Analyzing Animal Societies

Quantitative Methods for Vertebrate Social Analysis

Author: Hal Whitehead

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226895246

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 9247

Animals lead rich social lives. They care for one another, compete for resources, and mate. Within a society, social relationships may be simple or complex and usually vary considerably, both between different groups of individuals and over time. These social systems are fundamental to biological organization, and animal societies are central to studies of behavioral and evolutionary biology. But how do we study animal societies? How do we take observations of animals fighting, grooming, or forming groups and produce a realistic description or model of their societies? Analyzing AnimalSocieties presents a conceptual framework for analyzing social behavior and demonstrates how to put this framework into practice by collecting suitable data on the interactions and associations of individuals so that relationships can be described, and, from these, models can be derived. In addition to presenting the tools, Hal Whitehead illustrates their applicability using a wide range of real data on a variety of animal species—from bats and chimps to dolphins and birds. The techniques that Whitehead describes will be profitably adopted by scientists working with primates, cetaceans, birds, and ungulates, but the tools can be used to study societies of invertebrates, amphibians, and even humans. Analyzing AnimalSocieties will become a standard reference for those studying vertebrate social behavior and will give to these studies the kind of quality standard already in use in other areas of the life sciences.

Exploring Animal Social Networks

Author: Darren P. Croft,Richard James,Jens Krause

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691127522

Category: Nature

Page: 192

View: 4944

Social network analysis is used widely in the social sciences to study interactions among people, groups, and organizations, yet until now there has been no book that shows behavioral biologists how to apply it to their work on animal populations. Exploring Animal Social Networks provides a practical guide for researchers, undergraduates, and graduate students in ecology, evolutionary biology, animal behavior, and zoology. Existing methods for studying animal social structure focus either on one animal and its interactions or on the average properties of a whole population. This book enables researchers to probe animal social structure at all levels, from the individual to the population. No prior knowledge of network theory is assumed. The authors give a step-by-step introduction to the different procedures and offer ideas for designing studies, collecting data, and interpreting results. They examine some of today's most sophisticated statistical tools for social network analysis and show how they can be used to study social interactions in animals, including cetaceans, ungulates, primates, insects, and fish. Drawing from an array of techniques, the authors explore how network structures influence individual behavior and how this in turn influences, and is influenced by, behavior at the population level. Throughout, the authors use two software packages--UCINET and NETDRAW--to illustrate how these powerful analytical tools can be applied to different animal social organizations.

Social Interaction in Animals: Linking Experimental Approach and Social Network Analysis

Author: Cédric Sueur,Frédéric Mery

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 2889451224

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 1305

Understanding the link between individual behaviour and population organization and functioning has long been central to ecology and evolutionary biology. Behaviour is a response to intrinsic and extrinsic factors including individual state, ecological factors or social interactions. Within a group, each individual can be seen as part of a network of social interactions varying in strength, type and dynamic. The structure of this network can deeply impact the ecology and evolution of individuals, populations and species. Within a group social interactions can take many forms and may significantly affect an individual’s fitness. These interactions may result in complex systems at the group-level, such as in the case of collective decisions (to migrate, to build nest or to forage). Among them, social transmission of information has been studied mostly in vertebrates: fish, birds and mammals including humans. In insects, social learning has been unambiguously demonstrated in social Hymenoptera but this probably reflects limited research effort and recent evidence show that even non-eusocial insects such as Drosophila, cockroaches and crickets can copy the behaviour of others. Compared to individual learning, which requires a trial and error period every generation, social learning can potentially result in the stable transmission of behaviours across generations, leading to cultural traditions in some species. The study of the processes which may facilitate or prevent this transmission and the analyses of the relationship between social network structure and efficiency of social transmission became these recent years an emerging and promising field of research. The goal of this research topic is to present the genetic and socio-environmental factors affecting social interaction and information or pathogen transmission with the integration of experimental approaches, social network analyses and modelling. Importantly, we aim to understand whether a relationship between social network structures and dynamics can reflect the efficiency of social transmission, i.e. can we use social network analysis to predict the social transmission of information or of pathogen, collective decision-making and ultimately the evolutionary trajectory of a group?

The SAGE Handbook of Social Network Analysis

Author: John Scott,Peter J. Carrington

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1847873952

Category: Social Science

Page: 622

View: 7280

This sparkling Handbook offers an unrivalled resource for those engaged in the cutting edge field of social network analysis. Systematically, it introduces readers to the key concepts, substantive topics, central methods and prime debates. Among the specific areas covered are: Network theory Interdisciplinary applications Online networks Corporate networks Lobbying networks Deviant networks Measuring devices Key Methodologies Software applications. The result is a peerless resource for teachers and students which offers a critical survey of the origins, basic issues and major debates. The Handbook provides a one-stop guide that will be used by readers for decades to come.

