"Students will love this book. It tells them without fuss how to do simple and useful numerical calculations, with just enough background to understand what they are doing... a refreshingly brief and unconvoluted work." -- American Journal of Physics
An Introduction to Stochastic Processes with Applications to Biology, Second Edition presents the basic theory of stochastic processes necessary in understanding and applying stochastic methods to biological problems in areas such as population growth and extinction, drug kinetics, two-species competition and predation, the spread of epidemics, and the genetics of inbreeding. Because of their rich structure, the text focuses on discrete and continuous time Markov chains and continuous time and state Markov processes. New to the Second Edition A new chapter on stochastic differential equations that extends the basic theory to multivariate processes, including multivariate forward and backward Kolmogorov differential equations and the multivariate Itô’s formula The inclusion of examples and exercises from cellular and molecular biology Double the number of exercises and MATLAB® programs at the end of each chapter Answers and hints to selected exercises in the appendix Additional references from the literature This edition continues to provide an excellent introduction to the fundamental theory of stochastic processes, along with a wide range of applications from the biological sciences. To better visualize the dynamics of stochastic processes, MATLAB programs are provided in the chapter appendices.
An Introduction to Quantum Stochastic Calculus aims to deepen our understanding of the dynamics of systems subject to the laws of chance both from the classical and the quantum points of view and stimulate further research in their unification. This is probably the first systematic attempt to weave classical probability theory into the quantum framework and provides a wealth of interesting features: The origin of Ito’s correction formulae for Brownian motion and the Poisson process can be traced to commutation relations or, equivalently, the uncertainty principle. Quantum stochastic integration enables the possibility of seeing new relationships between fermion and boson fields. Many quantum dynamical semigroups as well as classical Markov semigroups are realised through unitary operator evolutions. The text is almost self-contained and requires only an elementary knowledge of operator theory and probability theory at the graduate level. - - - This is an excellent volume which will be a valuable companion both to those who are already active in the field and those who are new to it. Furthermore there are a large number of stimulating exercises scattered through the text which will be invaluable to students. (Mathematical Reviews) This monograph gives a systematic and self-contained introduction to the Fock space quantum stochastic calculus in its basic form (...) by making emphasis on the mathematical aspects of quantum formalism and its connections with classical probability and by extensive presentation of carefully selected functional analytic material. This makes the book very convenient for a reader with the probability-theoretic orientation, wishing to make acquaintance with wonders of the noncommutative probability, and, more specifcally, for a mathematics student studying this field. (Zentralblatt MATH) Elegantly written, with obvious appreciation for fine points of higher mathematics (...) most notable is [the] author's effort to weave classical probability theory into [a] quantum framework. (The American Mathematical Monthly)
Theory, Models, and Applications to Finance, Biology, and Medicine
Author: Vincenzo Capasso,David Bakstein
This textbook, now in its third edition, offers a rigorous and self-contained introduction to the theory of continuous-time stochastic processes, stochastic integrals, and stochastic differential equations. Expertly balancing theory and applications, the work features concrete examples of modeling real-world problems from biology, medicine, industrial applications, finance, and insurance using stochastic methods. No previous knowledge of stochastic processes is required. Key topics include: Markov processes Stochastic differential equations Arbitrage-free markets and financial derivatives Insurance risk Population dynamics, and epidemics Agent-based models New to the Third Edition: Infinitely divisible distributions Random measures Levy processes Fractional Brownian motion Ergodic theory Karhunen-Loeve expansion Additional applications Additional exercises Smoluchowski approximation of Langevin systems An Introduction to Continuous-Time Stochastic Processes, Third Edition will be of interest to a broad audience of students, pure and applied mathematicians, and researchers and practitioners in mathematical finance, biomathematics, biotechnology, and engineering. Suitable as a textbook for graduate or undergraduate courses, as well as European Masters courses (according to the two-year-long second cycle of the “Bologna Scheme”), the work may also be used for self-study or as a reference. Prerequisites include knowledge of calculus and some analysis; exposure to probability would be helpful but not required since the necessary fundamentals of measure and integration are provided. From reviews of previous editions: "The book is ... an account of fundamental concepts as they appear in relevant modern applications and literature. ... The book addresses three main groups: first, mathematicians working in a different field; second, other scientists and professionals from a business or academic background; third, graduate or advanced undergraduate students of a quantitative subject related to stochastic theory and/or applications." -Zentralblatt MATH
In spite of the impressive predictive power and strong mathematical structure of quantum mechanics, the theory has always suffered from important conceptual problems. Some of these have never been solved. Motivated by this state of affairs, a number of physicists have worked together for over thirty years to develop stochastic electrodynamics, a physical theory aimed at finding a conceptually satisfactory, realistic explanation of quantum phenomena. This is the first book to present a comprehensive review of stochastic electrodynamics, from its origins to present-day developments. After a general introduction for the non-specialist, a critical discussion is presented of the main results of the theory as well as of the major problems encountered. A chapter on stochastic optics and some interesting consequences for local realism and the Bell inequalities is included. In the final chapters the authors propose and develop a new version of the theory that brings it in closer correspondence with quantum mechanics and sheds some light on the wave aspects of matter and the linkage with quantum electrodynamics. Audience: The volume will be of interest to scholars and postgraduate students of theoretical and mathematical physics, foundations and philosophy of physics, and teachers of theoretical physics and quantum mechanics, electromagnetic theory, and statistical physics (stochastic processes).
