International migration is becoming an increasingly important element of contemporary demographic dynamics and yet, due to its high volatility, it remains the most unpredictable element of population change. In Europe, population forecasting is especially difficult because good-quality data on migration are lacking. There is a clear need for reliable methods of predicting migration since population forecasts are indispensable for rational decision making in many areas, including labour markets, social security or spatial planning and organisation. In addressing these issues, this book adopts a Bayesian statistical perspective, which allows for a formal incorporation of expert judgement, while describing uncertainty in a coherent and explicit manner. No prior knowledge of Bayesian statistics is assumed. The outcomes are discussed from the point of view of forecast users (decision makers), with the aim to show the relevance and usefulness of the presented methods in practical applications.
Become an expert in Bayesian Machine Learning methods using R and apply them to solve real-world big data problems About This Book Understand the principles of Bayesian Inference with less mathematical equations Learn state-of-the art Machine Learning methods Familiarize yourself with the recent advances in Deep Learning and Big Data frameworks with this step-by-step guide Who This Book Is For This book is for statisticians, analysts, and data scientists who want to build a Bayes-based system with R and implement it in their day-to-day models and projects. It is mainly intended for Data Scientists and Software Engineers who are involved in the development of Advanced Analytics applications. To understand this book, it would be useful if you have basic knowledge of probability theory and analytics and some familiarity with the programming language R. What You Will Learn Set up the R environment Create a classification model to predict and explore discrete variables Get acquainted with Probability Theory to analyze random events Build Linear Regression models Use Bayesian networks to infer the probability distribution of decision variables in a problem Model a problem using Bayesian Linear Regression approach with the R package BLR Use Bayesian Logistic Regression model to classify numerical data Perform Bayesian Inference on massively large data sets using the MapReduce programs in R and Cloud computing In Detail Bayesian Inference provides a unified framework to deal with all sorts of uncertainties when learning patterns form data using machine learning models and use it for predicting future observations. However, learning and implementing Bayesian models is not easy for data science practitioners due to the level of mathematical treatment involved. Also, applying Bayesian methods to real-world problems requires high computational resources. With the recent advances in computation and several open sources packages available in R, Bayesian modeling has become more feasible to use for practical applications today. Therefore, it would be advantageous for all data scientists and engineers to understand Bayesian methods and apply them in their projects to achieve better results. Learning Bayesian Models with R starts by giving you a comprehensive coverage of the Bayesian Machine Learning models and the R packages that implement them. It begins with an introduction to the fundamentals of probability theory and R programming for those who are new to the subject. Then the book covers some of the important machine learning methods, both supervised and unsupervised learning, implemented using Bayesian Inference and R. Every chapter begins with a theoretical description of the method explained in a very simple manner. Then, relevant R packages are discussed and some illustrations using data sets from the UCI Machine Learning repository are given. Each chapter ends with some simple exercises for you to get hands-on experience of the concepts and R packages discussed in the chapter. The last chapters are devoted to the latest development in the field, specifically Deep Learning, which uses a class of Neural Network models that are currently at the frontier of Artificial Intelligence. The book concludes with the application of Bayesian methods on Big Data using the Hadoop and Spark frameworks. Style and approach The book first gives you a theoretical description of the Bayesian models in simple language, followed by details of its implementation in the R package. Each chapter has illustrations for the use of Bayesian model and the corresponding R package, using data sets from the UCI Machine Learning repository. Each chapter also contains sufficient exercises for you to get more hands-on practice.
The first seven chapters use R for probability simulation and computation, including random number generation, numerical and Monte Carlo integration, and finding limiting distributions of Markov Chains with both discrete and continuous states. Applications include coverage probabilities of binomial confidence intervals, estimation of disease prevalence from screening tests, parallel redundancy for improved reliability of systems, and various kinds of genetic modeling. These initial chapters can be used for a non-Bayesian course in the simulation of applied probability models and Markov Chains. Chapters 8 through 10 give a brief introduction to Bayesian estimation and illustrate the use of Gibbs samplers to find posterior distributions and interval estimates, including some examples in which traditional methods do not give satisfactory results. WinBUGS software is introduced with a detailed explanation of its interface and examples of its use for Gibbs sampling for Bayesian estimation. No previous experience using R is required. An appendix introduces R, and complete R code is included for almost all computational examples and problems (along with comments and explanations). Noteworthy features of the book are its intuitive approach, presenting ideas with examples from biostatistics, reliability, and other fields; its large number of figures; and its extraordinarily large number of problems (about a third of the pages), ranging from simple drill to presentation of additional topics. Hints and answers are provided for many of the problems. These features make the book ideal for students of statistics at the senior undergraduate and at the beginning graduate levels.
