Biomaterials

A Basic Introduction

Author: Qizhi Chen,George Thouas

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 148222769X

Category: Medical

Page: 736

View: 5441

Explores Biomedical Science from a Unique Perspective Biomaterials: A Basic Introduction is a definitive resource for students entering biomedical or bioengineering disciplines. This text offers a detailed exploration of engineering and materials science, and examines the boundary and relationship between the two. Based on the author’s course lecture notes and many years of research, it presents students with the knowledge needed to select and design biomaterials used in medical devices. Placing special emphasis on metallic, ceramic, polymeric, and composite biomaterials, it explains the difference between materials science and materials engineering, introduces basic concepts and principles, and analyzes the critically important properties of biomaterials. Explains Complex Theories Using Aspects of Daily Life This text provides an appropriate balance between depth and broadness of coverage, and offers an understanding of the most important concepts and principles to students from a wide academic spectrum. It delivers the science of biomaterials in laymen terms, from a material standpoint, as well as a clinical applications point of view. It equips students majoring in materials science/engineering with knowledge on the fundamentals of how biomaterials behave at a biological level, and provides students majoring in medicine with information that is generally unavailable in traditional medical courses. The authors incorporate learning objectives at the beginning of each chapter, as well as chapter highlights, problems, and exercises at the end of each chapter. In addition, they present objectives, suggested activities, and reference material for further reading. Contains an overview of medical science vis-à-vis materials science, describes anatomy, histology, and cell biology Highlights health issues and diseases where biomaterials can easily find medical applications Presents knowledge of the relationship between the biomaterials and the living body Evaluates medical devices and looks into their respective regulations Biomaterials: A Basic Introduction contains an overview of basic biomaterials and concepts, and is written for upper-division students in the US/Canada, and second-level students in universities worldwide.

Biomaterials Science

An Introduction to Materials in Medicine

Author: Buddy D. Ratner

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0125824637

Category: Science

Page: 851

View: 2160

"... This reference integrates a historical perspective of materials engineering principles with biological interactions of biomaterials. Also provided within are regulatory and ethical issues in addition to future directions of the field, and a state-of-the-art update of medical and biotechnological applications. All aspects of biomaterials science are thoroughly addressed, from tissue engineering to cochlear prostheses and drug delivery systems. Over 80 contributors from academia, government and industry detail the principles of cell biology, immunology, and pathology. Focus within pertains to the clinical uses of biomaterials as components in implants, devices, and artificial organs. This reference also touches upon their uses in biotechnology as well as the characterization of the physical, chemical, biochemical and surface properties of these materials." -- Publisher's description.

Encyclopedia of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, Second Edition

Author: Gary E. Wnek,Gary L. Bowlin

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1498761437

Category: Medical

Page: 3552

View: 1257

Written by more than 400 subject experts representing diverse academic and applied domains, this multidisciplinary resource surveys the vanguard of biomaterials and biomedical engineering technologies utilizing biomaterials that lead to quality-of-life improvements. Building on traditional engineering principles, it serves to bridge advances in materials science, life sciences, nanotechnology, and cell biology to innovations in solving medical problems with applications in tissue engineering, prosthetics, drug delivery, biosensors, and medical devices. In nearly 300 entries, this four-volume Encyclopedia of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, Second Edition covers: essential topics integral to tissue engineering research: bioreactors, scaffolding materials and fabrication, tissue mechanics, cellular interaction, and development of major tissues and organs being attempted by researchers worldwide artificial lungs and muscles, bio-artificial livers, and corneal, dental, inner ear, and total hip implants tissue engineering of blood vessels, heart valves, ligaments, microvascular networks, skeletal muscle, and skin bone remodeling, bone cement, and bioabsorbable bone plates and screws controlled drug delivery, insulin delivery, and transdermal and ocular implant-based drug delivery endovascular stent grafts, vascular grafts, and xenografts 3-D medical imaging, electrical impedance imaging, and intravascular ultrasound biomedical, protein adsorption, and in vivo cardiovascular modeling polymer foams, biofunctional and conductive polymers, and electroactive polymeric materials blood–material interactions, the bone–implant interface, host reactions, and foreign body responses and much more Also Available Online This Taylor & Francis encyclopedia is also available through online subscription, offering a variety of extra benefits for researchers, students, and librarians, including:  Citation tracking and alerts  Active reference linking  Saved searches and marked lists  HTML and PDF format options Contact Taylor and Francis for more information or to inquire about subscription options and print/online combination packages. US: (Tel) 1.888.318.2367; (E-mail) [email protected] International: (Tel) +44 (0) 20 7017 6062; (E-mail) [email protected]