With emphasis on stochastic aspects of deterministic systems this short book introduces the reader to the basic facts and some special topics of applied ergodic theory. It adresses advanced undergraduate and graduate students from various disciplines, i.e. mathematicians, physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers. Based upon a sound (but non-technical) mathematical introduction, a number of typical examples from applications (mostly from mechanics) are thoroughly discussed. By studying both probabilistic and deterministic features of dynamical systems the reader will develop what might be considered a unified view on chaos and chance as two sides of the same thing.
Stochastic Numerical Methods introduces at Master level the numerical methods that use probability or stochastic concepts to analyze random processes. The book aims at being rather general and is addressed at students of natural sciences (Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Biology, etc.) and Engineering, but also social sciences (Economy, Sociology, etc.) where some of the techniques have been used recently to numerically simulate different agent-based models. Examples included in the book range from phase-transitions and critical phenomena, including details of data analysis (extraction of critical exponents, finite-size effects, etc.), to population dynamics, interfacial growth, chemical reactions, etc. Program listings are integrated in the discussion of numerical algorithms to facilitate their understanding. From the contents: Review of Probability Concepts Monte Carlo Integration Generation of Uniform and Non-uniform Random Numbers: Non-correlated Values Dynamical Methods Applications to Statistical Mechanics Introduction to Stochastic Processes Numerical Simulation of Ordinary and Partial Stochastic Differential Equations Introduction to Master Equations Numerical Simulations of Master Equations Hybrid Monte Carlo Generation of n-Dimensional Correlated Gaussian Variables Collective Algorithms for Spin Systems Histogram Extrapolation Multicanonical Simulations
An Introduction with Applications in Population Dynamics Modeling
Author: Michael J. Panik
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
A beginner’s guide to stochastic growth modeling The chief advantage of stochastic growth models over deterministic models is that they combine both deterministic and stochastic elements of dynamic behaviors, such as weather, natural disasters, market fluctuations, and epidemics. This makes stochastic modeling a powerful tool in the hands of practitioners in fields for which population growth is a critical determinant of outcomes. However, the background requirements for studying SDEs can be daunting for those who lack the rigorous course of study received by math majors. Designed to be accessible to readers who have had only a few courses in calculus and statistics, this book offers a comprehensive review of the mathematical essentials needed to understand and apply stochastic growth models. In addition, the book describes deterministic and stochastic applications of population growth models including logistic, generalized logistic, Gompertz, negative exponential, and linear. Ideal for students and professionals in an array of fields including economics, population studies, environmental sciences, epidemiology, engineering, finance, and the biological sciences, Stochastic Differential Equations: An Introduction with Applications in Population Dynamics Modeling: • Provides precise definitions of many important terms and concepts and provides many solved example problems • Highlights the interpretation of results and does not rely on a theorem-proof approach • Features comprehensive chapters addressing any background deficiencies readers may have and offers a comprehensive review for those who need a mathematics refresher • Emphasizes solution techniques for SDEs and their practical application to the development of stochastic population models An indispensable resource for students and practitioners with limited exposure to mathematics and statistics, Stochastic Differential Equations: An Introduction with Applications in Population Dynamics Modeling is an excellent fit for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students, as well as practitioners who need a gentle introduction to SDEs. Michael J. Panik, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Economics, Barney School of Business and Public Administration at the University of Hartford in Connecticut. He received his PhD in Economics from Boston College and is a member of the American Mathematical Society, The American Statistical Association, and The Econometric Society.
