*A Concise Introduction*

**Author**: Daniel Liberzon

**Publisher:** Princeton University Press

**ISBN:** 0691151873

**Category:** Mathematics

**Page:** 235

**View:** 3096

This textbook offers a concise yet rigorous introduction to calculus of variations and optimal control theory, and is a self-contained resource for graduate students in engineering, applied mathematics, and related subjects. Designed specifically for a one-semester course, the book begins with calculus of variations, preparing the ground for optimal control. It then gives a complete proof of the maximum principle and covers key topics such as the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman theory of dynamic programming and linear-quadratic optimal control. Calculus of Variations and Optimal Control Theory also traces the historical development of the subject and features numerous exercises, notes and references at the end of each chapter, and suggestions for further study. Offers a concise yet rigorous introduction Requires limited background in control theory or advanced mathematics Provides a complete proof of the maximum principle Uses consistent notation in the exposition of classical and modern topics Traces the historical development of the subject Solutions manual (available only to teachers) Leading universities that have adopted this book include: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ECE 553: Optimum Control Systems Georgia Institute of Technology ECE 6553: Optimal Control and Optimization University of Pennsylvania ESE 680: Optimal Control Theory University of Notre Dame EE 60565: Optimal Control

When the Tyrian princess Dido landed on the North African shore of the Mediterranean sea she was welcomed by a local chieftain. He offered her all the land that she could enclose between the shoreline and a rope of knotted cowhide. While the legend does not tell us, we may assume that Princess Dido arrived at the correct solution by stretching the rope into the shape of a circular arc and thereby maximized the area of the land upon which she was to found Carthage. This story of the founding of Carthage is apocryphal. Nonetheless it is probably the first account of a problem of the kind that inspired an entire mathematical discipline, the calculus of variations and its extensions such as the theory of optimal control. This book is intended to present an introductory treatment of the calculus of variations in Part I and of optimal control theory in Part II. The discussion in Part I is restricted to the simplest problem of the calculus of variations. The topic is entirely classical; all of the basic theory had been developed before the turn of the century. Consequently the material comes from many sources; however, those most useful to me have been the books of Oskar Bolza and of George M. Ewing. Part II is devoted to the elementary aspects of the modern extension of the calculus of variations, the theory of optimal control of dynamical systems.

Functional analysis owes much of its early impetus to problems that arise in the calculus of variations. In turn, the methods developed there have been applied to optimal control, an area that also requires new tools, such as nonsmooth analysis. This self-contained textbook gives a complete course on all these topics. It is written by a leading specialist who is also a noted expositor. This book provides a thorough introduction to functional analysis and includes many novel elements as well as the standard topics. A short course on nonsmooth analysis and geometry completes the first half of the book whilst the second half concerns the calculus of variations and optimal control. The author provides a comprehensive course on these subjects, from their inception through to the present. A notable feature is the inclusion of recent, unifying developments on regularity, multiplier rules, and the Pontryagin maximum principle, which appear here for the first time in a textbook. Other major themes include existence and Hamilton-Jacobi methods. The many substantial examples, and the more than three hundred exercises, treat such topics as viscosity solutions, nonsmooth Lagrangians, the logarithmic Sobolev inequality, periodic trajectories, and systems theory. They also touch lightly upon several fields of application: mechanics, economics, resources, finance, control engineering. Functional Analysis, Calculus of Variations and Optimal Control is intended to support several different courses at the first-year or second-year graduate level, on functional analysis, on the calculus of variations and optimal control, or on some combination. For this reason, it has been organized with customization in mind. The text also has considerable value as a reference. Besides its advanced results in the calculus of variations and optimal control, its polished presentation of certain other topics (for example convex analysis, measurable selections, metric regularity, and nonsmooth analysis) will be appreciated by researchers in these and related fields.

