In this brilliant and profound study the distinguished American anthropologist Marvin Harris shows how the endless varieties of cultural behavior -- often so puzzling at first glance -- can be explained as adaptations to particular ecological conditions. His aim is to account for the evolution of cultural forms as Darwin accounted for the evolution of biological forms: to show how cultures adopt their characteristic forms in response to changing ecological modes. "[A] magisterial interpretation of the rise and fall of human cultures and societies." -- Robert Lekachman, Washington Post Book World "Its persuasive arguments asserting the primacy of cultural rather than genetic or psychological factors in human life deserve the widest possible audience." -- Gloria Levitas The New Leader "[An] original and...urgent theory about the nature of man and at the reason that human cultures take so many diverse shapes." -- The New Yorker "Lively and controversial." -- I. Bernard Cohen, front page, The New York Times Book Review
The best known, most often cited history of anthropological theory is finally available in paperback! First published in 1968, Harris's book has been cited in over 1,000 works and is one of the key documents explaining cultural materialism, the theory associated with Harris's work. This updated edition included the complete 1968 text plus a new introduction by Maxine Margolis, which discusses the impact of the book and highlights some of the major trends in anthropological theory since its original publication. RAT, as it is affectionately known to three decades of graduate students, comprehensively traces the history of anthropology and anthropological theory, culminating in a strong argument for the use of a scientific, behaviorally-based, etic approach to the understanding of human culture known as cultural materialism. Despite its popularity and influence on anthropological thinking, RAT has never been available in paperback_until now. It is an essential volume for the library of all anthropologists, their graduate students, and other theorists in the social sciences.
Der Klassiker - von sechs Wirtschaftsnobelpreisträgern empfohlen, eine Pflichtlektüre! Warum sind Nationen reich oder arm? Starökonom Daron Acemoglu und Harvard-Politologe James Robinson geben eine ebenso schlüssige wie eindrucksvolle Antwort auf diese grundlegende Frage. Anhand zahlreicher, faszinierender Fallbeispiele – von den Conquistadores über die Industrielle Revolution bis zum heutigen China, von Sierra Leone bis Kolumbien – zeigen sie, mit welcher Macht die Eliten mittels repressiver Institutionen sämtliche Regeln zu ihren Gunsten manipulieren - zum Schaden der vielen Einzelnen. Ein spannendes und faszinierendes Plädoyer dafür, dass Geschichte und Geographie kein Schicksal sind. Und ein überzeugendes Beispiel, dass die richtige Analyse der Vergangenheit neue Wege zum Verständnis unserer Gegenwart und neue Perspektiven für die Zukunft eröffnet. Ein provokatives, brillantes und einzigartiges Buch. »Dieses Buch werden unsere Ur-Ur-Urenkel in zweihundert Jahren noch lesen.« George Akerlof, Nobelpreisträger für Wirtschaftswissenschaften »Eine absolut überzeugende Studie.« Gary S. Becker, Nobelpreisträger für Wirtschaftswissenschaften »Ein wirklich wichtiges Buch.« Michael Spence, Nobelpreisträger für Wirtschaftswissenschaften »Acemoglu und Robinson begeistern und regen zum Nachdenken an.« Robert Solow, Nobelpreisträger für Wirtschaftswissenschaften »Ein wichtiges, unverzichtbares Werk.« Peter Diamond, Nobelpreisträger für Wirtschaftswissenschaften »Ein wichtiger Beitrag zur Debatte, warum Staaten mit gleicher Vorrausetzung sich so wesentlich in wirtschaftlichen und politischen Entwicklungen unterscheiden.« Kenneth J. Arrow, Nobelpreisträger für Wirtschaftswissenschaften »Diese faktenreiche und ermutigende Streitschrift lehrt uns, dass die Geschichte glücklich enden kann, wenn ihr kein Mensch mehr als Versuchsobjekt dient.« Michael Holmes, NZZ am Sonntag »Anderthalb Jahrzehnte Arbeit eines Pools von Wissenschaftlern, auf 600 Seiten zusammengefasst durch zwei Forscher von Weltrang – und dies kommt heraus: eine Liebeserklärung an Institutionen, die im Sinne ihrer Bürger funktionieren. [...] bestechend.« Elisabeth von Thadden, Die Zeit »Sie werden von diesem Buch begeistert sein.« Jared Diamond, Pulitzer Preisträger und Autor der Weltbestseller »Kollaps« und »Arm und Reich« » Ein höchst lesenswertes Buch.« Francis Fukuyama, Autor des Bestsellers »Das Ende der Geschichte« »Ein phantastisches Buch. Acemoglu und Robinson gehen das wichtigste Problem der Sozialwissenschaften an – eine Frage, die führende Denker seit Jahrhunderten plagt – und liefern eine in ihrer Einfachheit und Wirkmächtigkeit brillante Antwort. Eine wunderbar lesbare Mischung aus Geschichte, Politikwissenschaft und Ökonomie, die unser Denken verändern wird. Pflichtlektüre.« Steven Levitt, Autor von »Freakonomics«
