This monograph provides an overview of beneficial plant-bacterial interactions in a straightforward and easy-to-understand format, and includes a wealth of unique illustrations elaborating every major point. Study questions that emphasize the key points are provided at the end of each chapter. One way to feed all of the people in the world’s growing population is through the increased use of plant-growth-promoting bacteria in agriculture. These bacteria not only directly promote growth but also protect plants against a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Moreover, they can be used to support procedures for biologically cleaning up the environment. Plant-growth-promoting bacteria are already being used successfully on a small scale in several countries, and as this technology matures, the world may witness a major paradigm shift in agricultural practice.
Here, an extremely experienced team of authors from five different continents provides a timely review of progress in the use and exploitation of soil bacteria to improve crop and plant growth. They present novel ideas on how to grow better, more successful crops, in an environmentally sound way, making this invaluable reading for those working in the pharmaceutical, biotechnological and agricultural industries.
Author: M. Belén Rodelas González,Jesús Gonzalez-López
Publisher: CRC Press
Beneficial Plant-microbial Interactions: Ecology and Applications provides insight into the mechanisms underlying the interactions of plants and microbes, the ecological relevance and roles of these symbioses, the adaptive mechanisms of plant-associated microorganisms to abiotic stress and their contribution to plant stress tolerance, and the potential of these interactions as tools in agrobiotechnology. A team of authors with wide experience in the area contribute up-to-date reviews in nineteen chapters devoted to different ecological and applied aspects of the rhizobia-legume symbiosis, ecto- and endomycorrhizas, and plant associations with diazotrophic or adiazotrophic plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria. The book is intended for students, researchers and academic faculty members in the field of agrobiotechnology.
Research on the microbial colonization of the aerial and subterranean tissues of plants has shown an extensive scale of interactions between the hosts and a range of microbes, including bacteria and fungi. Intercellular spaces, vascular systems and even single cells can be inhabited by these endophytic microbes. Of the bacterial endophytes, only a small percentage is harmful to the plant; most are neutral, opportunistic or beneficial. These plant-based bacteria can have various important functions throughout the life cycle of the plant; some promote plant growth and development, others protect the plant from diseases. This ability to be able to protect plants from diseases has catalyzed numerous laboratories to search for new bacteria that could be utilized instead of the traditional plant-protective agents. Because two or more interacting organisms are involved, research and the eventual application of suitable bio-controlling microbes are challenging and often require specific skills and equipment. The purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive review for those who are interested in the research and biotechnological applications of plant-associated bacteria. It also provides a compilation of current work conducted on plant-bacteria interactions.
With a focus on food safety, this book highlights the importance of microbes in sustainable agriculture. Plants, sessile organisms that are considered as primary producers in the ecosystem and communicate with above- and below-ground communities that consist of microbes, insects, and other vertebrate and invertebrate animals, are subjected to various kinds of stress. Broadly speaking, these can be subdivided into abiotic and biotic stresses. Plants have evolved to develop elaborate mechanisms for coping with and adapting to the environmental stresses. Among other stresses, habitat-imposed biotic stress is one serious condition causing major problems for crop productivity. Most plants employ plant-growth-promoting microorganisms (PGPMs) to combat and protect themselves from stresses and also for better growth. PGPMs are bacteria associated with plant roots and they augment plant productivity and immunity. They are also defined as root-colonizing bacteria that have beneficial effects on plant growth and development. Remarkably, PGPMs including mycorrhizae, rhizobia, and rhizobacteria (Acinetobacter, Agrobacterium, Arthrobacter, Azospirillum, Bacillus, Bradyrhizobium, Frankia, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Serratia, Thiobacillus) form associations with plant roots and can promote plant growth by increasing plants’ access to soil minerals and protecting them against pathogens. To combat the pathogens causing different diseases and other biotic stresses, PGPMs produce a higher level of resistance in addition to plants’ indigenous immune systems in the form of induced systemic resistance (ISR). The ISR elicited by PGPMs has suppressed plant diseases caused by a range of pathogens in both the greenhouse and field. As such, the role of these microbes can no longer be ignored for sustainable agriculture. Today, PGPMs are also utilized in the form of bio-fertilizers to increase plant productivity. However, the use of PGPMs requires a precise understanding of the interactions between plants and microbes, between microbes and microbiota, and how biotic factors influence these relationships. Consequently, continued research is needed to develop new approaches to boost the efficiency of PGPMs and to understand the ecological, genetic and biochemical relationships in their habitat. The book focuses on recent research concerning interactions between PGPMs and plants under biotic stress. It addresses key concerns such as – 1. The response of benign microbes that benefit plants under biotic stress 2. The physiological changes incurred in plants under harsh conditions 3. The role of microbial determinants in promoting plant growth under biotic stress The book focuses on a range of aspects related to PGPMs such as their mode of action, priming of plant defence and plant growth in disease challenged crops, multifunctional bio-fertilizers, PGPM-mediated disease suppression, and the effect of PGPMs on secondary metabolites etc. The book will be a valuable asset to researchers and professionals working in the area of microbial-mediated support of plants under biotic stress.