Lyons’ rough path analysis has provided new insights in the analysis of stochastic differential equations and stochastic partial differential equations, such as the KPZ equation. This textbook presents the first thorough and easily accessible introduction to rough path analysis. When applied to stochastic systems, rough path analysis provides a means to construct a pathwise solution theory which, in many respects, behaves much like the theory of deterministic differential equations and provides a clean break between analytical and probabilistic arguments. It provides a toolbox allowing to recover many classical results without using specific probabilistic properties such as predictability or the martingale property. The study of stochastic PDEs has recently led to a significant extension – the theory of regularity structures – and the last parts of this book are devoted to a gentle introduction. Most of this course is written as an essentially self-contained textbook, with an emphasis on ideas and short arguments, rather than pushing for the strongest possible statements. A typical reader will have been exposed to upper undergraduate analysis courses and has some interest in stochastic analysis. For a large part of the text, little more than Itô integration against Brownian motion is required as background.
Stochastic Dynamics of Marine Structures is a text for students and reference for professionals on the basic theory and methods used for stochastic modelling and analysis of marine structures subjected to environmental loads. The first part of the book provides a detailed introduction to the basic dynamic analysis of structures, serving as a foundation for later chapters on stochastic response analysis. This includes an extensive chapter on the finite element method. A careful introduction to stochastic modelling is provided, which includes the concepts: stochastic process, variance spectrum, random environmental processes, response spectrum, response statistics and short- and long-term extreme value models. The second part of the book offers detailed discussion of limit state design approaches, fatigue design methods, the equations of motion for dynamic structures and numerical solution techniques. The final chapter highlights methods for prediction of extreme values from measured data or data obtained by Monte Carlo simulation.
The second part of this two-volume set contains advanced aspects of the quantitative theory of the dynamics of neurons. It begins with an introduction to the effects of reversal potentials on response to synaptic input. It then develops the theory of action potential generation based on the seminal Hodgkin-Huxley equations and gives methods for their solution in the space-clamped and nonspaceclamped cases. The remainder of the book discusses stochastic models of neural activity and ends with a statistical analysis of neuronal data with emphasis on spike trains. The mathematics is more complex in this volume than in the first volume and involves numerical methods of solution of partial differential equations and the statistical analysis of point processes.
Dynamical evolution over long time scales is a prominent feature of all the systems we intuitively think of as complex — for example, ecosystems, the brain or the economy. In physics, the term ageing is used for this type of slow change, occurring over time scales much longer than the patience, or indeed the lifetime, of the observer. The main focus of this book is on the stochastic processes which cause ageing, and the surprising fact that the ageing dynamics of systems which are very different at the microscopic level can be treated in similar ways. The first part of this book provides the necessary mathematical and computational tools and the second part describes the intuition needed to deal with these systems. Some of the first few chapters have been covered in several other books, but the emphasis and selection of the topics reflect both the authors' interests and the overall theme of the book. The second part contains an introduction to the scientific literature and deals in some detail with the description of complex phenomena of a physical and biological nature, for example, disordered magnetic materials, superconductors and glasses, models of co-evolution in ecosystems and even of ant behaviour. These heterogeneous topics are all dealt with in detail using similar analytical techniques. This book emphasizes the unity of complex dynamics and provides the tools needed to treat a large number of complex systems of current interest. The ideas and the approach to complex dynamics it presents have not appeared in book form until now.
Interest in the temporal fluctuations of biological populations can be traced to the dawn of civilization. How can mathematics be used to gain an understanding of population dynamics? This monograph introduces the theory of structured population dynamics and its applications, focusing on the asymptotic dynamics of deterministic models. This theory bridges the gap between the characteristics of individual organisms in a population and the dynamics of the total population as a whole. In this monograph, many applications that illustrate both the theory and a wide variety of biological issues are given, along with an interdisciplinary case study that illustrates the connection of models with the data and the experimental documentation of model predictions. The author also discusses the use of discrete and continuous models and presents a general modeling theory for structured population dynamics. Cushing begins with an obvious point: individuals in biological populations differ with regard to their physical and behavioral characteristics and therefore in the way they interact with their environment. Studying this point effectively requires the use of structured models. Specific examples cited throughout support the valuable use of structured models. Included among these are important applications chosen to illustrate both the mathematical theories and biological problems that have received attention in recent literature.