This book is based on over a dozen years teaching a Bayesian Statistics course. The material presented here has been used by students of different levels and disciplines, including advanced undergraduates studying Mathematics and Statistics and students in graduate programs in Statistics, Biostatistics, Engineering, Economics, Marketing, Pharmacy, and Psychology. The goal of the book is to impart the basics of designing and carrying out Bayesian analyses, and interpreting and communicating the results. In addition, readers will learn to use the predominant software for Bayesian model-fitting, R and OpenBUGS. The practical approach this book takes will help students of all levels to build understanding of the concepts and procedures required to answer real questions by performing Bayesian analysis of real data. Topics covered include comparing and contrasting Bayesian and classical methods, specifying hierarchical models, and assessing Markov chain Monte Carlo output. Kate Cowles taught Suzuki piano for many years before going to graduate school in Biostatistics. Her research areas are Bayesian and computational statistics, with application to environmental science. She is on the faculty of Statistics at The University of Iowa.
Graphical models in their modern form have been around since the late 1970s and appear today in many areas of the sciences. Along with the ongoing developments of graphical models, a number of different graphical modeling software programs have been written over the years. In recent years many of these software developments have taken place within the R community, either in the form of new packages or by providing an R interface to existing software. This book attempts to give the reader a gentle introduction to graphical modeling using R and the main features of some of these packages. In addition, the book provides examples of how more advanced aspects of graphical modeling can be represented and handled within R. Topics covered in the seven chapters include graphical models for contingency tables, Gaussian and mixed graphical models, Bayesian networks and modeling high dimensional data.
As the world becomes increasingly complex, so do the statistical models required to analyse the challenging problems ahead. For the very first time in a single volume, the Handbook of Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) presents an extensive overview of the theory, practice and application of ABC methods. These simple, but powerful statistical techniques, take Bayesian statistics beyond the need to specify overly simplified models, to the setting where the model is defined only as a process that generates data. This process can be arbitrarily complex, to the point where standard Bayesian techniques based on working with tractable likelihood functions would not be viable. ABC methods finesse the problem of model complexity within the Bayesian framework by exploiting modern computational power, thereby permitting approximate Bayesian analyses of models that would otherwise be impossible to implement. The Handbook of ABC provides illuminating insight into the world of Bayesian modelling for intractable models for both experts and newcomers alike. It is an essential reference book for anyone interested in learning about and implementing ABC techniques to analyse complex models in the modern world.
Bayesian Networks in R with Applications in Systems Biology is unique as it introduces the reader to the essential concepts in Bayesian network modeling and inference in conjunction with examples in the open-source statistical environment R. The level of sophistication is also gradually increased across the chapters with exercises and solutions for enhanced understanding for hands-on experimentation of the theory and concepts. The application focuses on systems biology with emphasis on modeling pathways and signaling mechanisms from high-throughput molecular data. Bayesian networks have proven to be especially useful abstractions in this regard. Their usefulness is especially exemplified by their ability to discover new associations in addition to validating known ones across the molecules of interest. It is also expected that the prevalence of publicly available high-throughput biological data sets may encourage the audience to explore investigating novel paradigms using the approaches presented in the book.
R is open source statistical computing software. Since the R core group was formed in 1997, R has been extended by a very large number of packages with extensive documentation along with examples freely available on the internet. It offers a large number of statistical and numerical methods and graphical tools and visualization of extraordinarily high quality. R was recently ranked in 14th place by the Transparent Language Popularity Index and 6th as a scripting language, after PHP, Python, and Perl. The book is designed so that it can be used right away by novices while appealing to experienced users as well. Each article begins with a data example that can be downloaded directly from the R website. Data analysis questions are articulated following the presentation of the data. The necessary R commands are spelled out and executed and the output is presented and discussed. Other examples of data sets with a different flavor and different set of commands but following the theme of the article are presented as well. Each chapter predents a hands-on-experience. R has superb graphical outlays and the book brings out the essentials in this arena. The end user can benefit immensely by applying the graphics to enhance research findings. The core statistical methodologies such as regression, survival analysis, and discrete data are all covered. Addresses data examples that can be downloaded directly from the R website No other source is needed to gain practical experience Focus on the essentials in graphical outlays