Handbook of Biomaterial Properties

Author: William Murphy,Jonathan Black,Garth Hastings

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493933051

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 676

View: 1318

This book provides tabular and text data relating to normal and diseased tissue materials and materials used in medical devices. Comprehensive and practical for students, researchers, engineers, and practicing physicians who use implants, this book considers the materials aspects of both implantable materials and natural tissues and fluids. Examples of materials and topics covered include titanium, elastomers, degradable biomaterials, composites, scaffold materials for tissue engineering, dental implants, sterilization effects on material properties, metallic alloys, and much more. Each chapter author considers the intrinsic and interactive properties of biomaterials, as well as their appropriate applications and historical contexts. Now in an updated second edition, this book also contains two new chapters on the cornea and on vocal folds, as well as updated insights, data, and citations for several chapters.

An Introduction to Biomaterials, Second Edition

Author: Jeffrey O. Hollinger

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439812578

Category: Medical

Page: 644

View: 2707

A practical road map to the key families of biomaterials and their potential applications in clinical therapeutics, Introduction to Biomaterials, Second Edition follows the entire path of development from theory to lab to practical application. It highlights new biocompatibility issues, metrics, and statistics as well as new legislation for intellectual property. Divided into four sections (Biology, Biomechanics, Biomaterials Interactions; Biomaterials Testing, Statistics, Regulatory Considerations, Intellectual Property; Biomaterials Compositions; and Biomaterials Applications), this dramatically revised edition includes both new and revised chapters on cells, tissues, and signaling molecules in wound healing cascades, as well as two revised chapters on standardized materials testing with in vitro and in vivo paradigms consistent with regulatory guidelines. Emphasizing biocompatibility at the biomaterial-host interface, it investigates cell-cell interactions, cell-signaling and the inflammatory and complement cascades, specific interactions of protein-adsorbed materials, and other inherent biological constraints including solid-liquid interfaces, diffusion, and protein types. Unique in its inclusion of the practicalities of biomaterials as an industry, the book also covers the basic principles of statistics, new U.S. FDA information on the biomaterials-biology issues relevant to patent applications, and considerations of intellectual property and patent disclosure. With nine completely new chapters and 24 chapters extensively updated and revised with new accomplishments and contemporary data, this comprehensive introduction discusses 13 important classes of biomaterials, their fundamental and applied research, practical applications, performance properties, synthesis and testing, potential future applications, and commonly matched clinical applications. The authors include extensive references, to create a comprehensive, yet manageable didactic work that is an invaluable desk references and instructional text for undergraduates and working professionals alike.

Introduction to Biomaterials

Basic Theory with Engineering Applications

Author: J. L. Ong,Mark R. Appleford,Gopinath Mani

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521116902

Category: Medical

Page: 419

View: 2819

A succinct introduction to the field of biomaterials engineering, packed with practical insights.

Biomaterials Science

An Introduction to Materials in Medicine

Author: Buddy D. Ratner,Allan S. Hoffman,Frederick J. Schoen,Jack E. Lemons

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 008087780X

Category: Medical

Page: 1573

View: 8793

The revised edition of this renowned and bestselling title is the most comprehensive single text on all aspects of biomaterials science. It provides a balanced, insightful approach to both the learning of the science and technology of biomaterials and acts as the key reference for practitioners who are involved in the applications of materials in medicine. Over 29,000 copies sold, this is the most comprehensive coverage of principles and applications of all classes of biomaterials: "the only such text that currently covers this area comprehensively" - Materials Today Edited by four of the best-known figures in the biomaterials field today; fully endorsed and supported by the Society for Biomaterials Fully revised and expanded, key new topics include of tissue engineering, drug delivery systems, and new clinical applications, with new teaching and learning material throughout, case studies and a downloadable image bank

