Develop the software and hardware you never think about. We're talking about the nitty-gritty behind the buttons on your microwave, inside your thermostat, inside the keyboard used to type this description, and even running the monitor on which you are reading it now. Such stuff is termed embedded systems, and this book shows how to design and develop embedded systems at a professional level. Because yes, many people quietly make a successful career doing just that. Building embedded systems can be both fun and intimidating. Putting together an embedded system requires skill sets from multiple engineering disciplines, from software and hardware in particular. Building Embedded Systems is a book about helping you do things in the right way from the beginning of your first project: Programmers who know software will learn what they need to know about hardware. Engineers with hardware knowledge likewise will learn about the software side. Whatever your background is, Building Embedded Systems is the perfect book to fill in any knowledge gaps and get you started in a career programming for everyday devices. Author Changyi Gu brings more than fifteen years of experience in working his way up the ladder in the field of embedded systems. He brings knowledge of numerous approaches to embedded systems design, including the System on Programmable Chips (SOPC) approach that is currently growing to dominate the field. His knowledge and experience make Building Embedded Systems an excellent book for anyone wanting to enter the field, or even just to do some embedded programming as a side project. What You Will Learn Program embedded systems at the hardware level Learn current industry practices in firmware development Develop practical knowledge of embedded hardware options Create tight integration between software and hardware Practice a work flow leading to successful outcomes Build from transistor level to the system level Make sound choices between performance and cost Who This Book Is For Embedded-system engineers and intermediate electronics enthusiasts who are seeking tighter integration between software and hardware. Those who favor the System on a Programmable Chip (SOPC) approach will in particular benefit from this book. Students in both Electrical Engineering and Computer Science can also benefit from this book and the real-life industry practice it provides.
There's a great deal of excitement surrounding the use of Linux in embedded systems -- for everything from cell phones to car ABS systems and water-filtration plants -- but not a lot of practical information. Building Embedded Linux Systems offers an in-depth, hard-core guide to putting together embedded systems based on Linux. Updated for the latest version of the Linux kernel, this new edition gives you the basics of building embedded Linux systems, along with the configuration, setup, and use of more than 40 different open source and free software packages in common use. The book also looks at the strengths and weaknesses of using Linux in an embedded system, plus a discussion of licensing issues, and an introduction to real-time, with a discussion of real-time options for Linux. This indispensable book features arcane and previously undocumented procedures for: Building your own GNU development toolchain Using an efficient embedded development framework Selecting, configuring, building, and installing a target-specific kernel Creating a complete target root filesystem Setting up, manipulating, and using solid-state storage devices Installing and configuring a bootloader for the target Cross-compiling a slew of utilities and packages Debugging your embedded system using a plethora of tools and techniques Using the uClibc, BusyBox, U-Boot, OpenSSH, thttpd, tftp, strace, and gdb packages By presenting how to build the operating system components from pristine sources and how to find more documentation or help, Building Embedded Linux Systems greatly simplifies the task of keeping complete control over your embedded operating system.
This book describes state-of-the-art techniques for designing real-time computer systems. The author shows how to estimate precisely the effect of cache architecture on the execution time of a program, how to dispatch workload on multicore processors to optimize resources, while meeting deadline constraints, and how to use closed-form mathematical approaches to characterize highly variable workloads and their interaction in a networked environment. Readers will learn how to deal with unpredictable timing behaviors of computer systems on different levels of system granularity and abstraction.
Colin Atkinson,Christian Bunse,Hans-Gerhard Gross,Christian Peper
Author: Colin Atkinson,Christian Bunse,Hans-Gerhard Gross,Christian Peper
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Embedded systems are ubiquitous. They appear in cell phones, microwave ovens, refrigerators, consumer electronics, cars, and jets. Some of these embedded s- tems are safety- or security-critical such as in medical equipment, nuclear plants, and X-by-wire control systems in naval, ground and aerospace transportation - hicles. With the continuing shift from hardware to software, embedded systems are increasingly dominated by embedded software. Embedded software is complex. Its engineering inherently involves a mul- disciplinary interplay with the physics of the embedding system or environment. Embedded software also comes in ever larger quantity and diversity. The next generation of premium automobiles will carry around one gigabyte of binary code. The proposed US DDX submarine is e?ectively a ?oating embedded so- ware system, comprising 30 billion lines of code written in over 100 programming languages. Embedded software is expensive. Cost estimates are quoted at around US$15– 30 per line (from commencement to shipping). In the defense realm, costs can range up to $100, while for highly critical applications, such as the Space Shuttle, the cost per line approximates $1,000. In view of the exponential increase in complexity, the projected costs of future embedded software are staggering.
