In this unique exploration of the mysteries of the human brain, Roger Bartra shows that consciousness is a phenomenon that occurs not only in the mind but also in an external network, a symbolic system. He argues that the symbolic systems created by humans in art, language, in cooking or in dress, are the key to understanding human consciousness. Placing culture at the centre of his analysis, Bartra brings together findings from anthropology and cognitive science and offers an original vision of the continuity between the brain and its symbolic environment. The book is essential reading for neurologists, cognitive scientists and anthropologists alike.
Social and Cultural Anthropology: the Key Concepts is an easy to use A-Z guide to the central concepts that students are likely to encounter in this field. Now fully updated, this third edition includes entries on: Material Culture Environment Human Rights Hybridity Alterity Cosmopolitanism Ethnography Applied Anthropology Gender Cybernetics With full cross-referencing and revised further reading to point students towards the latest writings in Social and Cultural Anthropology, this is a superb reference resource for anyone studying or teaching in this area.
How we can develop the moral intelligence to do the right thing at the right time for the right reason
Author: John Bradshaw
Publisher: Hachette UK
John Bradshaw is one of the bestselling self-help authors of our generation and a dominant figure in the fields of addiction/recovery and family systems. In RECLAIMING VIRTUE, his first new book in more than ten years, Bradshaw takes on a new challenge. He has written a landmark exploration of the life of virtue, how we can develop it in ourselves, and how we can teach it to our children. RECLAIMING VIRTUE redefines what it means to live a moral life in today's world. Coming at a time of heightened debate about public and private morality, a time of greed and lack of caring, he says that the answer is not simply to return to traditional rules-based morality and an idealised past. Instead, he shows that each of us has what he calls an inborn moral intelligence, an inner guidance system, that can lead us - if we know how to cultivate it in ourselves and others. Step by step, Bradshaw shows us how our deepest instincts for goodness can be developed in childhood and nurtured throughout adult life. The result is a compelling vision of good character and moral responsibility for the modern world. Whether the topic is sex, discipline, marriage, the development of conscience or the true aims of education, Bradshaw once again provokes, enlightens and inspires readers everywhere.
How did the human mind emerge from the collection of neurons that makes up the brain? How did the brain acquire self-awareness, functional autonomy, language, and the ability to think, to understand itself and the world? In this volume in the Essential Knowledge series, Zoltan Torey offers an accessible and concise description of the evolutionary breakthrough that created the human mind. Drawing on insights from evolutionary biology, neuroscience, and linguistics, Torey reconstructs the sequence of events by which Homo erectus became Homo sapiens. He describes the augmented functioning that underpins the emergent mind -- a new ("off-line") internal response system with which the brain accesses itself and then forms a selection mechanism for mentally generated behavior options. This functional breakthrough, Torey argues, explains how the animal brain's "awareness" became self-accessible and reflective -- that is, how the human brain acquired a conscious mind. Consciousness, unlike animal awareness, is not a unitary phenomenon but a composite process. Torey's account shows how protolanguage evolved into language, how a brain subsystem for the emergent mind was built, and why these developments are opaque to introspection. We experience the brain's functional autonomy, he argues, as free will. Torey proposes that once life began, consciousness had to emerge -- because consciousness is the informational source of the brain's behavioral response. Consciousness, he argues, is not a newly acquired "quality," "cosmic principle," "circuitry arrangement," or "epiphenomenon," as others have argued, but an indispensable working component of the living system's manner of functioning.