Injectable Biomaterials

Science and Applications

Author: Brent Vernon

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0857091379

Category: Medical

Page: 432

View: 5626

Novel injectable materials for non-invasive surgical procedures are becoming increasingly popular. An advantage of these materials include easy deliverability into the body, however the suitability of their mechanical properties must also be carefully considered. Injectable biomaterials covers the materials, properties and biomedical applications of injectable materials, as well as novel developments in the technology. Part one focuses on materials and properties, with chapters covering the design of injectable biomaterials as well as their rheological properties and the mechanical properties of injectable polymers and composites. Part two covers the clinical applications of injectable biomaterials, including chapters on drug delivery, tissue engineering and orthopaedic applications as well as injectable materials for gene delivery systems. In part three, existing and developing technologies are discussed. Chapters in this part cover such topics as environmentally responsive biomaterials, injectable nanotechnology, injectable biodegradable materials and biocompatibility. There are also chapters focusing on troubleshooting and potential future applications of injectable biomaterials. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Injectable biomaterials is a standard reference for materials scientists and researchers working in the biomaterials industry, as well as those with an academic interest in the subject. It will also be beneficial to clinicians. Comprehensively examines the materials, properties and biomedical applications of injectable materials, as well as novel developments in the technology Reviews the design of injectable biomaterials as well as their rheological properties and the mechanical properties of injectable polymers and composites Explores clinical applications of injectable biomaterials, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, orthopaedic applications and injectable materials for gene delivery systems

Biomaterials in Modern Medicine

The Groningen Perspective

Author: G. Rakhorst,Rutger Jan Ploeg

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812709568

Category: Medical

Page: 266

View: 7678

Design of biomedical products / G.J. Verkerke & E.B. van der Houwen -- Animal models in biomaterials research / G. Rakhorst ... [et al.] -- Technology assessment / J.M. Hummel -- Hemocompatibility of medical devices / W. van Oeveren -- Tissue and cell interactions with (bio)materials / T.G. van Kooten & R. Kuijer -- Biomaterials-associated surgery and infection / P.G.M. Maathuis ... [et al.] -- Cardiopulmonary bypass and postoperative organ dysfunction / Y.J. Gu -- Mechanical circulatory support systems / G. Rakhorst & M.E. Erasmus -- Biomaterials-related infections in orthopedic implants / D. Neut & R.L. Diercks -- Biomaterials for voice reconstruction / G.J. Verkerke ... [et al.] -- Biomaterials in ophthalmology / V.W. Renardel de Lavalette & S.A. Koopmans -- Biomaterials in plastic surgery / M.F. Meek -- Surgical meshes : morphology-dependent bacterial colonization / A.F. Engelsman

Structural Biomaterials

Author: Julian F. V. Vincent

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691025131

Category: Science

Page: 244

View: 9739

"This book should go a long way towards filling the communication gap between biology and physics in [the area of biomaterials]. It begins with the basic theory of elasticity and viscoelasticity, describing concepts like stress, strain, compliance, and plasticity in simple mathematical terms. . . . For the non-biologist, these chapters provide a clear account of macromolecular structure and conformation. . . . [Vincent's work] is a delight to read, full of interesting anecdotes and examples from unexpected sources. . . . I can strongly recommend this book, as it shows how biologists could use mechanical properties as well as conventional methods to deduce molecular structure."--Anna Furth, The Times Higher Education Supplement In what is now recognized as a standard introduction to biomaterials, Julian Vincent presents a biologist's analysis of the structural materials of organisms, using molecular biology as a starting point. He explores the chemical structure of both proteins and polysaccharides, illustrating how their composition and bonding determine the mechanical properties of the materials in which they occurincluding pliant composites such as skin, artery, and plant tissue; stiff composites such as insect cuticle and wood; and biological ceramics such as teeth, bone, and eggshell. Here Vincent discusses the possibilities of taking ideas from nature with biomimicry and "intelligent" (or self-designing and sensitive) materials.

An Introduction to Tissue-Biomaterial Interactions

Author: Kay C. Dee,David A. Puleo,Rena Bizios

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0471461121

Category: Science

Page: 248

View: 1184

An Introduction to Tissue-Biomaterial Interactions acquaintsan undergraduate audience with the fundamental biological processesthat influence these sophisticated, cutting-edge procedures.Chapters one through three provide more detail about themolecular-level events that happen at the tissue-implant interface,while chapters four through ten explore selected material,biological, and physiological consequences of these events. Theimportance of the body’s wound-healing response is emphasizedthroughout. Specific topics covered include:Structure andproperties of biomaterials Proteins Protein-surface interactions Blood-biomaterial interactions Inflammation and infection The immune system Biomaterial responses to implantation Biomaterial surface engineering Intimal hyperplasia and osseointegration as examples oftissue-biomaterial interactions The text also provides extensive coverage of the three pertinentinterfaces between the body and the biomaterial, between the bodyand the living cells, and between the cells and the biomaterialthat are critical in the development of tissue-engineered productsthat incorporate living cells within a biomaterial matrix. Idealfor a one-semester, biomedical engineering course, An Introductionto Tissue-Biomaterial Interactions provides a solid framework forunderstanding today’s and tomorrow’s implantablebiomedical devices.