This monograph is an introduction to optimal control theory for systems governed by vector ordinary differential equations. It is not intended as a state-of-the-art handbook for researchers. We have tried to keep two types of reader in mind: (1) mathematicians, graduate students, and advanced undergraduates in mathematics who want a concise introduction to a field which contains nontrivial interesting applications of mathematics (for example, weak convergence, convexity, and the theory of ordinary differential equations); (2) economists, applied scientists, and engineers who want to understand some of the mathematical foundations. of optimal control theory. In general, we have emphasized motivation and explanation, avoiding the "definition-axiom-theorem-proof" approach. We make use of a large number of examples, especially one simple canonical example which we carry through the entire book. In proving theorems, we often just prove the simplest case, then state the more general results which can be proved. Many of the more difficult topics are discussed in the "Notes" sections at the end of chapters and several major proofs are in the Appendices. We feel that a solid understanding of basic facts is best attained by at first avoiding excessive generality. We have not tried to give an exhaustive list of references, preferring to refer the reader to existing books or papers with extensive bibliographies. References are given by author's name and the year of publication, e.g., Waltman [1974].

The calculus of variations is used to find functions that optimize quantities expressed in terms of integrals. Optimal control theory seeks to find functions that minimize cost integrals for systems described by differential equations. This book is an introduction to both the classical theory of the calculus of variations and the more modern developments of optimal control theory from the perspective of an applied mathematician. It focuses on understanding concepts and how to apply them. The range of potential applications is broad: the calculus of variations and optimal control theory have been widely used in numerous ways in biology, criminology, economics, engineering, finance, management science, and physics. Applications described in this book include cancer chemotherapy, navigational control, and renewable resource harvesting. The prerequisites for the book are modest: the standard calculus sequence, a first course on ordinary differential equations, and some facility with the use of mathematical software. It is suitable for an undergraduate or beginning graduate course, or for self study. It provides excellent preparation for more advanced books and courses on the calculus of variations and optimal control theory.

An introduction to the variational methods used to formulate and solve mathematical and physical problems, allowing the reader an insight into the systematic use of elementary (partial) convexity of differentiable functions in Euclidian space. By helping students directly characterize the solutions for many minimization problems, the text serves as a prelude to the field theory for sufficiency, laying as it does the groundwork for further explorations in mathematics, physics, mechanical and electrical engineering, as well as computer science.

First truly up-to-date treatment offers a simple introduction to optimal control, linear-quadratic control design, and more. Broad perspective features numerous exercises, hints, outlines, and appendixes, including a practical discussion of MATLAB. 2005 edition.

Upper-level undergraduate text introduces aspects of optimal control theory: dynamic programming, Pontryagin's minimum principle, and numerical techniques for trajectory optimization. Numerous figures, tables. Solution guide available upon request. 1970 edition.

This is an intuitively motivated presentation of many topics in classical mechanics and related areas of control theory and calculus of variations. All topics throughout the book are treated with zero tolerance for unrevealing definitions and for proofs which leave the reader in the dark. Some areas of particular interest are: an extremely short derivation of the ellipticity of planetary orbits; a statement and an explanation of the "tennis racket paradox"; a heuristic explanation (and a rigorous treatment) of the gyroscopic effect; a revealing equivalence between the dynamics of a particle and statics of a spring; a short geometrical explanation of Pontryagin's Maximum Principle, and more. In the last chapter, aimed at more advanced readers, the Hamiltonian and the momentum are compared to forces in a certain static problem. This gives a palpable physical meaning to some seemingly abstract concepts and theorems. With minimal prerequisites consisting of basic calculus and basic undergraduate physics, this book is suitable for courses from an undergraduate to a beginning graduate level, and for a mixed audience of mathematics, physics and engineering students. Much of the enjoyment of the subject lies in solving almost 200 problems in this book.

In this book, Sam helps his goose sisters fly to safety to looking for familiar landforms.

Suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of mathematics, physics, or engineering, this introduction to the calculus of variations focuses on variational problems involving one independent variable. It also discusses more advanced topics such as the inverse problem, eigenvalue problems, and Noether’s theorem. The text includes numerous examples along with problems to help students consolidate the material.