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Worlds, Cultures and Society: Leo Apostel Center, Brussels Free University, August 2009; July 2007, September 2010
Author: Diederik Aerts,Bart D'Hooghe,Rik Pinxten
Publisher: World Scientific
Category: Social Science
This volume is part of the ?Worldviews, Science and Us? series of proceedings and contains several contributions on the subject of worlds, cultures and society. It represents the proceedings of several workshops and discussion panels organized by the Leo Apostel Center for Interdisciplinary studies within the framework of the ?Research on the Construction of Integrating Worldviews? research community set up by the Flanders Fund for Scientific Research, over the period of time between 2005 to 2010. Further information about this research community and a full list of the associated international research centers can be found at http: //www.vub.ac.be/CLEA/res/worldviews/
Moral capacity is an important feature of what it means to be human. In this volume, the contributors have taken on the daunting task of trying to distinguish between legal and moral capacity. This distinction is difficult at times for clinicians, philosophers and legal scholars alike. Part of the challenge of defining moral capacity lies in the difficulty of adequately categorizing it. For this reason, the editors have chosen to divide the book into three parts. The first looks at the concepts involved in the discussion of moral capacity; the second considers the role of moral capacity in the lives of professionals; and the final part reflects on case studies of moral capacity or incapacity illustrating the challenge that moral capacity presents - its definition lying between two seemingly incommensurable models, those of the threshold and continuum. This volume takes a multidisciplinary approach to the subject, and ties the disciplines of medicine, philosophy and law into the health context. It will be of interest to medical health professionals as well as researchers working in the areas of philosophy and law.
Author: Birgitt Röttger-Rössler,Hans Jürgen Markowitsch
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Emotions have emerged as a topic of interest across the disciplines, yet studies and findings on emotions tend to fall into two camps: body versus brain, nature versus nurture. Emotions as Bio-cultural Processes offers a unique collaboration across the biological/social divide—from psychology and neuroscience to cultural anthropology and sociology—as 15 noted researchers develop a common language, theoretical basis, and methodology for examining this most sociocognitive aspect of our lives. Starting with our evolutionary past and continuing into our modern world of social classes and norms, these multidisciplinary perspectives reveal the complex interplay of biological, social, cultural, and personal factors at work in emotions, with particular emphasis on the nuances involved in pride and shame. A sampling of the topics: (1) The roles of the brain in emotional processing. (2) Emotional development milestones in childhood. (3) Social feeling rules and the experience of loss. (4) Emotions as commodities? The management of feelings and the self-help industry. (5) Honor and dishonor: societal and gender manifestations of pride and shame. (6) Emotion regulation and youth culture. (7) Pride and shame in the classroom. A volume of such wide and integrative scope as Emotions as Bio-cultural Processes should attract a large cohort of readers on both sides of the debate, among them emotion researchers, social and developmental psychologists, sociologists, social anthropologists, and others who analyze the links between humans that on the one hand differentiate us as individuals but on the other hand tie us to our socio-cultural worlds.
Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.
Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
Category: Business & Economics
Drawing on the unique academic and professional experience of its author, Consumer Behavior explores the contribution that each of the major social science disciplines has made to the study of the field. The book considers the perspective of each of these disciplines in turn, enabling students to critically evaluate their individual strengths, weaknesses, biases and limitations. International case studies and discussion questions are included throughout the text to demonstrate applied theories and provoke critical analysis. Consumer Behavior is ideal for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students of consumer behavior and consumer psychology.