Advances in the Study of Behavior

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128121726

Category: Psychology

Page: 420

View: 4793

Advances in the Study of Behavior was initiated over 40 years ago to serve the increasing number of scientists engaged in the study of animal behavior. This volume makes another important contribution to the development of the field by presenting theoretical ideas and research findings to professionals studying animal behavior and related fields. Initiated over 40 years ago to serve the increasing number of scientists engaged in the study of animal behavior Makes another important contribution to the development of the field Presents theoretical ideas and research to those studying animal behavior and related fields

Animal Contests

Author: Ian C. W. Hardy,Mark Briffa

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107244390

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 6963

Contests are an important aspect of the lives of diverse animals, from sea anemones competing for space on a rocky shore to fallow deer stags contending for access to females. Why do animals fight? What determines when fights stop and which contestant wins? Addressing fundamental questions on contest behaviour, this volume presents theoretical and empirical perspectives across a range of species. The historical development of contest research, the evolutionary theory of both dyadic and multiparty contests, and approaches to experimental design and data analysis are discussed in the first chapters. This is followed by reviews of research in key animal taxa, from the use of aerial displays and assessment rules in butterflies and the developmental biology of weapons in beetles, through to interstate warfare in humans. The final chapter considers future directions and applications of contest research, making this a comprehensive resource for both graduate students and researchers in the field.

Studying Captive Animals

A Workbook of Methods in Behaviour, Welfare and Ecology

Author: Paul A. Rees

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118629361

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 5903

Studying Captive Animals outlines the methods that may be used to study the behaviour, welfare and ecology of animals living under the control of humans, including companion animals, feral populations, and those living on farms and in zoos. This book is a step-by-step guide to the whole process of conducting a scientific study: from designing the original project, formulating testable hypotheses, and collecting and analysing the data, to drawing conclusions from the work and writing it up as a scientific report or paper. It also illustrates how to write a formal research proposal - a crucial and often difficult element of the student project - and how to deal with the ethical review process. Sample data collection sheets are provided and the analysis and presentation of data are worked through in diagrammatic form. In addition, exercises are included that enable the reader to practice analysing different types of data and advice is provided on the selection of appropriate statistical tests. The text describes the different types of student projects that may be undertaken in the field, and explains where secondary data may be found for zoos. This is an insightful resource, particularly for those studying and working with zoo and farm animals. It is essential reading for students studying zoo biology and animal management; it is also suitable for students on courses in animal behaviour, animal welfare, zoology, biology, psychology, animal science, animal production, animal ecology, conservation biology, and veterinary science. This book is primarily intended for undergraduates but will also be of value to postgraduate students who have not previously engaged in field studies. Professionals working in institutions that are members of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums, the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria and other regional and national zoo organisations will benefit from access to this practical guide.

Mammalia

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Mammals

Page: N.A

View: 3482

The American Naturalist

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Natural history

Page: N.A

View: 9041

Proceedings

Biological sciences

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Biology

Page: N.A

View: 3592

Social Network Analysis for Startups

Finding Connections on the Social Web

Author: Maksim Tsvetovat,Alexander Kouznetsov

Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

ISBN: 1449306462

Category: Computers

Page: 190

View: 3502

SNA techniques are derived from sociological and social-psychological theories and take into account the whole network (or, in case of very large networks such as Twitter -- a large segment of the network). Thus, we may arrive at results that may seem counter-intuitive -- e.g. that Jusin Bieber (7.5 mil. followers) and Lady Gaga (7.2 mil. followers) have relatively little actual influence despite their celebrity status -- while a middle-of-the-road blogger with 30K followers is able to generate tweets that "go viral" and result in millions of impressions. O'Reilly's "Mining Social Media" and "Programming Collective Intelligence" books are an excellent start for people inteseted in SNA. This book builds on these books' foundations to teach a new, pragmatic, way of doing SNA. I would like to write a book that links theory ("why is this important?", "how do various concepts interact?", "how do I interpret quantitative results?") and practice -- gathering, analyzing and visualizing data using Python and other open-source tools.

Analysis and Management of Animal Populations

Modeling, Estimation, and Decision Making

Author: Byron K. Williams,James D. Nichols,Michael J. Conroy

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0127544062

Category: Science

Page: 817

View: 3954

Analysis and Management of Animal Populations deals with the processes involved in making informed decisions about the management of animal populations. It covers the modeling of population responses to management actions, the estimation of quantities needed in the modeling effort, and the application of these estimates and models to the development of sound management decisions. The book synthesizes and integrates in a single volume the methods associated with these themes, as they apply to ecological assessment and conservation of animal populations. Key Features *Integrates population modeling, parameter estimation and decision-theoretic approaches to management in a single, cohesive framework * Provides authoritative, state-of-the-art descriptions of quantitative approaches to modeling, estimation and decision-making * Emphasizes the role of mathematical modeling in the conduct of science and management * Utilizes a unifying biological context, consistent mathematical notation, and numerous biological examples

The Cultural Lives of Whales and Dolphins

Author: Hal Whitehead,Luke Rendell

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226895319

Category: Science

Page: 417

View: 1304

Drawing on their own research as well as scientific literature including evolutionary biology, animal behavior, ecology, anthropology, psychology and neuroscience, two cetacean biologists submerge themselves in the unique environment in which whales and dolphins live.

