This is a comprehensive and accessible overview of what is known about the structure and mechanics of bone, bones, and teeth. In it, John Currey incorporates critical new concepts and findings from the two decades of research since the publication of his highly regarded The Mechanical Adaptations of Bones. Crucially, Currey shows how bone structure and bone's mechanical properties are intimately bound up with each other and how the mechanical properties of the material interact with the structure of whole bones to produce an adapted structure. For bone tissue, the book discusses stiffness, strength, viscoelasticity, fatigue, and fracture mechanics properties. For whole bones, subjects dealt with include buckling, the optimum hollowness of long bones, impact fracture, and properties of cancellous bone. The effects of mineralization on stiffness and toughness and the role of microcracking in the fracture process receive particular attention. As a zoologist, Currey views bone and bones as solutions to the design problems that vertebrates have faced during their evolution and throughout the book considers what bones have been adapted to do. He covers the full range of bones and bony tissues, as well as dentin and enamel, and uses both human and non-human examples. Copiously illustrated, engagingly written, and assuming little in the way of prior knowledge or mathematical background, Bones is both an ideal introduction to the field and also a reference sure to be frequently consulted by practicing researchers.
Bringing together the world's leading researchers and practitioners of computational mechanics, these new volumes meet and build on the eight key challenges for research and development in computational mechanics. Researchers have recently identified eight critical research tasks facing the field of computational mechanics. These tasks have come about because it appears possible to reach a new level of mathematical modelling and numerical solution that will lead to a much deeper understanding of nature and to great improvements in engineering design. The eight tasks are: The automatic solution of mathematical models Effective numerical schemes for fluid flows The development of an effective mesh-free numerical solution method The development of numerical procedures for multiphysics problems The development of numerical procedures for multiscale problems The modelling of uncertainties The analysis of complete life cycles of systems Education - teaching sound engineering and scientific judgement Readers of Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 2003 will be able to apply the combined experience of many of the world's leading researchers to their own research needs. Those in academic environments will gain a better insight into the needs and constraints of the industries they are involved with; those in industry will gain a competitive advantage by gaining insight into the cutting edge research being carried out by colleagues in academia. Features Bridges the gap between academic researchers and practitioners in industry Outlines the eight main challenges facing Research and Design in Computational mechanics and offers new insights into the shifting the research agenda Provides a vision of how strong, basic and exciting education at university can be harmonized with life-long learning to obtain maximum value from the new powerful tools of analysis
Now in its third edition, Osteoporosis, is the most comprehensive, authoritative reference on this disease. Written by renowned experts in the field, this two-volume reference is a must-have for academic and medical libraries, physicians, researchers, and any company involved in osteoporosis research and development. Worldwide, 200 million women between 60-80 suffer from osteoporosis and have a lifetime risk of fracture between 30 and 40 percent continuing to make osteoporosis a hot topic in medicine. This newest edition covers everything from basic anatomy and physiology to diagnosis, management and treatment in a field where direct care costs for osteoporitic fractures in the U.S. reach up to $18 billion each year. NEW TO THIS EDITION: *Recognizes the critical importance of the Wnt signaling pathway for bone health *Incorporates new chapters on osteocytes, phosphatonins, mouse genetics, and CNS and bone *Examines essential updates on estrogen prevention and treatment and the recent results from the WHI *Discusses the controversial topics of screening and clinical trial design for drug registration *Includes essential updates on therapeutic uses of calcium, vitamin D, SERMS, bisphosphonates, and parathyroid hormone * Offers critical reviews of reproductive and hormonal risk factors, ethnicity, nutrition, therapeutics, management, and economics comprising a tremendous wealth of knowledge in a single source not found elsewhere
The mechanical properties of whole bones, bone tissue, and the bone-implant interfaces are as important as their morphological and structural aspects. Mechanical Testing of Bone and the Bone-Implant Interface helps you assess these properties by explaining how to do mechanical testing of bone and the bone-implant interface for bone-related research. Articles explore the basic mechanical principles of bone-related study and how to conduct mechanical testing of bone specimens. More practical than theoretical, the text includes 42 chapters in three sections that cover mechanical properties of bone, general considerations of mechanical testing, basic facilities and instruments for mechanical testing; mechanical testing procedures on bone tissues; and mechanical testing procedures on the implant-bone interface. There are approximately three hundred illustrations, including line drawings, diagrams, tables, and photographs. Mechanical Testing of Bone and the Bone-Implant Interface is the most concise, straightforward, and in-depth treatment ever to be published - long needed by the orthopedic and bone research communities.
Fundamentals of Osteoporosis offers a concise yet comprehensive source of all the latest basic research related to osteoporosis in one reference work. Experts from all areas of osteoporosis research expose readers to genomic and proteomic analysis, and histopathology and imaging, as well cellular and molecular mechanisms relevant to assay development and drug discovery. Presents a concise yet comprehensive source of all the latest basic research related to osteoporosis in one reference work Experts from all areas of osteoporosis research expose readers to genomic and proteomic analysis, histopathology and imaging, as well cellular and molecular mechanisms relevant to assay development and drug discovery Clear, concise presentations by bone biologists of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying osteoporosis
Bone repair presents a unique challenge to tissue engineering strategies because bone defects often occur at sites that withstand significant mechanical loading. Thus, the design and fabrication of bone tissue engineering products often require both sufficient mechanical competence and adequate architecture that promotes osteogenesis. To help reconcile these opposing needs, this book provides basic knowledge on both the biomechanics of bone and the biomechanics of scaffolds currently employed in bone tissue engineering. The intent of this information is to assist tissue engineers not only in design and fabrication of bone tissue engineering products, but also in the evaluation of such products and outcomes.
Multiscale Simulations and Mechanics of BiologicalMaterials A compilation of recent developments in multiscalesimulation and computational biomaterials written by leadingspecialists in the field Presenting the latest developments in multiscale mechanics andmultiscale simulations, and offering a unique viewpoint onmultiscale modelling of biological materials, this book outlinesthe latest developments in computational biological materials fromatomistic and molecular scale simulation on DNA, proteins, andnano-particles, to meoscale soft matter modelling of cells, and tomacroscale soft tissue and blood vessel, and bone simulations.Traditionally, computational biomaterials researchers come frombiological chemistry and biomedical engineering, so this isprobably the first edited book to present work from these talentedcomputational mechanics researchers. The book has been written to honor Professor Wing Liu ofNorthwestern University, USA, who has made pioneering contributionsin multiscale simulation and computational biomaterial in specificsimulation of drag delivery at atomistic and molecular scale andcomputational cardiovascular fluid mechanics via immersed finiteelement method. Key features: Offers a unique interdisciplinary approach to multiscalebiomaterial modelling aimed at both accessible introductory andadvanced levels Presents a breadth of computational approaches for modellingbiological materials across multiple length scales (molecular towhole-tissue scale), including solid and fluid basedapproaches A companion website for supplementary materials plus links tocontributors’ websites (www.wiley.com/go/li/multiscale)
Women, Science, and Technology is an ideal reader for courses in feminist science studies. This third edition fully updates its predecessor with a new introduction and twenty-eight new readings that explore social constructions mediated by technologies, expand the scope of feminist technoscience studies, and move beyond the nature/culture paradigm.