PIC microcontrollers are used worldwide in commercial and industrial devices. The 8-bit PIC which this book focuses on is a versatile work horse that completes many designs. An engineer working with applications that include a microcontroller will no doubt come across the PIC sooner rather than later. It is a must to have a working knowledge of this 8-bit technology. This book takes the novice from introduction of embedded systems through to advanced development techniques for utilizing and optimizing the PIC family of microcontrollers in your device. To truly understand the PIC, assembly and C programming language must be understood. The author explains both with sample code and examples, and makes the transition from the former to the latter an easy one. This is a solid building block for future PIC endeavors. New to the 2nd Edition: *Include end of chapter questions/activities moving from introductory to advanced *More worked examples *Includes PowerPoint slides for instructors *Includes all code snips on a companion web site for ease of use *A survey of 16/32-bit PICs *A project using ZigBee *Covers both assembly and C programming languages, essential for optimizing the PIC *Amazing breadth of coverage moving from introductory to advanced topics covering more and more complex microcontroller families *Details MPLAB and other Microchip design tools
Considered a standard industry resource, the Embedded Systems Handbook provided researchers and technicians with the authoritative information needed to launch a wealth of diverse applications, including those in automotive electronics, industrial automated systems, and building automation and control. Now a new resource is required to report on current developments and provide a technical reference for those looking to move the field forward yet again. Divided into two volumes to accommodate this growth, the Embedded Systems Handbook, Second Edition presents a comprehensive view on this area of computer engineering with a currently appropriate emphasis on developments in networking and applications. Those experts directly involved in the creation and evolution of the ideas and technologies presented offer tutorials, research surveys, and technology overviews that explore cutting-edge developments and deployments and identify potential trends. This second self-contained volume of the handbook, Network Embedded Systems, focuses on select application areas. It covers automotive field, industrial automation, building automation, and wireless sensor networks. This volume highlights implementations in fast-evolving areas which have not received proper coverage in other publications. Reflecting the unique functional requirements of different application areas, the contributors discuss inter-node communication aspects in the context of specific applications of networked embedded systems. Those looking for guidance on preliminary design of embedded systems should consult the first volume: Embedded Systems Design and Verification.
Design and Analysis of Distributed Embedded Systems is organized similar to the conference. Chapters 1 and 2 deal with specification methods and their analysis while Chapter 6 concentrates on timing and performance analysis. Chapter 3 describes approaches to system verification at different levels of abstraction. Chapter 4 deals with fault tolerance and detection. Middleware and software reuse aspects are treated in Chapter 5. Chapters 7 and 8 concentrate on the distribution related topics such as partitioning, scheduling and communication. The book closes with a chapter on design methods and frameworks.
Embedded Software Development With C offers both an effectual reference for professionals and researchers, and a valuable learning tool for students by laying the groundwork for a solid foundation in the hardware and software aspects of embedded systems development. Key features include a resource for the fundamentals of embedded systems design and development with an emphasis on software, an exploration of the 8051 microcontroller as it pertains to embedded systems, comprehensive tutorial materials for instructors to provide students with labs of varying lengths and levels of difficulty, and supporting website including all sample codes, software tools and links to additional online references.
