An Introduction to Knot Theory

Author: W.B.Raymond Lickorish

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 146120691X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 204

View: 619

A selection of topics which graduate students have found to be a successful introduction to the field, employing three distinct techniques: geometric topology manoeuvres, combinatorics, and algebraic topology. Each topic is developed until significant results are achieved and each chapter ends with exercises and brief accounts of the latest research. What may reasonably be referred to as knot theory has expanded enormously over the last decade and, while the author describes important discoveries throughout the twentieth century, the latest discoveries such as quantum invariants of 3-manifolds as well as generalisations and applications of the Jones polynomial are also included, presented in an easily intelligible style. Readers are assumed to have knowledge of the basic ideas of the fundamental group and simple homology theory, although explanations throughout the text are numerous and well-done. Written by an internationally known expert in the field, this will appeal to graduate students, mathematicians and physicists with a mathematical background wishing to gain new insights in this area.

Introduction to Knot Theory

Author: R. H. Crowell,R. H. Fox

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461299357

Category: Mathematics

Page: 182

View: 3073

Knot theory is a kind of geometry, and one whose appeal is very direct because the objects studied are perceivable and tangible in everyday physical space. It is a meeting ground of such diverse branches of mathematics as group theory, matrix theory, number theory, algebraic geometry, and differential geometry, to name some of the more prominent ones. It had its origins in the mathematical theory of electricity and in primitive atomic physics, and there are hints today of new applications in certain branches of chemistryJ The outlines of the modern topological theory were worked out by Dehn, Alexander, Reidemeister, and Seifert almost thirty years ago. As a subfield of topology, knot theory forms the core of a wide range of problems dealing with the position of one manifold imbedded within another. This book, which is an elaboration of a series of lectures given by Fox at Haverford College while a Philips Visitor there in the spring of 1956, is an attempt to make the subject accessible to everyone. Primarily it is a text book for a course at the junior-senior level, but we believe that it can be used with profit also by graduate students. Because the algebra required is not the familiar commutative algebra, a disproportionate amount of the book is given over to necessary algebraic preliminaries.

Knot Theory

Author: Charles Livingston

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780883850275

Category: Mathematics

Page: 240

View: 9489

This book uses only linear algebra and basic group theory to study the properties of knots.

Maß und Kategorie

Author: J.C. Oxtoby

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 364296074X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 112

View: 5946

Dieses Buch behandelt hauptsächlich zwei Themenkreise: Der Bairesche Kategorie-Satz als Hilfsmittel für Existenzbeweise sowie Die "Dualität" zwischen Maß und Kategorie. Die Kategorie-Methode wird durch viele typische Anwendungen erläutert; die Analogie, die zwischen Maß und Kategorie besteht, wird nach den verschiedensten Richtungen hin genauer untersucht. Hierzu findet der Leser eine kurze Einführung in die Grundlagen der metrischen Topologie; außerdem werden grundlegende Eigenschaften des Lebesgue schen Maßes hergeleitet. Es zeigt sich, daß die Lebesguesche Integrationstheorie für unsere Zwecke nicht erforderlich ist, sondern daß das Riemannsche Integral ausreicht. Weiter werden einige Begriffe aus der allgemeinen Maßtheorie und Topologie eingeführt; dies geschieht jedoch nicht nur der größeren Allgemeinheit wegen. Es erübrigt sich fast zu erwähnen, daß sich die Bezeichnung "Kategorie" stets auf "Bairesche Kategorie" be zieht; sie hat nichts zu tun mit dem in der homologischen Algebra verwendeten Begriff der Kategorie. Beim Leser werden lediglich grundlegende Kenntnisse aus der Analysis und eine gewisse Vertrautheit mit der Mengenlehre vorausgesetzt. Für die hier untersuchten Probleme bietet sich in natürlicher Weise die mengentheoretische Formulierung an. Das vorlie gende Buch ist als Einführung in dieses Gebiet der Analysis gedacht. Man könnte es als Ergänzung zur üblichen Grundvorlesung über reelle Analysis, als Grundlage für ein Se minar oder auch zum selbständigen Studium verwenden. Bei diesem Buch handelt es sich vorwiegend um eine zusammenfassende Darstellung; jedoch finden sich in ihm auch einige Verfeinerungen bekannter Resultate, namentlich Satz 15.6 und Aussage 20.4. Das Literaturverzeichnis erhebt keinen Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit. Häufig werden Werke zitiert, die weitere Literaturangaben enthalten.

A Survey of Knot Theory

Author: Akio Kawauchi

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 3034892276

Category: Mathematics

Page: 423

View: 8053

Knot theory is a rapidly developing field of research with many applications, not only for mathematics. The present volume, written by a well-known specialist, gives a complete survey of this theory from its very beginnings to today's most recent research results. An indispensable book for everyone concerned with knot theory.