A rigorous introduction to optimal control theory, with an emphasis on applications in economics. This book bridges optimal control theory and economics, discussing ordinary differential equations, optimal control, game theory, and mechanism design in one volume. Technically rigorous and largely self-contained, it provides an introduction to the use of optimal control theory for deterministic continuous-time systems in economics. The theory of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is the backbone of the theory developed in the book, and chapter 2 offers a detailed review of basic concepts in the theory of ODEs, including the solution of systems of linear ODEs, state-space analysis, potential functions, and stability analysis. Following this, the book covers the main results of optimal control theory, in particular necessary and sufficient optimality conditions; game theory, with an emphasis on differential games; and the application of control-theoretic concepts to the design of economic mechanisms. Appendixes provide a mathematical review and full solutions to all end-of-chapter problems. The material is presented at three levels: single-person decision making; games, in which a group of decision makers interact strategically; and mechanism design, which is concerned with a designer's creation of an environment in which players interact to maximize the designer's objective. The book focuses on applications; the problems are an integral part of the text. It is intended for use as a textbook or reference for graduate students, teachers, and researchers interested in applications of control theory beyond its classical use in economic growth. The book will also appeal to readers interested in a modeling approach to certain practical problems involving dynamic continuous-time models.

From the very beginning in the late 1950s of the basic ideas of optimal control, attitudes toward the topic in the scientific and engineering community have ranged from an excessive enthusiasm for its reputed capability ofsolving almost any kind of problem to an (equally) unjustified rejection of it as a set of abstract mathematical concepts with no real utility. The truth, apparently, lies somewhere between these two extremes. Intense research activity in the field of optimization, in particular with reference to robust control issues, has caused it to be regarded as a source of numerous useful, powerful, and flexible tools for the control system designer. The new stream of research is deeply rooted in the well-established framework of linear quadratic gaussian control theory, knowledge ofwhich is an essential requirement for a fruitful understanding of optimization. In addition, there appears to be a widely shared opinion that some results of variational techniques are particularly suited for an approach to nonlinear solutions for complex control problems. For these reasons, even though the first significant achievements in the field were published some forty years ago, a new presentation ofthe basic elements ofclassical optimal control theory from a tutorial point of view seems meaningful and contemporary. This text draws heavily on the content ofthe Italian language textbook "Con trollo ottimo" published by Pitagora and used in a number of courses at the Politec nico of Milan.

Since its initial publication, this text has defined courses in dynamic optimization taught to economics and management science students. The two-part treatment covers the calculus of variations and optimal control. 1998 edition.

Want to know not just what makes rockets go up but how to do it optimally? Optimal control theory has become such an important field in aerospace engineering that no graduate student or practicing engineer can afford to be without a working knowledge of it. This is the first book that begins from scratch to teach the reader the basic principles of the calculus of variations, develop the necessary conditions step-by-step, and introduce the elementary computational techniques of optimal control. This book, with problems and an online solution manual, provides the graduate-level reader with enough introductory knowledge so that he or she can not only read the literature and study the next level textbook but can also apply the theory to find optimal solutions in practice. No more is needed than the usual background of an undergraduate engineering, science, or mathematics program: namely calculus, differential equations, and numerical integration. Although finding optimal solutions for these problems is a complex process involving the calculus of variations, the authors carefully lay out step-by-step the most important theorems and concepts. Numerous examples are worked to demonstrate how to apply the theories to everything from classical problems (e.g., crossing a river in minimum time) to engineering problems (e.g., minimum-fuel launch of a satellite). Throughout the book use is made of the time-optimal launch of a satellite into orbit as an important case study with detailed analysis of two examples: launch from the Moon and launch from Earth. For launching into the field of optimal solutions, look no further!

The theory of optimal control systems has grown and flourished since the 1960's. Many texts, written on varying levels of sophistication, have been published on the subject. Yet even those purportedly designed for beginners in the field are often riddled with complex theorems, and many treatments fail to include topics that are essential to a thorough grounding in the various aspects of and approaches to optimal control. Optimal Control Systems provides a comprehensive but accessible treatment of the subject with just the right degree of mathematical rigor to be complete but practical. It provides a solid bridge between "traditional" optimization using the calculus of variations and what is called "modern" optimal control. It also treats both continuous-time and discrete-time optimal control systems, giving students a firm grasp on both methods. Among this book's most outstanding features is a summary table that accompanies each topic or problem and includes a statement of the problem with a step-by-step solution. Students will also gain valuable experience in using industry-standard MATLAB and SIMULINK software, including the Control System and Symbolic Math Toolboxes. Diverse applications across fields from power engineering to medicine make a foundation in optimal control systems an essential part of an engineer's background. This clear, streamlined presentation is ideal for a graduate level course on control systems and as a quick reference for working engineers.