From images of stewed missionaries to Hannibal Lecter's hiss, cannibals have intrigued while evoking horror and repulsion. The label of cannibal has been used throughout history to denigrate a given individual or group. By examining who is labelled cannibal at any given time, we can understand the fears, prejudices, accepted norms and taboos of society at that time. From the cannibal in colonial literature, to the idea of regional Gothic and the hillbilly cannibal, to serial killers, this book examines works by writers and directors including Joseph Conrad, H. Rider Haggard, Thomas Harris, Bret Easton Ellis, Cormac McCarthy, Wes Craven, and Tim Burton. It explores questions of cultural identity and otherness in the modern period, offering an important and original examination of cultural norms and fears with reference to national, economic, linguistic, and sexual identity. Amidst the sharp teeth and horrific appetite of the cannibal, the book examines real fears of over-consumerism and consumption that trouble an ever-growing modern world.
Folk Illnesses of Psychiatric and Anthropological Interest
Author: Ronald C. Simons,C.C. Hughes
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Social Science
In the last few years there has been a great revival of interest in culture-bound psychiatric syndromes. A spate of new papers has been published on well known and less familiar syndromes, and there have been a number of attempts to put some order into the field of inquiry. In a review of the literature on culture-bound syndromes up to 1969 Yap made certain suggestions for organizing thinking about them which for the most part have not received general acceptance (see Carr, this volume, p. 199). Through the seventies new descriptive and conceptual work was scarce, but in the last few years books and papers discussing the field were authored or edited by Tseng and McDermott (1981), AI-Issa (1982), Friedman and Faguet (1982) and Murphy (1982). In 1983 Favazza summarized his understanding of the state of current thinking for the fourth edition of the Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, and a symposium on culture-bound syndromes was organized by Kenny for the Eighth International Congress of Anthropology and Ethnology. The strong est impression to emerge from all this recent work is that there is no substantive consensus, and that the very concept, "culture-bound syndrome" could well use some serious reconsideration. As the role of culture-specific beliefs and prac tices in all affliction has come to be increasingly recognized it has become less and less clear what sets the culture-bound syndromes apart.
Described by Oliver Sacks as 'one of the best scientist-writers of our time', Robert M. Sapolsky here presents the human animal in all its quirkiness and diversity. In these remarkable essays, Sapolsky once again deploys his compassion and insights into the human condition to tell us who, why and how we are. Monkeyluv touches on themes such as sexuality, aggression, love, parenting, religion, ageing, and mental illness. He ponders such topics as our need to seek out beauty; why our preferences in food become fixed; why we are sexually attracted to one another; why Alzheimer's disease tends to be a post-menopausal phenomenon; and why grandmothers buying groceries for their grandchildren are part of nature's Darwinian logic.
For thirty-five years and through thirteen editions, Jim Henslin's Down to Earth Sociology has opened new windows onto the social realities that shape our world. Now in its fourteenth edition, the most popular anthology in sociology includes new articles on our changing world while also retaining its classic must-read essays. Focusing on social interaction in everyday life, the forty-six selections bring students face-to-face with the twin projects of contemporary sociology: understanding the individual's experience of society and analyzing social structure. The fourteenth edition's exceptional new readings include selections on the role of sympathy in everyday life, mistaken perceptions of the American family, the effects of a criminal record on getting a job, and the major social trends affecting our future. Together with these essential new articles, the selections by Peter Berger, Herbert Gans, Erving Goffman, Donna Eder, Zella Luria, C. Wright Mills, Deborah Tannen, Barrie Thorne, Sidney Katz, Philip Zimbardo, and many others provide firsthand reporting that gives students a sense of "being there." Henslin also explains basic methods of social research, providing insight into how sociologists explore the social world. The selections in Down to Earth Sociology highlight the most significant themes of contemporary sociology, ranging from the sociology of gender, power, politics, and religion to the contemporary crises of racial tension, crime, rape, poverty, and homelessness.