This book integrates new ideas and topics from real time systems, embedded systems, and software engineering to give a complete picture of the whole process of developing software for real-time embedded applications. You will not only gain a thorough understanding of concepts related to microprocessors, interrupts, and system boot process, appreciating the importance of real-time modeling and scheduling, but you will also learn software engineering practices such as model documentation, model analysis, design patterns, and standard conformance. This book is split into four parts to help you learn the key concept of embedded systems; Part one introduces the development process, and includes two chapters on microprocessors and interrupts---fundamental topics for software engineers; Part two is dedicated to modeling techniques for real-time systems; Part three looks at the design of software architectures and Part four covers software implementations, with a focus on POSIX-compliant operating systems. With this book you will learn: The pros and cons of different architectures for embedded systems POSIX real-time extensions, and how to develop POSIX-compliant real time applications How to use real-time UML to document system designs with timing constraints The challenges and concepts related to cross-development Multitasking design and inter-task communication techniques (shared memory objects, message queues, pipes, signals) How to use kernel objects (e.g. Semaphores, Mutex, Condition variables) to address resource sharing issues in RTOS applications The philosophy underpinning the notion of "resource manager" and how to implement a virtual file system using a resource manager The key principles of real-time scheduling and several key algorithms Coverage of the latest UML standard (UML 2.4) Over 20 design patterns which represent the best practices for reuse in a wide range of real-time embedded systems Example codes which have been tested in QNX---a real-time operating system widely adopted in industry
Master the techniques needed to build great, efficient embedded devices on Linux About This Book Discover how to build and configure reliable embedded Linux devices This book has been updated to include Linux 4.9 and Yocto Project 2.2 (Morty) This comprehensive guide covers the remote update of devices in the field and power management Who This Book Is For If you are an engineer who wishes to understand and use Linux in embedded devices, this book is for you. It is also for Linux developers and system programmers who are familiar with embedded systems and want to learn and program the best in class devices. It is appropriate for students studying embedded techniques, for developers implementing embedded Linux devices, and engineers supporting existing Linux devices. What You Will Learn Evaluate the Board Support Packages offered by most manufacturers of a system on chip or embedded module Use Buildroot and the Yocto Project to create embedded Linux systems quickly and efficiently Update IoT devices in the field without compromising security Reduce the power budget of devices to make batteries last longer Interact with the hardware without having to write kernel device drivers Debug devices remotely using GDB, and see how to measure the performance of the systems using powerful tools such as perk, ftrace, and valgrind Find out how to configure Linux as a real-time operating system In Detail Embedded Linux runs many of the devices we use every day, from smart TVs to WiFi routers, test equipment to industrial controllers - all of them have Linux at their heart. Linux is a core technology in the implementation of the inter-connected world of the Internet of Things. The comprehensive guide shows you the technologies and techniques required to build Linux into embedded systems. You will begin by learning about the fundamental elements that underpin all embedded Linux projects: the toolchain, the bootloader, the kernel, and the root filesystem. You'll see how to create each of these elements from scratch, and how to automate the process using Buildroot and the Yocto Project. Moving on, you'll find out how to implement an effective storage strategy for flash memory chips, and how to install updates to the device remotely once it is deployed. You'll also get to know the key aspects of writing code for embedded Linux, such as how to access hardware from applications, the implications of writing multi-threaded code, and techniques to manage memory in an efficient way. The final chapters show you how to debug your code, both in applications and in the Linux kernel, and how to profile the system so that you can look out for performance bottlenecks. By the end of the book, you will have a complete overview of the steps required to create a successful embedded Linux system. Style and approach This book is an easy-to-follow and pragmatic guide with in-depth analysis of the implementation of embedded devices. It follows the life cycle of a project from inception through to completion, at each stage giving both the theory that underlies the topic and practical step-by-step walkthroughs of an example implementation.
In todayOCOs digital, green, and consumer driven marketplace, it is critical to be knowledgeable about the latest approaches, tools and systems that can help you seamlessly and reliably conduct building performance verification assessments. This groundbreaking book provides you with a solid understanding of the underpinnings of embedded commissioning (ECx) as the overarching building evaluation approach.You find a review of significant and emerging approaches within ECx, including product models, process models, BIM (building information modeling), laser technology based modeling, mapping between process and product models, building codes, and data access and exchange standards. Moreover, this forward-looking resource provides you with details on the latest research findings in the areas of sensor networks, value based design, fields tools and AR/AV methods, just-in-time technologies, and wearable computers."
Chapter 5. Real-Time Building Blocks: Events and Triggers
Author: Erich Styger
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Category: Technology & Engineering
The previous chapter approaches embedded systems from a higher level of abstraction; from the system design architecture and how to apply design patterns for the implementation. This chapter introduces two fundamental concepts and design patterns in real-time systems: (a) the ability to set asynchronous event flags (events) and (b) the ability to have things triggered in a timely fashion (triggers). These two concepts are used both in systems with a real-time operating system (RTOS) and in systems not using an RTOS. The chapter starts with use cases and then develops different ways to implement events and triggers. It presents different implementation details and discusses the advantages and disadvantages. The sources for both event and trigger implementation are provided at the end of the chapter.