An Introduction to the Mathematics of Financial Derivatives is a popular, intuitive text that eases the transition between basic summaries of financial engineering to more advanced treatments using stochastic calculus. Requiring only a basic knowledge of calculus and probability, it takes readers on a tour of advanced financial engineering. This classic title has been revised by Ali Hirsa, who accentuates its well-known strengths while introducing new subjects, updating others, and bringing new continuity to the whole. Popular with readers because it emphasizes intuition and common sense, An Introduction to the Mathematics of Financial Derivatives remains the only "introductory" text that can appeal to people outside the mathematics and physics communities as it explains the hows and whys of practical finance problems. Facilitates readers' understanding of underlying mathematical and theoretical models by presenting a mixture of theory and applications with hands-on learning Presented intuitively, breaking up complex mathematics concepts into easily understood notions Encourages use of discrete chapters as complementary readings on different topics, offering flexibility in learning and teaching
This book provides an introduction to the theory of stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) of evolutionary type. SPDEs are one of the main research directions in probability theory with several wide ranging applications. Many types of dynamics with stochastic influence in nature or man-made complex systems can be modelled by such equations. The theory of SPDEs is based both on the theory of deterministic partial differential equations, as well as on modern stochastic analysis. Whilst this volume mainly follows the ‘variational approach’, it also contains a short account on the ‘semigroup (or mild solution) approach’. In particular, the volume contains a complete presentation of the main existence and uniqueness results in the case of locally monotone coefficients. Various types of generalized coercivity conditions are shown to guarantee non-explosion, but also a systematic approach to treat SPDEs with explosion in finite time is developed. It is, so far, the only book where the latter and the ‘locally monotone case’ is presented in a detailed and complete way for SPDEs. The extension to this more general framework for SPDEs, for example, in comparison to the well-known case of globally monotone coefficients, substantially widens the applicability of the results.
Author: Nicola Bellomo,Luigi Preziosi,Antonio Romano
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Modeling and Applied Mathematics Modeling the behavior of real physical systems by suitable evolution equa tions is a relevant, maybe the fundamental, aspect of the interactions be tween mathematics and applied sciences. Modeling is, however, only the first step toward the mathematical description and simulation of systems belonging to real world. Indeed, once the evolution equation is proposed, one has to deal with mathematical problems and develop suitable simula tions to provide the description of the real system according to the model. Within this framework, one has an evolution equation and the re lated mathematical problems obtained by adding all necessary conditions for their solution. Then, a qualitative analysis should be developed: this means proof of existence of solutions and analysis of their qualitative be havior. Asymptotic analysis may include a detailed description of stability properties. Quantitative analysis, based upon the application ofsuitable methods and algorithms for the solution of problems, ends up with the simulation that is the representation of the dependent variable versus the independent one. The information obtained by the model has to be compared with those deriving from the experimental observation of the real system. This comparison may finally lead to the validation of the model followed by its application and, maybe, further generalization.
This textbook presents an exposition of stochastic dynamics and irreversibility. It comprises the principles of probability theory and the stochastic dynamics in continuous spaces, described by Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations, and in discrete spaces, described by Markov chains and master equations. Special concern is given to the study of irreversibility, both in systems that evolve to equilibrium and in nonequilibrium stationary states. Attention is also given to the study of models displaying phase transitions and critical phenomena both in thermodynamic equilibrium and out of equilibrium. These models include the linear Glauber model, the Glauber-Ising model, lattice models with absorbing states such as the contact process and those used in population dynamic and spreading of epidemic, probabilistic cellular automata, reaction-diffusion processes, random sequential adsorption and dynamic percolation. A stochastic approach to chemical reaction is also presented.The textbook is intended for students of physics and chemistry and for those interested in stochastic dynamics. It provides, by means of examples and problems, a comprehensive and detailed explanation of the theory and its applications.