Since the implementation of catalysts containing platinum-group-elements (PGE) for the control of vehicle emissions in 1975, a controversial discussion has begun on PGE emissions and eventual consequences for the environment. However, a comprehensive overview of the various works and results in different scientific areas is still lacking. This book covers all aspects of anthropogenic PGE emissions and their consequences for man and environment. The interdisciplinary approach is substantiated by contributions from the fields of environmental geosciences, analytical chemistry, biology and occupational medicine. The articles mirror the actual status of scientific work and discuss environmentally related topics. Modern analytical methods for various environmental matrices as well as models of the current and future geochemical behaviour of PGE in the environment are presented. Bioavailability and toxicological and allergic potentials are discussed.
Analytical Methods, Environmental Assessment and Health Effects
Author: Fathi Zereini
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
In 2004 an amount of 187 tons of palladium has been sold in world market. The main demands were automotive catalyst (58%), electronics (14%), jewellery (14%) and dental practises (13%). Especially, the increasing use of palladium in catalytic converters is a reason for substantial research in this field. Emission, environmental distribution and possible health effects of pla- num have been summarized detailed in two recent books “Emissionen von Platinmetallen: Analytik, Umwelt- und Gesundheitsrelevanz” and “Anth- pogenic Platinum Group Emissions – Their Impact on Man and Envir- ment” published by Springer in 1999 and 2000 (Zereini & Alt (Eds)). But there is a clear lack of information concerning palladium. It is very imp- tant to condense the present state of research findings from emission to potential health risks for the environment and humans. Very important is the chapter about analytical determination of pal- dium, which shows clearly the problems of several analytical techniques. Some data published during the last decade have to be re-evaluated because of insufficient analytical techniques. Also the finding that palladium c- pounds are relatively soluble and mobile in environmental settings is a great issue for further investigations. I think it is the right time for such a comprehensive book about palladium research and I am sure that readers with different scientific background like chemists, biologists, geologists medical doctors e.g. will benefit very much from reading this book.
This handbook is unique in its comprehensive coverage of the subject and focus on practical applications in diverse fields. It includes methods for sample preparation, the role of certified reference materials, calibration methods and statistical evaluation of the results. Problems concerning inorganic and bioinorganic speciation analysis, as well as special aspects such as trace analysis of noble metals, radionuclides and volatile organic compounds are also discussed. A significant part of the content presents applications of methods and procedures in medicine (metabolomics and therapeutic drug monitoring); pharmacy (the analysis of contaminants in drugs); studies of environmental samples; food samples and forensic analytics – essential examples that will also facilitate problem solving in related areas.
This edited volume presents new data and insights from the most internationally respected PGE experts, representing a variety of disciplines ranging from chemistry, geochemistry, biology, environmental science to toxicology and environmental health. It builds upon three previous co-edited books published by Springer, Zereini and Alt (Eds.) (1999, 2000 and 2006), incorporating the most recent advances on the topic. The book covers the following topical areas related to PGE: sources and applications, analytical methods, environmental fate, bioavailability and chemical behaviour, use of bioindicators and human exposures and health risk potential. Highly interdisciplinary in orientation, this book is a comprehensive guide to academics, students and professionals working in a number of different scientific fields, who are interested in topics related to platinum metal emissions in the environment.
Ernest Merian,Manfred Anke,Milan Ihnat,Markus Stoeppler
Author: Ernest Merian,Manfred Anke,Milan Ihnat,Markus Stoeppler
Since the last edition was published in 1991, the "Merian" has established itself as the standard reference on this topic, and remains unmatched in the breadth of material covered. This new edition has 20 % more pages while being more clearly and concisely structured. New topical features are the focus on nutritional aspects and the coverage of further elements, including non-metals. The newly added chapters cover more than 15 essential elements, as well as some of environmental and nutritional importance. While many chapters of the previous edition have been practically rewritten to accommodate the rapid progress made in this field, all the contributions have been revised and updated to present the current state of knowledge. As such, the handbook continues to provide detailed information on the environmental metals that influence the health of plants, animals and humans, with particular attention given to environmental and analytical chemistry, bioavailability, metabolic pathways and biological effects. It also delineates the problems related to waste, soils and wildlife as well as the risks caused by the increasing output of metals from industry and households. It retains the proven features of the first edition, such as the extensive bibliography, numerous tables with useful data and a glossary of terms, and once again all the contributions were not only written but also reviewed by acknowledged and experienced experts. In total, international experts from 15 countries have pooled their knowledge and experience to create this ultimate resource. Essential information for chemists, biologists, geologists, food scientists, toxicologists and physiologists involved in environmental research and remediation, risk assessment, food research and industrial hygiene.
Analytik, Umwelt- und Gesundheitsrelevanz ; mit ... 62 Tabellen
Author: Fathi Zereini,Friedrich Alt
Mit EinfA1/4hrung des Abgas-Katalysators setzte die Diskussion A1/4ber die mAglichen Folgen von Platinmetall-Emissionen fA1/4r die Umwelt ein. Nun liegt erstmals eine zusammenfassende Darstellung der bisherigen Forschungsergebnisse zu diesem aktuellen Thema vor. Anhand hochkarAtiger ForschungsbeitrAge aus Chemie, Geowissenschaften, Biologie und Medizin werden alle Aspekte der Platinmetall-Emissionen und ihre Auswirkungen auf Mensch und Natur zusammengestellt und diskutiert. Neben der Darstellung modernster Verfahren der Platinmetall-Analytik in verschiedenen Umweltkompartimenten und biologischen Materialien werden auch das geochemische Verhalten der Platinmetalle in Bezug auf ihre MobilitAt, LAslichkeit und BioverfA1/4gbarkeit in der Umwelt sowie ihr toxikologisches und allergologisches GefAhrdungspotential aufgezeigt.
Internationale Klimapolitik für das 21. Jahrhundert
Author: Sebastian Oberthür,Hermann E. Ott
Category: Social Science
Die internationale Klimapolitik ist an einem Wendepunkt angekommen. Die Annahme des Kyoto-Protokolls ist ein großer Schritt in dem Versuch der Menschheit, die schädlichen Folgen des Klimawandels zu begrenzen. Dieses Buch, geschrieben von zwei deutschen Experten, erklärt die naturwissenschaftlichen, ökonomischen sowie politischen Bedingungen desTreibhauseffekts und erläutert die Hintergründe der Annahme des Kyoto-Protokolls. Das Buch analysiert in seinem Mittelteil den Vertragstext im Stile eines Gesetzeskommentars, nennt die offenen Fragen und gibt mögliche Antworten für die Weiterentwicklung der Normen. In einem dritten Teil werden Schlussfolgerungen gezogen, die politische Landschaft nach Kyoto beleuchtet und eine Leadership-Initiative für die Europäische Union vorgestellt, um die Handlungsmacht gegenüber den USA wieder zu erlangen.