Books in Print 2009-2010

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780835250214

Category: Publishers' catalogs

Page: N.A

View: 9049

Resource Selection by Animals

Statistical Design and Analysis for Field Studies

Author: B.B. Manly,Bryan F. J. Manly,L. McDonald,Dana Thomas

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780412401404

Category: Mathematics

Page: 177

View: 5828

This book gives a clear and consistent framework for the study of how animals select their resources (food and habitat) by taking the reader through different types of study design. It is an invaluable handbook for field biologists, especially those concerned with the management and conservation of wildlife.

Quantitative Conservation of Vertebrates

Author: Michael J. Conroy,John P. Carroll

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444356496

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 4380

This book provides a hands-on introduction to the construction and application of models to studies of vertebrate distribution, abundance, and habitat. The book is aimed at field biologists, conservation planners, and advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students who are involved with planning and analyzing conservation studies, and applying the results to conservation decisions. The book also acts as a bridge to more advanced and mathematically challenging coverage in the wider literature. Part I provides a basic background in population and community modeling. It introduces statistical models, and familiarizes the reader with important concepts in the design of monitoring and research programs. These programs provide the essential data that guide conservation decision making. Part II covers the principal methods used to estimate abundance, occupancy, demographic parameters, and community parameters, including occupancy sampling, sample counts, distance sampling, and capture-mark-recapture (for both closed and open populations). Emphasis is placed on practical aspects of designing and implementing field studies, and the proper analysis of data. Part III introduces structured decision making and adaptive management, in which predictive models are used to inform conservation decision makers on appropriate decisions in the face of uncertainty—with the goal of reducing uncertainty through monitoring and research. A detailed case study is used to illustrate each of these themes. Numerous worked examples and accompanying electronic material (on a website - http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/conroy - and accompanying CD) provide the details of model construction and application, and data analysis.

Ecological Census Techniques

A Handbook

Author: William J. Sutherland

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139458019

Category: Nature

Page: N.A

View: 892

This is an updated version of the best selling first edition, Ecological Census Techniques, with updating, some new chapters and authors. Almost all ecological and conservation work involves carrying out a census or survey. This practically focussed book describes how to plan a census, the practical details and shows with worked examples how to analyse the results. The first three chapters describe planning, sampling and the basic theory necessary for carrying out a census. In the subsequent chapters international experts describe the appropriate methods for counting plants, insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds. As many censuses also relate the results to environmental variability, there is a chapter explaining the main methods. Finally, there is a list of the most common mistakes encountered when carrying out a census.

The Design and Statistical Analysis of Animal Experiments

Author: Simon T. Bate,Robin A. Clark

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107030781

Category: Computers

Page: 324

View: 2491

Written for animal researchers, this book provides a comprehensive guide to the design and statistical analysis of animal experiments. It has long been recognised that the proper implementation of these techniques helps reduce the number of animals needed. By using real-life examples to make them more accessible, this book explains the statistical tools employed by practitioners. A wide range of design types are considered, including block, factorial, nested, cross-over, dose-escalation and repeated measures and techniques are introduced to analyse the experimental data generated. Each analysis technique is described in non-mathematical terms, helping readers without a statistical background to understand key techniques such as t-tests, ANOVA, repeated measures, analysis of covariance, multiple comparison tests, non-parametric and survival analysis. This is also the first text to describe technical aspects of InVivoStat, a powerful open-source software package developed by the authors to enable animal researchers to analyse their data and obtain informative results.

Animal Behavior

Author: Michael D. Breed,Janice Moore

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128016833

Category: Science

Page: 552

View: 9018

Animal Behavior, Second Edition, covers the broad sweep of animal behavior from its neurological underpinnings to the importance of behavior in conservation. The authors, Michael Breed and Janice Moore, bring almost 60 years of combined experience as university professors to this textbook, much of that teaching animal behavior. An entire chapter is devoted to the vibrant new field of behavior and conservation, including topics such as social behavior and the relationship between parasites, pathogens, and behavior. Thoughtful coverage has also been given to foraging behavior, mating and parenting behavior, anti-predator behavior, and learning. This text addresses the physiological foundations of behavior in a way that is both accessible and inviting, with each chapter beginning with learning objectives and ending with thought-provoking questions. Additionally, special terms and definitions are highlighted throughout. Animal Behavior provides a rich resource for students (and professors) from a wide range of life science disciplines. Provides a rich resource for students and professors from a wide range of life science disciplines Updated and revised chapters, with at least 50% new case studies and the addition of contemporary in-text examples Expanded and updated coverage of animal welfare topics Includes behavior and homeostatic mechanisms, behavior and conservation, and behavioral aspects of disease Available lab manual with fully developed and tested laboratory exercises Companion website includes newly developed slide sets/templates (PowerPoints) coordinated with the book