This unique resource offers you a clear overview of medical and industrial accelerators. Using minimal mathematics, this book focuses on offering thorough explanations of basic concepts surrounding the operation of accelerators. You find well illustrated discussions designed to help you use accelerator-based systems in a safer, more productive, and more reliable manner. This practical book details the manufacturing process for producing accelerators for medical and industrial applications. You become knowledgeable about the commonly encountered real-world manufacturing issues and potential sources of defects which help you avoid costly production problems. From principles of operation and the role of accelerators in cancer radiation therapy, to manufacturing techniques and future trends in accelerator design and applications, this easy-to-comprehend volume quickly brings you up-to-speed with the critical concepts you need to understand for your work in the field.
This volume, consisting of articles written by experts with international repute and long experience, reviews the state of the art of accelerator physics and technologies and the use of accelerators in research, industry and medicine. It covers a wide range of topics, from basic problems concerning the performance of circular and linear accelerators to technical issues and related fields. Also discussed are recent achievements that are of particular interest (such as RF quadrupole acceleration, ion sources and storage rings) and new technologies (such as superconductivity for magnets and RF cavities).The book will interest not only researchers and engineers in the field of accelerator development but also users of accelerators in research and industry. Moreover, teachers giving courses on accelerators and their applications will profit by learning about the most recent achievements and future possibilities.
This book fills the need for a coherent work combining carefully reviewed articles into a comprehensive overview accessible to research groups and lecturers. Next to fundamental physics, contributions on topical medical and material science issues are included.
It is the purpose and business of the pharmaceutical industry to dis cover, develop, and make available drugs for the care of the sick. The purpose of universities and national laboratories is to provide people and scientific knowledge that can help in the process. This book presents the combined efforts of scientists from the drug in dustry, academic laboratories and national laboratories to describe advances in radiotracer technology in studies on experimental ani mals and living human beings. The authors believe that the technol ogy is now ready for widespread application in the pharmaceutical industry. The goal of this book is to help bring this about. The field of Nuclear Medicine is based on the concept that, if treatment of disease is chemical, the patient's diagnosis should be chemical. Anatomy and histopathology have been the principle ba sis for making a diagnosis. Histopathologic data suffer from being descriptive, subjective, not quantifiable, and based on the study of dead tissue. The era of histopathology as the dominant concept in medical practice is coming to an end. Histopathologic findings are often heterogeneous and a single biopsy will at times not reveal the true nature of the disease, such as the grading of malignancy. Far greater accuracy of staging of disease and in the planning of treat ment is possible through chemistry, as well as by making possible a more suitable selection of a histological biopsy site.
General Aspects and Stopping of Swift Point Charges
Author: Peter Sigmund
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Drawing on the author’s forty-plus years of experience as a researcher in the interaction of charged particles with matter, this book emphasizes the theoretical description of fundamental phenomena. Special attention is given to classic topics such as Rutherford scattering; the theory of particle stopping; the statistical description of energy loss and multiple scattering and numerous more recent developments.
Personalized medicine employing patient-based tailor-made therapeutic drugs is taking over treatment paradigms in a variety of ?elds in oncology and the central nervous system. The success of such therapies is mainly dependent on ef?cacious therapeutic drugs and a selective imaging probe for identi?cation of potential responders as well as therapy monitoring for an early bene?t assessment. Molecular imaging (MI) is based on the selective and speci?c interaction of a molecular probe with a biological target which is visualized through nuclear, magnetic resonance, near infrared or other methods. Therefore it is the method of choice for patient selection and therapy monitoring as well as for speci?c e- point monitoring in modern drug development. PET (positron emitting tomography), a nuclear medical imaging modality, is ideally suited to produce three-dimensional images of various targets or processes. The rapidly increasing demand for highly selective probes for MI strongly pushes the development of new PET tracers and PET chemistry. ‘PET chemistry’ can be de?ned as the study of positron-emitting compounds regarding their synthesis, structure, composition, reactivity, nuclear properties and processes and their properties in natural and - natural environments. In practice PET chemistry is strongly in?uenced by the unique properties of the radioisotopes used (e. g. , half-life, che- cal reactivity, etc. ) and integrates scienti?c aspects of nuclear-, organic-, inorganic- and biochemistry.
Author: Michael Nastasi,James W. Mayer,Yongqiang Wang
Publisher: CRC Press
Ion Beam Analysis: Fundamentals and Applications explains the basic characteristics of ion beams as applied to the analysis of materials, as well as ion beam analysis (IBA) of art/archaeological objects. It focuses on the fundamentals and applications of ion beam methods of materials characterization. The book explains how ions interact with solids and describes what information can be gained. It starts by covering the fundamentals of ion beam analysis, including kinematics, ion stopping, Rutherford backscattering, channeling, elastic recoil detection, particle induced x-ray emission, and nuclear reaction analysis. The second part turns to applications, looking at the broad range of potential uses in thin film reactions, ion implantation, nuclear energy, biology, and art/archaeology. Examines classical collision theory Details the fundamentals of five specific ion beam analysis techniques Illustrates specific applications, including biomedicine and thin film analysis Provides examples of ion beam analysis in traditional and emerging research fields Supplying readers with the means to understand the benefits and limitations of IBA, the book offers practical information that users can immediately apply to their own work. It covers the broad range of current and emerging applications in materials science, physics, art, archaeology, and biology. It also includes a chapter on computer applications of IBA.