The Annual Publication of the College Theology Society, 2004
Author: Terrence W. Tilley
Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
To celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the College Theology Society, these original essays explore how theology has changed over the previous fifty years, theological concerns on the horizon today, and approaches to teaching theology appropriate for the twenty-first century. Contributors include: Elizabeth A. Johnson Joseph A. Komonchak Norbert Rigali J. Matthew Ashley Elizabeth T. Groppe Michael Horace Barnes Steven R. Harmon Colleen M. Mallon Anne M. Clifford Sally Kenel Randall Jay Woodard Sandra Yocum Mize Mary Ann Hinsdale Miguel H. Diaz James A. Donahue Suzanne C. Toton Ismael Muvingi
Längst überfällig: das Trendthema Gehirn aus interdisziplinärer Sicht Gibt es ein ICH, ein Selbst? Ist das ICH das, was uns erst beseelt? Gibt es einen freien Willen? Der Neurowissenschaftler und Philosoph Georg Northoff geht genau diesen Fragen nach. Eingewoben in einen kriminalistischen Rahmen, schreibt er das ICH zur Fahndung aus und schickt seine zwei Ermittler, einen Hirnforscher und einen Philosophen, los, um den Fall zu lösen. Dabei steht der Tatort fest: das menschliche Gehirn. Dies führt zu weiteren Fragen, nämlich, ob man den religiösen Glauben in Zusammenhang mit bestimmten Aktivitäten im Gehirn bringen kann oder wie unser Selbst im Kontext von Emotionen zu sehen ist. Kurzweilig und fundiert werden die neuesten Erkenntnisse der Hirnforschung präsentiert und philosophisch hinterfragt. Dieser besondere Perspektivenwechsel erlaubt es, die in der gegenwärtigen Diskussion stattfindende starre Grenzziehung zwischen Philosophie und Neurowissenschaft endlich zu durchbrechen. Die Menschheitsfrage nach dem ICH beleuchtet aus Sicht der Philosophie und der Neurowissenschaften Neue Methodik: Die Neurophilosophie verknüpft philosophische Konzepte mit den empirischen Daten aus der Hirnforschung Georg Northoff gehört weltweit zu den wenigen Wissenschaftlern, die eine interdisziplinäre Kombination aus Psychiatrie, Philosophie und Neurowissenschaften vertreten.
Western individualism has delayed scientific recognition of the essentially social nature of consciousness - or at least of the human mind and brain. This book demonstrates that the origin of consciousness needs to be understood in a social context.
Philip David Zelazo,Morris Moscovitch,Evan Thompson
Author: Philip David Zelazo,Morris Moscovitch,Evan Thompson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
The Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness is the first of its kind in the field, and its appearance marks a unique time in the history of intellectual inquiry on the topic. After decades during which consciousness was considered beyond the scope of legitimate scientific investigation, consciousness re-emerged as a popular focus of research towards the end of the last century, and it has remained so for nearly 20 years. There are now so many different lines of investigation on consciousness that the time has come when the field may finally benefit from a book that pulls them together and, by juxtaposing them, provides a comprehensive survey of this exciting field. An authoritative desk reference, which will also be suitable as an advanced textbook.
Die Erforschung des Unbewussten in Kunst, Geist und Gehirn von der Wiener Moderne bis heute
Author: Eric Kandel
Publisher: Siedler Verlag
Was passiert in unserem Gehirn, wenn wir Kunst betrachten? Nobelpreisträger Eric Kandel hat mit »Das Zeitalter der Erkenntnis« ein brillantes Buch geschrieben, das uns in das Wien Sigmund Freuds, Gustav Klimts und Arthur Schnitzlers entführt. Dort setzten um 1900 die angesehensten Köpfe der Naturwissenschaft, Medizin und Kunst eine Revolution in Gang, die den Blick auf den menschlichen Geist und seine Beziehung zur Kunst für immer verändern sollte.
From biology to culture to the new new economy, the buzzword on everyone's lips is "meme." How do animals learn things? How does human culture evolve? How does viral marketing work? The answer to these disparate questions and even to what is the nature of thought itself is, simply, the meme. For decades researchers have been convinced that memes were The Next Big Thing for the understanding of society and ourselves. But no one has so far been able to define what they are. Until now. Here, for the first time, Robert Aunger outlines what a meme physically is, how memes originated, how they developed, and how they have made our brains into their survival systems. They are thoughts. They are parasites. They are in control. A meme is a distinct pattern of electrical charges in a node in our brains that reproduces a thousand times faster than a bacterium. Memes have found ways to leap from one brain to another. A number of them are being replicated in your brain as you read this paragraph. In 1976 the biologist Richard Dawkins suggested that all animals -- including humans -- are puppets and that genes hold the strings. That is, we are robots serving as life support for the genes that control us. And all they want to do is replicate themselves. But then, we do lots of things that don't seem to help genes replicate. We decide not to have children, we waste our time doing dangerous things like mountain climbing, or boring things like reading, or stupid things like smoking that don't seem to help genes get copied into the next generation. We do all sorts of cultural things for reasons that don't seem to have anything to do with genes. Fashions in sports, books, clothes, ideas, politics, lifestyles come and go and give our lives meaning, so how can we be gene robots? Dawkins recognized that something else was going on. We communicate with one another and we get ideas, and these ideas seem to have a life of their own. Maybe there was something called memes that were like thought genes. Maybe our bodies were gene robots and our minds were meme robots. That would mean that what we think is not the result of our own creativity, but rather the result of the evolutionary flow of memes as they wash through us. What is the biological reality of an idea with a life of its own? What is a thought gene? It's a meme. And no one before Robert Aunger has established what it physically must be. This elegant, paradigm-shifting analysis identifies how memes replicate in our brains, how they evolved, and how they use artifacts like books and photographs and advertisements to get from one brain to another. Destined to inflame arguments about free will, open doors to new ways of sharing our thoughts, and provide a revolutionary explanation of consciousness, The Electric Meme will change the way each of us thinks about our minds, our cultures, and our daily choices.