In recent years, the study of the plant cell cycle has become of major interest, not only to scientists working on cell division sensu strictu , but also to scientists dealing with plant hormones, development and environmental effects on growth. The book The Plant Cell Cycle is a very timely contribution to this exploding field. Outstanding contributors reviewed, not only knowledge on the most important classes of cell cycle regulators, but also summarized the various processes in which cell cycle control plays a pivotal role. The central role of the cell cycle makes this book an absolute must for plant molecular biologists.
This book covers the most recent advances in all the topics with which researchers and professionals need to be familiar in order to obtain a better understanding of, and to better exploit, beneficial plant-microbe interactions. The use of microorganisms for agriculture and environmental applications is gaining importance worldwide to improve crop performance, but also for other environmental applications, such as bioremediation in chemically polluted soils. The search for an equilibrium between fundamental and applied aspects makes this book useful for professionals at various levels in the value chain of the “microbial biofertilizers”. Challenges of comercializing biofertilizers involve efficiency of the products and safety for human health and the environment, topics that have paid central attention in this book. Students, scientists and biofertilizers developers will find updated and comprehensive information about the different aspects to be considered to address a successful introduction of biofertilizers in sustainable agriculture and environmental actions.
Annotation. Based on a similarly named meeting in December 1999 organised by the British Society for Plant Pathology, this book considers the biology of interactions between host plants and the pathogens that infect them. This important topic has seen some significant advances in the past ten years, especially through the application of molecular techniques, which are extensively covered in this book.
PGPR have gained world wide importance and acceptance for agricultural benefits. These microorganisms are the potential tools for sustainable agriculture and the trend for the future. Scientific researches involve multidisciplinary approaches to understand adaptation of PGPR to the rhizosphere, mechanisms of root colonization, effects on plant physiology and growth, biofertilization, induced systemic resistance, biocontrol of plant pathogens, production of determinants etc. Biodiversity of PGPR and mechanisms of action for the different groups: diazotrophs, bacilli, pseudomonads, and rhizobia are shown. Effects of physical, chemical and biological factors on root colonization and the proteomics perspective on biocontrol and plant defence mechanism is discussed. Visualization of interactions of pathogens and biocontrol agents on plant roots using autofluorescent protein markers has provided more understanding of biocontrol process. Commercial formulations and field applications of PGPR are detailed.
Dieses Buch enthält das Grundlagenwissen sowie Tipps und Tricks für den Umgang mit Nucleinsäuren. Der Autor kennt Lust und Frust der täglichen Laborroutine ganz genau. Präparieren, Fällen, Konzentrieren und Reinigen von Nucleinsäuren Restriktionsenzyme, Gele, Blotten Polymerase-Kettenreaktion RNA-Isolierung, -Transkription Klonierung von DNA-Fragmenten Markierung von Sonden, Hybridisierung, Screening, Sequenzierung Mutagenese, In-vitro-Translation, transgene Mäuse, Transgenexpression, Gentherapie, Genomik Dieses Buch richtet sich an alle Experimentatoren, die molekularbiologische Versuche durchführen wollen und gern nachvollziehen möchten, was sich in ihrem Reaktionsgefäß abspielt. Das ganze Spektrum der üblichen molekularbiologischen Methoden wird vorgestellt, kommentiert und Alternativen aufgezeigt. Der lockere Ton wendet sich gleichermaßen an Studenten wie an BTAs und Laboranten, aber auch der alte Hase wird hier und dort noch etwas Neues entdecken. Die 7. Auflage wurde überarbeitet und aktualisiert.
This volume is envisioned as a resource for researchers working with beneficial and harmful groups of bacteria associated with crop plants. The book is divided into two parts, with Part I on beneficial bacteria including chapters on symbiotic nitrogen fixers and rhizosphere bacteria. The second part consists of detailed descriptions of 8 genera of plant pathogenic bacteria, including Agrobacterium and Herbaspirillum. Each chapter covers terminology, molecular phylogeny and more. soft-rot, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Acidovorax There is an opening chapter on the plant-associated bacteria survey, molecular phylogeny, genomics and recent advances. And each chapter includes terminology/definitions, molecular phylogeny, methods that can be used (both traditional and latest molecular tools) and applications
The use of microbial plant protection products is growing and their importance will strongly increase due to political and public pressure. World population is growing and the amount of food needed by 2050 will be double of what is produced now whereas the area of agricultural land is decreasing. We must increase crop yield in a sustainable way. Chemical plant growth promoters must be replaced by microbiological products. Also here, the use of microbial products is growing and their importance will strongly increase. A growing area of agricultural land is salinated. Global warming will increase this process. Plants growth is inhibited by salt or even made impossible and farmers tend to disuse the most salinated lands. Microbes have been very successfully used to alleviate salt stress of plants. Chemical pollution of land can make plant growth difficult and crops grown are often polluted and not suitable for consumption. Microbes have been used to degrade these chemical pollutants.