PEEK Biomaterials Handbook

Author: Steven M. Kurtz

Publisher: William Andrew

ISBN: 1437744648

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 306

View: 6710

PEEK biomaterials are currently used in thousands of spinal fusion patients around the world every year. Durability, biocompatibility and excellent resistance to aggressive sterilization procedures make PEEK a polymer of choice, replacing metal in orthopedic implants, from spinal implants and hip replacements to finger joints and dental implants. This Handbook brings together experts in many different facets related to PEEK clinical performance as well as in the areas of materials science, tribology, and biology to provide a complete reference for specialists in the field of plastics, biomaterials, medical device design and surgical applications. Steven Kurtz, author of the well respected UHMWPE Biomaterials Handbook and Director of the Implant Research Center at Drexel University, has developed a one-stop reference covering the processing and blending of PEEK, its properties and biotribology, and the expanding range of medical implants using PEEK: spinal implants, hip and knee replacement, etc. Covering materials science, tribology and applications Provides a complete reference for specialists in the field of plastics, biomaterials, biomedical engineering and medical device design and surgical applications

Cereal Straw as a Resource for Sustainable Biomaterials and Biofuels

Chemistry, Extractives, Lignins, Hemicelluloses and Cellulose

Author: RunCang Sun

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080932675

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 300

View: 2372

Materials from renewable resources are receiving increased attention, as leading industries and manufacturers attempt to replace declining petrochemical-based feedstocks with products derived from natural biomass, such as cereal straws. Cereal straws are expected to play an important role in the shift toward a sustainable economy, and a basic knowledge of the composition and structure of cereal straw is the key to using it wisely. Cereal Straw as a Resource for Sustainable Biomaterials and Biofuels: Chemistry, Extractives, Lignins, Hemicelluloses and Cellulose provides an introduction to straw chemistry. Topics discussed include the structure, ultrastructure, and chemical composition of straw; the structure and isolation of extractives from the straw; the three main components of straw: cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignins; and chemical modifications of straw for industrial applications. This book will be helpful to scientists interested in the areas of natural resource management, environmental chemistry, plant chemistry, material science, polysaccharide chemistry, and lignin chemistry. It will also be of interest to academic and industrial scientists/researchers interested in novel applications of agricultural residues for industrial and/or recycling technologies. Provides the basics of straw composition and the structure of its cell walls Details the procedures required to fractionate straw components to produce chemical derivatives from straw cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignins Elucidates new techniques for the production of biodegradable materials for the energy sector, chemical industry, and pulp and paper business

Biomaterials

proceedings of a symposium held in conjunction with the ninth annual meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, New Orleans, April 19-20, 1974

Author: Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Biomedical materials

Page: 101

View: 2855

Biomaterials

A Nano Approach

Author: Seeram Ramakrishna,Murugan Ramalingam,T .S. Sampath Kumar,Winston O. Soboyejo

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420047825

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 372

View: 7847

There are several well-known books on the market that cover biomaterials in a general way, but none provide adequate focus on the future of and potential for actual uses of emerging nanontechnology in this burgeoning field. Biomaterials: A Nano Approach is written from a multi-disciplinary point of view that integrates aspects of materials science and engineering, nanotechnology, bioengineering, and biosciences. The book fills a glaring void in the literature by providing a comprehensive discussion of biomaterials and a scientifically plausible extrapolation of likely scenarios in which nanotechnology could play a significant role. The authors introduce and examine basic concepts, processing methodologies, and techniques involved in the preparation and characterization of nanobiomaterials that are specific to biomedical applications. A Self-Contained Book Illustrating Past, Present, and Future Trends in Biomaterials Spanning from the historical development of biomaterials to cutting-edge advances in the field, the text describes how basic concepts in nanotechnology are applied to the processing of novel nanobiomaterials, including nanostructured metals and alloys. With its illustrative examples and presentation of applications, this text offers a solid framework for understanding present and future trends of biomaterials in human healthcare systems. It is an ideal companion resource for students, researchers, and industrial scientists who specialize in biomaterials and nanobiomaterials.

