Ecosystems change on a multitude of spatial and temporal scales. While analyses of ecosystem dynamics in short timespans have received much attention, the impacts of changes in the long term have, to a great extent, been neglected, provoking a lack of information and methodological know-how in this area. This book fills this gap by focusing on studies dealing with the investigation of complex, long-term ecological processes with regard to global change, the development of early warning systems, and the acquisition of a scientific basis for strategic conservation management and the sustainable use of ecosystems. Within this book, theoretical ecological questions of long-term processes, as well as an international dimension of long-term monitoring, observations and research are brought together. The outcome is an overview on different aspects of long-term ecological research. Aquatic, as well as terrestrial ecosystems are represented.
Focuses on applications of demographic models. This book introduces the life table to describe age-specific mortality, and uses it to develop theory for stable populations and the rate of population increase. This theory is then revisited in the context of matrix models, for stage-classified as well as age-classified populations.
Explores modern topics in graph theory and its applications to problems in transportation, genetics, pollution, perturbed ecosystems, urban services, and social inequalities. The author presents both traditional and relatively atypical graph-theoretical topics to best illustrate applications.
The application and interpretation of statistics are central to ecological study and practice. Ecologists are now asking more sophisticated questions than in the past. These new questions, together with the continued growth of computing power and the availability of new software, have created a new generation of statistical techniques. These have resulted in major recent developments in both our understanding and practice of ecological statistics. This novel book synthesizes a number of these changes, addressing key approaches and issues that tend to be overlooked in other books such as missing/censored data, correlation structure of data, heterogeneous data, and complex causal relationships. These issues characterize a large proportion of ecological data, but most ecologists' training in traditional statistics simply does not provide them with adequate preparation to handle the associated challenges. Uniquely, Ecological Statistics highlights the underlying links among many statistical approaches that attempt to tackle these issues. In particular, it gives readers an introduction to approaches to inference, likelihoods, generalized linear (mixed) models, spatially or phylogenetically-structured data, and data synthesis, with a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding and subsequent application to data analysis. Written by a team of practicing ecologists, mathematical explanations have been kept to the minimum necessary. This user-friendly textbook will be suitable for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners in the fields of ecology, evolution, environmental studies, and computational biology who are interested in updating their statistical tool kits. A companion web site provides example data sets and commented code in the R language.
The first book devoted exclusively to quantitative graph theory, Quantitative Graph Theory: Mathematical Foundations and Applications presents and demonstrates existing and novel methods for analyzing graphs quantitatively. Incorporating interdisciplinary knowledge from graph theory, information theory, measurement theory, and statistical techniques, this book covers a wide range of quantitative-graph theoretical concepts and methods, including those pertaining to real and random graphs such as: Comparative approaches (graph similarity or distance) Graph measures to characterize graphs quantitatively Applications of graph measures in social network analysis and other disciplines Metrical properties of graphs and measures Mathematical properties of quantitative methods or measures in graph theory Network complexity measures and other topological indices Quantitative approaches to graphs using machine learning (e.g., clustering) Graph measures and statistics Information-theoretic methods to analyze graphs quantitatively (e.g., entropy) Through its broad coverage, Quantitative Graph Theory: Mathematical Foundations and Applications fills a gap in the contemporary literature of discrete and applied mathematics, computer science, systems biology, and related disciplines. It is intended for researchers as well as graduate and advanced undergraduate students in the fields of mathematics, computer science, mathematical chemistry, cheminformatics, physics, bioinformatics, and systems biology.
Intuitive ideas of stability in dynamics of a biological population, community, or ecosystem can be formalized in the framework of corresponding mathematical models. These are often represented by systems of ordinary differential equations or difference equations. Matrices and Graphs covers achievements in the field using concepts from matrix theory and graph theory. The book effectively surveys applications of mathematical results pertinent to issues of theoretical and applied ecology. The only mathematical prerequisite for using Matrices and Graphs is a working knowledge of linear algebra and matrices. The book is ideal for biomathematicians, ecologists, and applied mathematicians doing research on dynamic behavior of model populations and communities consisting of multi-component systems. It will also be valuable as a text for a graduate-level topics course in applied math or mathematical ecology.