In this much-needed contribution toward an understanding of the complexity of human consciousness, John Boghosian Arden, Ph.D., demonstrates that within the three broad subsystems - biophysiology, sociocultural dynamics, and intrapsychic aspects - not only do further subsystems exist, but so does a great degree of interconnectivity. Biophysiological processes cannot be conceptualized without considering individual psychological and sociocultural factors. To understand the evolution of human consciousness, one must take into account the systemic co-evolutionary nature of all aspects of consciousness. In this clearly written volume, Arden describes consciousness as a multidimensional, fluid process in which bi-directional causal interrelationships occur. In one unifying and multidisciplinary theory, he deals with issues of causality, determinism versus free will, and the mind/body connection. Arden's fresh attempt to describe consciousness factors in the changes occurring in evolutionary theory, chaos theory, and logic.
Few areas have witnessed the type of growth we have seen in the affective sciences in the past decades. Across psychology, philosophy, economics, and neuroscience, there has been an explosion of interest in the topic of emotion and affect. Comprehensive, authoritative, up-to-date, and easy-to-use, the new Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences is an indispensable resource for all who wish to find out about theories, concepts, methods, and research findings in this rapidly growing interdisciplinary field - one that brings together, amongst others, psychologists, neuroscientists, social scientists, philosophers, and historians. Organized by alphabetical entries, and presenting brief definitions, concise overviews, and encyclopaedic articles (all with extensive references to relevant publications), this Companion lends itself to casual browsing by non-specialists interested in the fascinating phenomena of emotions, moods, affect disorders, and personality as well as to focused search for pertinent information by students and established scholars in the field. Not only does the book provide entries on affective phenomena, but also on their neural underpinnings, their cognitive antecedents and the associated responses in physiological systems, facial, vocal, and bodily expressions, and action tendencies. Numerous entries also consider the role of emotion in society and social behavior, as well as in cognitive processes such as those critical for perception, attention, memory, judgement and decision-making. The volume has been edited by a group of internationally leading authorities in the respective disciplines consisting of two editors (David Sander and Klaus Scherer) as well as group of 11 associate editors (John T. Cacioppo, Tim Dalgleish, Robert Dantzer, Richard J. Davidson, Ronald B. de Sousa, Phoebe C. Ellsworth, Nico Frijda, George Loewenstein, Paula M. Niedenthal, Peter Salovey, and Richard A. Shweder). The members of the editorial board have commissioned and reviewed contributions from major experts on specific topics. In addition to comprehensive coverage of technical terms and fundamental issues, the volume also highlights current debates that inform the ongoing research process. In addition, the Companion contains a wealth of material on the role of emotion in applied domains such as economic behaviour, music and arts, work and organizational behaviour, family interactions and group dynamics, religion, law and justice, and societal change. Highly accessible and wide-ranging, this book is a vital resource for scientists, students, and professionals eager to obtain a rapid, conclusive overview on central terms and topics and anyone wanting to learn more about the mechanisms underlying the emotions dominating many aspects of our lives.