Comprehensive Biomaterials

Author: Paul Ducheyne,Kevin Healy,Dietmar W. Hutmacher,David W. Grainger,C. James Kirkpatrick

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080552943

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 3672

View: 8179

Comprehensive Biomaterials brings together the myriad facets of biomaterials into one, major series of six edited volumes that would cover the field of biomaterials in a major, extensive fashion: Volume 1: Metallic, Ceramic and Polymeric Biomaterials Volume 2: Biologically Inspired and Biomolecular Materials Volume 3: Methods of Analysis Volume 4: Biocompatibility, Surface Engineering, and Delivery Of Drugs, Genes and Other Molecules Volume 5: Tissue and Organ Engineering Volume 6: Biomaterials and Clinical Use Experts from around the world in hundreds of related biomaterials areas have contributed to this publication, resulting in a continuum of rich information appropriate for many audiences. The work addresses the current status of nearly all biomaterials in the field, their strengths and weaknesses, their future prospects, appropriate analytical methods and testing, device applications and performance, emerging candidate materials as competitors and disruptive technologies, and strategic insights for those entering and operational in diverse biomaterials applications, research and development, regulatory management, and commercial aspects. From the outset, the goal was to review materials in the context of medical devices and tissue properties, biocompatibility and surface analysis, tissue engineering and controlled release. It was also the intent both, to focus on material properties from the perspectives of therapeutic and diagnostic use, and to address questions relevant to state-of-the-art research endeavors. Reviews the current status of nearly all biomaterials in the field by analyzing their strengths and weaknesses, performance as well as future prospects Presents appropriate analytical methods and testing procedures in addition to potential device applications Provides strategic insights for those working on diverse application areas such as R&D, regulatory management, and commercial development

Materialwissenschaften und Werkstofftechnik

Eine Einführung

Author: William D. Callister,David G. Rethwisch

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527330070

Category:

Page: 906

View: 5653

Der 'Callister' bietet den gesamten Stoff der Materialwissenschaften und Werkstofftechnik für Studium und Prüfungsvorbereitung. Hervorragend aufbereitet und in klarer, prägnanter Sprache wird das gesamte Fachgebiet anschaulich dargestellt. Das erprobte didaktische Konzept zielt ab auf 'Verständnis vor Formalismus' und unterstützt den Lernprozess der Studierenden: * ausformulierte Lernziele * regelmäßig eingestreute Verständnisfragen zum gerade vermittelten Stoff * Kapitelzusammenfassungen mit Lernstoff, Gleichungen, Schlüsselwörtern und Querverweisen auf andere Kapitel * durchgerechnete Beispiele, Fragen und Antworten sowie Aufgaben und Lösungen * Exkurse in die industrielle Anwendung * an den deutschen Sprachraum angepasste Einheiten und Werkstoffbezeichnungen * durchgehend vierfarbig illustriert * Verweise auf elektronisches Zusatzmaterial Der 'Callister' ist ein Muss für angehende Materialwissenschaftler und Werkstofftechniker an Universitäten und Fachhochschulen - und ideal geeignet für Studierende aus Physik, Chemie, Maschinenbau und Bauingenieurwesen, die sich mit den Grundlagen des Fachs vertraut machen möchten.

UHMWPE Biomaterials Handbook

Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene in Total Joint Replacement and Medical Devices

Author: Steven M. Kurtz

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080884448

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 568

View: 9308

This book describes the science, development, properties and application of of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) used in artificial joints. This material is currently used in 1.4 million patients around the world every year for use in the hip, knee, upper extremities, and spine. Since the publication of the 1st edition there have been major advances in the development and clinical adoption of highly crosslinked UHMWPE for hip and knee replacement. There has also been a major international effort to introduce Vitamin E stabilized UHMWPE for patients. The accumulated knowledge on these two classes of materials are a key feature of the 2nd edition, along with an additional 19 additional chapters providing coverage of the key engineering aspects (biomechanical and materials science) and clinical/biological performance of UHMWPE, providing a more complete reference for industrial and academic materials specialists, and for surgeons and clinicians who require an understanding of the biomaterials properties of UHMWPE to work successfully on patient applications. * The UHMWPE Handbook is the comprehensive reference for professionals, researchers, and clinicians working with biomaterials technologies for joint replacement * New to this edition: 19 new chapters keep readers up to date with this fast moving topic, including a new section on UHMWPE biomaterials; highly crosslinked UHMWPE for hip and knee replacement; Vitamin E stabilized UHMWPE for patients; clinical performance, tribology an biologic interaction of UHMWPE * State-of-the-art coverage of UHMWPE technology, orthopedic applications, biomaterial characterisation and engineering aspects from recognised leaders in the field

