imperial dynamics of Russian physical anthropology and contributes an important comparative perspective from which to understand the emergence of racial science in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe and America.
Ann Laura Stoler,Willy Brandt Distinguished University Professor of Anthropology and Historical Studies Ann Laura Stoler
Author: Ann Laura Stoler,Willy Brandt Distinguished University Professor of Anthropology and Historical Studies Ann Laura Stoler
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Category: Social Science
"To my knowledge, there simply is no one else writing on questions of colonialism, gender, race, and intimacy who brings this depth and reach of historical and anthropological illumination to bear."—Nancy F. Cott, author of Public Vows: A History of Marriage and the Nation "This new book brings our collective agenda forward with a degree of maturity and flexibility that makes narrow academic preferences both unnecessary and misleading."—Doris Sommer, author of Proceed with Caution, When Engaged by Minority Writing in the Americas