Beatrice Bressan brings together a number of outstanding examples of successful cross-disciplinary technology transfer originating in fundamental physics research, which dramatically impacted progress in biomedical research and clinical applications. Many of these examples were developed at CERN, a hotbed of fundamental inventions in particle physics. Additional sections of the book deal with knowledge management and technology transfer including its economic aspects. While each chapter has been drafted by an expert in the field, the editor has carefully edited the whole book, ensuring a coherent overall structure. A must-have for policy makers, technology companies, investors, strategic planners in research and technology, as well as attractive reading for the research community.
Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) is a unique, non-destructive nuclear analytical method with multi-element capabilities. It is most effective if intense neutron beams (especially cold beams) of nuclear reactors are used to induce the prompt gamma radiation. Based largely on the authors' pioneering research in cold neutron PGAA, the handbook describes the methodology in self-contained manner and reviews recent applications. The library of prompt gamma ray data and spectra for all natural elements is a unique aid to the practitioner. The level is understandable by a broad audience, which facilitates teaching and training. The Handbook of Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis is a comprehensive handbook written for those practising the method, wanting to implement it at a reactor facility, or just looking for a powerful non-destructive method of element analysis. The book is also useful for nuclear physics, chemistry and engineering scientists, scholars and graduate students interested in neutron-induced gamma ray spectroscopy and nuclear analytical methods.
Trends for electron beam accelerator applications in industry / Sueo Machi -- Ion implantation for semiconductor doping and materials modification / Lawrence A. Larson, Justin M. Williams and Michael I. Current -- Ion beam analysis: a century of exploiting the electronic and nuclear structure of the atom for materials characterisation / Chris Jeynes, Roger P. Webb and Annika Lohstroh -- Neutrons and photons in nondestructive detection / J. F. Harmon, D. P. Wells and A. W. Hunt -- Review of cyclotrons for the production of radioactive isotopes for medical and industrial applications / Paul Schmor -- Development of accelerator mass spectrometry and its applications / Jiaer Chen ... [et al.] -- Electron accelerators for environmental protection / Andrzej G. Chmielewski -- Studying radiation damage in structural materials by using ion accelerators / Peter Hosemann -- Direct current accelerators for industrial applications / Ragnar Hellborg and Harry J. Whitlow -- Radio-frequency electron accelerators for industrial applications / Marshall R. Cleland -- Accelerators for neutron generation and their applications / Guenter Mank, Guenter Bauer and Francoise Mulhauser -- Prospects for accelerator technology / Alan Todd -- CERN: from birth to success / Herwig Schopper -- Simon van der Meer (1925-2011): a modest genius of accelerator science / Vinod C. Chohan
Since the publication of the bestselling first edition, there have been numerous advances in the field of nuclear science. In medicine, accelerator based teletherapy and electron-beam therapy have become standard. New demands in national security have stimulated major advances in nuclear instrumentation.An ideal introduction to the fundamentals of nuclear science and engineering, this book presents the basic nuclear science needed to understand and quantify an extensive range of nuclear phenomena. New to the Second Edition— A chapter on radiation detection by Douglas McGregor Up-to-date coverage of radiation hazards, reactor designs, and medical applications Flexible organization of material that allows for quick reference This edition also takes an in-depth look at particle accelerators, nuclear fusion reactions and devices, and nuclear technology in medical diagnostics and treatment. In addition, the author discusses applications such as the direct conversion of nuclear energy into electricity. The breadth of coverage is unparalleled, ranging from the theory and design characteristics of nuclear reactors to the identification of biological risks associated with ionizing radiation. All topics are supplemented with extensive nuclear data compilations to perform a wealth of calculations. Providing extensive coverage of physics, nuclear science, and nuclear technology of all types, this up-to-date second edition of Fundamentals of Nuclear Science and Engineering is a key reference for any physicists or engineer.
This unique new book is a comprehensive review of the many current industrial applications of particle accelerators, written by experts in each of these fields. Readers will gain a broad understanding of the principles of these applications, the extent to which they are employed, and the accelerator technology utilized. The book also serves as a thorough introduction to these fields for non-experts and laymen. Due to the increased interest in industrial applications, there is a growing interest among accelerator physicists and many other scientists worldwide in understanding how accelerators are used in various applications. The government agencies that fund scientific research with accelerators are also seeking more information on the many commercial applications that have been or can be developed with the technology developments they are funding. Many industries are also doing more research on how they can improve their products or processes using particle beams
The series Topics in Current Chemistry Collections presents critical reviews from the journal Topics in Current Chemistry organized in topical volumes. The scope of coverage is all areas of chemical science including the interfaces with related disciplines such as biology, medicine and materials science. The goal of each thematic volume is to give the non-specialist reader, whether in academia or industry, a comprehensive insight into an area where new research is emerging which is of interest to a larger scientific audience. Each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years are presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. The coverage is not intended to be an exhaustive summary of the field or include large quantities of data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the methodological thinking that will allow the non-specialist reader to understand the information presented. Contributions also offer an outlook on potential future developments in the field.
9th International Workshop on OpenMP, IWOMP 2013, Canberra, Australia, September 16-18, 2013, Proceedings
Author: Alistair P. Rendell,Barbara M. Chapman,Matthias S. Müller
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on OpenMP, held in Canberra, Australia, in September 2013. The 14 technical full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from various submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on proposed extensions to OpenMP, applications, accelerators, scheduling, and tools.