Biocontrol of major grapevine diseases provides a timely research update on the use of biological control agents and plant resistance inducers against phytopathogenic infections of the grapevine by fungi, oomycetes, bacteria and phytoplasma.Taking a holistic approach, this book presents in detail the ecology, mechanisms and the application methods of these agents. Its 19 chapters, authored by international experts, cover diseases such as grey mould, trunk diseases, powdery and downy mildews, as well as phytoplasma diseases, and, by nature, emphasise applications of biocontrol in organic viticulture and as part of integrated pest management systems.
Plants have evolved both general and highly specialized defence mechanisms that function to prevent diseases caused by the majority of microbial pathogens they encounter. Highly specialized defence is governed by specific interactions between pathogen avr (avirulence) genes' loci and alleles of the corresponding plant disease resistance (R) loci. These defences can be very dynamic as microbes from the same species can act differently in their co-evolution with the specific host plant, which in turn has similarly evolved its response to external threats. There have been major developments in the field of plant-microbe interactions in recent years, due to newly developed techniques and the availability of genomic information. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions explores these new discoveries, focusing primarily on the mechanisms controlling plant disease resistance, the cross-talk among the pathways involved and the strategies used by the pathogens to suppress these defences. By exploring developments in plant defences, pathogen's counter-defences and mutually beneficial plant-microbe interactions, this book will be useful for researchers and students in plant pathology and plant biology-related areas.
Was wäre, wenn intelligente Einzeller existierten? Vergil Ulam, ein einsamer, kauziger Wissenschaftler, steht kurz davor, das herauszufinden, als er seinen Job und damit auch sein Labor verliert. Nachdem er die Schwelle ethischer und legaler Methoden ohnehin längst überschritten hat, injiziert er sich seine „Forschungsergebnisse“ – und löst damit Veränderungen auf der ganzen Welt aus, denn die winzigen Lebewesen denken nicht daran, sich nur auf Ulams Körper zu beschränken.
Discusses the critical role of host-pathogen interactions in developing new and alternative biocontrol agents that promote plant health and disease resistance in crop pathosystems. Describes state-of-the-art as well as future technologies leading to more effective biological control programs.
Ray Franklin Evert,Katherine Esau,Susan E. Eichhorn
Meristeme, Zellen und Gewebe der Pflanzen - ihre Struktur, Funktion und Entwicklung
Author: Ray Franklin Evert,Katherine Esau,Susan E. Eichhorn
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
Das Werk bietet einen umfassenden Uberblick uber das aktuelle Grund- und Forschungswissen im Bereich der Anatomie der Pflanze. Fur Studierende leicht verstandlich dargestellt, werden Struktur, Funktion und Entwicklung des Pflanzenkorpers beschrieben und analysiert. Das Buch folgt dabei einem logischen Aufbau und beschreibt die Zellen und Gewebe ausgehend vom Protoplasten, uber die Zellwand, Meristeme und Leitgewebe bis zu den sekretorischen Strukturen und dem Periderm. Neueste wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse und Forschungsmethoden werden in dem Buch gebundelt und aus Sicht molekularer, interdisziplinarer und vergleichender Ansatze beschrieben. Ein Standardwerk auf dem Gebiet der systematischen und okologischen Pflanzenanatomie. umfassend, modern, leicht verstandlich exzellente Abbildungen didaktische Darstellung durch renommierte Autoren unfangreiche Literaturliste"
The future of agriculture strongly depends on our ability to enhance productivity without sacrificing long-term production potential. An ecologically and economically sustainable strategy is the application of microorganisms, such as the diverse bacterial species of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB). The use of these bio-resources for the enhancement of crop productivity is gaining worldwide importance. "Bacteria in Agrobiology: Plant Probiotics" discusses the current trends and future prospects of beneficial microorganisms acting as Probiotics. Topics include the application for the aboveground fitness of plants, in mountain ecosystems, in tropical and Mediterranean forests, and in muga sericulture. Further aspects are Arabidopsis as a model system for the diversity and complexity of plant responses, plant parasitic nematodes, nitrogen fixation and phosphorus nutrition.
Der stumme Frühling erschien erstmals 1962. Der Titel bezieht sich auf das eingangs erzählte Märchen von der blühenden Stadt, in der sich eine seltsame, schleichende Seuche ausbreitet … Das spannend geschriebene Sachbuch wirkte bei seinem Erscheinen wie ein Alarmsignal und avancierte rasch zur Bibel der damals entstehendenÖkologie-Bewegung. ZumerstenMal wurde hier in eindringlichem Appell die Fragwürdigkeit des chemischen Pflanzenschutzes dargelegt. An einer Fülle von Tatsachen machte Rachel Carson seine schädlichen Auswirkungen auf die Natur und die Menschen deutlich. Ihre Warnungen haben seither nichts von ihrer Aktualität verloren.