Jivan Parab,Santosh A. Shinde,Vinod G Shelake,Rajanish K. Kamat,Gourish M. Naik
Author: Jivan Parab,Santosh A. Shinde,Vinod G Shelake,Rajanish K. Kamat,Gourish M. Naik
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Technology & Engineering
Second in the series, Practical Aspects of Embedded System Design using Microcontrollers emphasizes the same philosophy of “Learning by Doing” and “Hands on Approach” with the application oriented case studies developed around the PIC16F877 and AT 89S52, today’s most popular microcontrollers. Readers with an academic and theoretical understanding of embedded microcontroller systems are introduced to the practical and industry oriented Embedded System design. When kick starting a project in the laboratory a reader will be able to benefit experimenting with the ready made designs and ‘C’ programs. One can also go about carving a big dream project by treating the designs and programs presented in this book as building blocks. Practical Aspects of Embedded System Design using Microcontrollers is yet another valuable addition and guides the developers to achieve shorter product development times with the use of microcontrollers in the days of increased software complexity. Going through the text and experimenting with the programs in a laboratory will definitely empower the potential reader, having more or less programming or electronics experience, to build embedded systems using microcontrollers around the home, office, store, etc. Practical Aspects of Embedded System Design using Microcontrollers will serve as a good reference for the academic community as well as industry professionals and overcome the fear of the newbies in this field of immense global importance.
This text provides basic, real-time systems modules and explains how to use and modify them. It provides common designs for all applications such as keyboard, interaction, date and time, and event timing.
Looking to port Android to other platforms such as embedded devices? This hands-on book shows you how Android works and how you can adapt it to fit your needs. You’ll delve into Android’s architecture and learn how to navigate its source code, modify its various components, and create your own version of Android for your particular device. You’ll also discover how Android differs from its Linux roots. If you’re experienced with embedded systems development and have a good handle on Linux, this book helps you mold Android to hardware platforms other than mobile devices. Learn about Android’s development model and the hardware you need to run it Get a quick primer on Android internals, including the Linux kernel and Dalvik virtual machine Set up and explore the AOSP without hardware, using a functional emulator image Understand Android’s non-recursive build system, and learn how to make your own modifications Use evaluation boards to prototype your embedded Android system Examine the native user-space, including the root filesystem layout, the adb tool, and Android’s command line Discover how to interact with—and customize—the Android Framework
* Understand essential hardware details * Walk through an embedded system startup * Build an extensible development platform * Prebuilt GNU X-Tools for 21 platforms Build embedded microprocessor-based systems from the ground up. Develop an integrated und
Today's embedded and real-time systems contain a mix of processor types: off-the-shelf microcontrollers, digital signal processors (DSPs), and custom processors. The decreasing cost of DSPs has made these sophisticated chips very attractive for a number of embedded and real-time applications, including automotive, telecommunications, medical imaging, and many others—including even some games and home appliances. However, developing embedded and real-time DSP applications is a complex task influenced by many parameters and issues. DSP Software Development Techniques for Embedded and Real-Time Systems is an introduction to DSP software development for embedded and real-time developers giving details on how to use digital signal processors efficiently in embedded and real-time systems. The book covers software and firmware design principles, from processor architectures and basic theory to the selection of appropriate languages and basic algorithms. The reader will find practical guidelines, diagrammed techniques, tool descriptions, and code templates for developing and optimizing DSP software and firmware. The book also covers integrating and testing DSP systems as well as managing the DSP development effort. Digital signal processors (DSPs) are the future of microchips! Includes practical guidelines, diagrammed techniques, tool descriptions, and code templates to aid in the development and optimization of DSP software and firmware
This easy-to- follow textbook/reference guides the reader through the creation of a fully functional embedded operating system, from its source code, in order to develop a deeper understanding of each component and how they work together. The text describes in detail the procedure for building the bootloader, kernel, filesystem, shared libraries, start-up scripts, configuration files and system utilities, to produce a GNU/Linux operating system. This fully updated second edition also includes new material on virtual machine technologies such as VirtualBox, Vagrant and the Linux container system Docker. Topics and features: presents an overview of the GNU/Linux system, introducing the components of the system, and covering aspects of process management, input/output and environment; discusses containers and the underlying kernel technology upon which they are based; provides a detailed examination of the GNU/Linux filesystem; explains how to build an embedded system under a virtual machine, and how to build an embedded system to run natively on an actual processor;introduces the concept of the compiler toolchain, and reviews the platforms BeagleBone and Raspberry Pi; describes how to build firmware images for devices running the Openwrt operating system. The hands-on nature and clearly structured approach of this textbook will appeal strongly to practically minded undergraduate and graduate level students, as well as to industry professionals involved in this area.