Having spent decades teaching and researching the humanities, Wm. Theodore de Bary is well positioned to speak on its merits and reform. Believing a classical liberal education is more necessary than ever, he outlines in these essays a plan to update existing core curricula by incorporating classics from both Eastern and Western traditions, thereby bringing the philosophy and moral values of Asian civilizations to American students and vice versa. The author establishes a concrete link between teaching the classics of world civilizations and furthering global humanism. Selecting texts that share many of the same values and educational purposes, he joins Islamic, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, and Western sources into a revised curriculum that privileges humanity and civility. He also explores the tradition of education in China and its reflection of Confucian and Neo-Confucian beliefs. He reflects on history's great scholar-teachers and what their methods can teach us today, and he dedicates three essays to the power of The Analects of Confucius, The Tale of Genji, and The Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon in the classroom.
Our future was with the collective, but our survival was with the individual, and the paradox was killing us everyday. John Le Carre Smiley's People (1979) Since the time of Ancient Greek lyrical poetry, it has been one of man's dreams to explain his own conduct. This is the background to all his activities, from literature to speculative philosophy, including those odds and ends which, for want of a better name and more precise boundaries are called "human science". Over the past nine or ten years a new member has been added to this inquisitive family, one which, moreover, claims to be scientific to an extremely high degree: biology. This is in fact a recurrent event, since theses designed to introduce causal biological expla nations into the general field of human action had already been formulated on at least two occasions (in original Darwinism and the Neo-Darwinist synthesis). Ethologists and sociobiologists are today taking over and as suring us that they have the necessary tools to provide an answer to what perhaps seemed the most slippery subject in the hands of science: the social being. As might be expected, philosophers have reacted with some scepticism. Though human conduct is undoubtedly subject to determinants, the lion's share of responsi bility lies with society itself. At the time when biology was beginning to develop the theories necessary to overcome cre ationism, Karl Marx had already managed to construct highly sophisticated interpretive models of human social behaviour.
Dr. Mike MacDougal joins a group of scientists and theologians on their way to investigate the work of a mad doctor who claims she will soon transplant human brains. Mike's mother, sent to interview her, disappears. In a cannibal village deep in the mountains of the Philippines, Mike learns what has happened to her.
An Environmental History of the Mississippi and Its Peoples from Hernando de Soto to Hurricane Katrina
Author: Christopher Morris
Publisher: Oxford University Press
In The Big Muddy, the first long-term environmental history of the Mississippi, Christopher Morris offers a brilliant tour across five centuries as he illuminates the interaction between people and the landscape, from early hunter-gatherer bands to present-day industrial and post-industrial society. Morris shows that when Hernando de Soto arrived at the lower Mississippi Valley, he found an incredibly vast wetland, forty thousand square miles of some of the richest, wettest land in North America, deposited there by the big muddy river that ran through it. But since then much has changed, for the river and for the surrounding valley. Indeed, by the 1890s, the valley was rapidly drying. Morris shows how centuries of increasingly intensified human meddling--including deforestation, swamp drainage, and levee construction--led to drought, disease, and severe flooding. He outlines the damage done by the introduction of foreign species, such as the Argentine nutria, which escaped into the wild and are now busy eating up Louisiana's wetlands. And he critiques the most monumental change in the lower Mississippi Valley--the reconstruction of the river itself, largely under the direction of the Army Corps of Engineers. Valley residents have been paying the price for these human interventions, most visibly with the disaster that followed Hurricane Katrina. Morris also describes how valley residents have been struggling to reinvigorate the valley environment in recent years--such as with the burgeoning catfish and crawfish industries--so that they may once again live off its natural abundance. Morris concludes that the problem with Katrina is the problem with the Amazon Rainforest, drought and famine in Africa, and fires and mudslides in California--it is the end result of the ill-considered bending of natural environments to human purposes.