This textbook offers a concise yet rigorous introduction to calculus of variations and optimal control theory, and is a self-contained resource for graduate students in engineering, applied mathematics, and related subjects. Designed specifically for a one-semester course, the book begins with calculus of variations, preparing the ground for optimal control. It then gives a complete proof of the maximum principle and covers key topics such as the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman theory of dynamic programming and linear-quadratic optimal control. "Calculus of Variations and Optimal Control Theory" also traces the historical development of the subject and features numerous exercises, notes and references at the end of each chapter, and suggestions for further study. Offers a concise yet rigorous introduction Requires limited background in control theory or advanced mathematics Provides a complete proof of the maximum principle Uses consistent notation in the exposition of classical and modern topics Traces the historical development of the subject Solutions manual (available only to teachers) Leading universities that have adopted this book include: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ECE 553: Optimum Control Systems Georgia Institute of Technology ECE 6553: Optimal Control and Optimization University of Pennsylvania ESE 680: Optimal Control Theory University of Notre Dame EE 60565: Optimal Control

This clear and concise textbook provides a rigorous introduction to the calculus of variations, depending on functions of one variable and their first derivatives. It is based on a translation of a German edition of the book Variationsrechnung (Vieweg+Teubner Verlag, 2010), translated and updated by the author himself. Topics include: the Euler-Lagrange equation for one-dimensional variational problems, with and without constraints, as well as an introduction to the direct methods. The book targets students who have a solid background in calculus and linear algebra, not necessarily in functional analysis. Some advanced mathematical tools, possibly not familiar to the reader, are given along with proofs in the appendix. Numerous figures, advanced problems and proofs, examples, and exercises with solutions accompany the book, making it suitable for self-study. The book will be particularly useful for beginning graduate students from the physical, engineering, and mathematical sciences with a rigorous theoretical background.

The theory of a Pontryagin minimum is developed for problems in the calculus of variations. The application of the notion of a Pontryagin minimum to the calculus of variations is a distinctive feature of this book. A new theory of quadratic conditions for a Pontryagin minimum, which covers broken extremals, is developed, and corresponding sufficient conditions for a strong minimum are obtained. Some classical theorems of the calculus of variations are generalized.

EDITORIAL REVIEW: This book provides a guided tour in introducing optimal control theory from a practitioner's point of view. As in the first edition, Ross takes the contrarian view that it is not necessary to prove Pontryagin's Principle before using it. Using the same philosophy, the second edition expands the ideas over four chapters: In Chapter 1, basic principles related to problem formulation via a structured approach are introduced: What is a state variable? What is a control variable? What is state space? And so on. In Chapter 2, Pontryagin's Principle is introduced using intuitive ideas from everyday life: Like the process of "measuring" a sandwich and how it relates to costates. A vast number of illustrations are used to explain the concepts without going into the minutia of obscure mathematics. Mnemonics are introduced to help a beginner remember the collection of conditions that constitute Pontryagin's Principle. In Chapter 3, several examples are worked out in detail to illustrate a step-by-step process in applying Pontryagin's Principle. Included in this example is Kalman's linear-quadratic optimal control problem. In Chapter 4, a large number of problems from applied mathematics to management science are solved to illustrate how Pontryagin's Principle is used across the disciplines. Included in this chapter are test problems and solutions. The style of the book is easygoing and engaging. The classical calculus of variations is an unnecessary prerequisite for understanding optimal control theory. Ross uses original references to weave an entertaining historical account of various events. Students, particularly beginners, will embark on a minimum-time trajectory to applying Pontryagin's Principle.