Characterization of Biomaterials

Chapter 3. Mechanical Characterization of Biomaterials

Author: Ryan K. Roeder

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 0128070978

Category: Science

Page: 450

View: 5498

The design of biomedical devices almost always involves some form of mechanical characterization of biomaterials. This chapter provides a broad overview of experimental methods and important considerations for mechanical characterization of biomaterials, with special attention to the practical needs of engineers and scientists who encounter a need to characterize the mechanical properties of a biomaterial but may not know where to begin or what the key considerations should be. Many details are necessarily omitted from this broad overview, but numerous references are provided for greater technical depth on a particular topic, standardized methodologies, and exemplary studies. Fundamental concepts are introduced, beginning with stress and strain versus force and displacement. The mechanical properties measured from a stress–strain curve, different types of stress–strain curves, and corresponding constitutive models are reviewed, including differences in material classes and anisotropy. Three primary methods of analysis for fracture mechanics are introduced, including stress concentrations, energy criteria for crack initiation and propagation (fracture toughness), and statistical methods for the probability of fracture. The mechanical characterization of biomaterials begins with selection and preparation of standardized test specimens, which are critical to obtaining accurate and reproducible measurements of material properties. Practical considerations are outlined for selection and preparation of the specimen size, geometry, surface finish, and precracking. The mechanical characterization of biomaterial test specimens always involves the application and measurement of load and deformation. Practical considerations are outlined for the selection and use of load frames, load cells, load fixtures, extensometers, and strain gauges. A number of common loading modes are introduced and compared: uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, biaxial tension, torsion, diametral compression, three-point bending, four-point bending, and in-plane shear (including biomaterial-tissue interfacial shear strength). Strain-rate sensitivity or time-dependent behavior can profoundly influence stress–strain behavior and thus measured mechanical properties. The effects of high strain rates may be characterized by impact testing using a pendulum, drop tower, or split Hopkinson pressure bar. The effects of low strain rates may be characterized by creep deformation or creep rupture tests. The time-dependent behavior of viscoelastic materials is introduced, including creep, stress relaxation, common constitutive models, and practical considerations for testing. The frequency of loading, or cyclic loading, is another aspect of time-dependent behavior, which is critical for mechanical characterization of biomaterials, leading to fatigue deformation and failure or viscoelastic creep and stress relaxation. Practical considerations are described for selecting the waveform, frequency, cyclic stress/strain levels, loading mode, and test duration. Common methods are introduced for fatigue lifetime testing (including S-N curves, notch factors, and fatigue damage), fatigue crack propagation, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Nondestructive tests are particularly useful for sampling small volumes of a biomaterial (e.g., implant retrieval or biopsy) or characterizing spatial heterogeneity in mechanical properties. Various indentation tests and indenter geometries are introduced and compared, including classic hardness (Brinell and Rockwell), microhardness (Knoop and Vickers), and instrumented nanoindentation (Berkovich, cube corner, etc.). Methods and limitations are described for characterizing the reduced modulus, viscoelasticity, and fracture toughness using indentation. Ultrasonic wave-propagation methods are also introduced with an emphasis on methods for characterizing anisotropic elastic constants. Biomaterials are typically subjected to various sterilization methods prior to service and an aqueous physiological environment in service. Therefore, the effects of temperature, pressure, various aqueous media (water, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), media, foetal bovine serum (FBS), lipids, etc.), and irradiation on mechanical characterization of biomaterials are considered, including the degradation of mechanical properties by various mechanisms involving water uptake, hydrolysis, and oxidation. Finally, methods and guidelines are provided for data acquisition from transducers and data analysis, including an introduction to some basic statistical methods.

Handbook of Oral Biomaterials

Author: Jukka Pekka Matinlinna

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9814463124

Category: Medical

Page: 674

View: 4586

The book introduces the latest advances in dental materials and biomaterials science. It contains a comprehensive introduction and covers ceramic, metallic, and polymeric oral biomaterials. The contributing authors are from all over the world and are distinguished in their disciplines. A solid primer for dental students, the book is also highly recommended for students of engineering and basic science who want to gain an insight in contemporary biomaterials science. For medical practitioners, the book offers an invaluable opportunity to learn about the latest steps in dental biomaterials.