Introduction to Knot Theory

Author: Richard H. Crowell,Ralph Hartzler Fox

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780486468945

Category: Mathematics

Page: 182

View: 3988

Hailed by the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society as "a very welcome addition to the mathematical literature," this text is appropriate for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Written by two internationally renowned mathematicians, its accessible treatment requires no previous knowledge of algebraic topology. Starting with basic definitions of knots and knot types, the text proceeds to examinations of fundamental and free groups. A survey of the historic foundation for the notion of group presentation is followed by a careful proof of the theorem of Tietze and several examples of its use. Subsequent chapters explore the calculation of fundamental groups, the presentation of a knot group, the free calculus and the elementary ideals, and the knot polynomials and their characteristic properties. The text concludes with three helpful appendixes and a guide to the literature.

Einführung in die Geometrie und Topologie

Author: Werner Ballmann

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3034809018

Category: Mathematics

Page: 162

View: 5444

Das Buch bietet eine Einführung in die Topologie, Differentialtopologie und Differentialgeometrie. Es basiert auf Manuskripten, die in verschiedenen Vorlesungszyklen erprobt wurden. Im ersten Kapitel werden grundlegende Begriffe und Resultate aus der mengentheoretischen Topologie bereitgestellt. Eine Ausnahme hiervon bildet der Jordansche Kurvensatz, der für Polygonzüge bewiesen wird und eine erste Idee davon vermitteln soll, welcher Art tiefere topologische Probleme sind. Im zweiten Kapitel werden Mannigfaltigkeiten und Liesche Gruppen eingeführt und an einer Reihe von Beispielen veranschaulicht. Diskutiert werden auch Tangential- und Vektorraumbündel, Differentiale, Vektorfelder und Liesche Klammern von Vektorfeldern. Weiter vertieft wird diese Diskussion im dritten Kapitel, in dem die de Rhamsche Kohomologie und das orientierte Integral eingeführt und der Brouwersche Fixpunktsatz, der Jordan-Brouwersche Zerlegungssatz und die Integralformel von Stokes bewiesen werden. Das abschließende vierte Kapitel ist den Grundlagen der Differentialgeometrie gewidmet. Entlang der Entwicklungslinien, die die Geometrie der Kurven und Untermannigfaltigkeiten in Euklidischen Räumen durchlaufen hat, werden Zusammenhänge und Krümmung, die zentralen Konzepte der Differentialgeometrie, diskutiert. Den Höhepunkt bilden die Gaussgleichungen, die Version des theorema egregium von Gauss für Untermannigfaltigkeiten beliebiger Dimension und Kodimension. Das Buch richtet sich in erster Linie an Mathematik- und Physikstudenten im zweiten und dritten Studienjahr und ist als Vorlage für ein- oder zweisemestrige Vorlesungen geeignet.

Knotentheorie für Einsteiger

Author: Charles Livingston

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322802876

Category: Mathematics

Page: 214

View: 5820

Ein Jahrhundert Knotentheorie - Was ist ein Knoten - Kombinatorische Techniken - Geometrische Techniken - Algebraische Techniken - Geometrie, Algebra und das Alexander Polynom - Numerische Invarianten - Symmetrien von Knoten - Höherdimensionale Knotentheorie - Neue kombinatorische Techniken - Anhang 1: Knotentabelle - Anhang 2: Alexander Polynome Knotentheorie (als Teilgebiet der Topologie) ist zur Zeit sehr populär, vor allem wegen der vielen Anwendungen, nicht nur in der Mathematik, sondern auch in der Physik. Das Buch eignet sich als Grundlage für ein Seminar im Grundstudium Mathematik. Es richtet sich aber auch an Mathematiker und Naturwissenschaftler allgemein, die etwas über Knotentheorie lernen möchten, ohne auf Fachartikel und spezielle Monographien zurückgreifen zu müssen.

A Basic Course in Algebraic Topology

Author: William S. Massey

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387974309

Category: Mathematics

Page: 428

View: 5057

This textbook is intended for a course in algebraic topology at the beginning graduate level. The main topics covered are the classification of compact 2-manifolds, the fundamental group, covering spaces, singular homology theory, and singular cohomology theory. These topics are developed systematically, avoiding all unnecessary definitions, terminology, and technical machinery. The text consists of material from the first five chapters of the author's earlier book, Algebraic Topology; an Introduction (GTM 56) together with almost all of his book, Singular Homology Theory (GTM 70). The material from the two earlier books has been substantially revised, corrected, and brought up to date.

Homology Theory

An Introduction to Algebraic Topology

Author: James W. Vick

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387941264

Category: Mathematics

Page: 245

View: 8195

This introduction to some basic ideas in algebraic topology is devoted to the foundations and applications of homology theory. After the essentials of singular homology and some important applications are given, successive topics covered include attaching spaces, finite CW complexes, cohomology products, manifolds, Poincare duality, and fixed point theory. This second edition includes a chapter on covering spaces and many new exercises.

Liebe und Mathematik

Im Herzen einer verborgenen Wirklichkeit

Author: Edward Frenkel

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662434210

Category: Mathematics

Page: 317

View: 4355

Knot Theory and Its Applications

Author: Kunio Murasugi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0817647198

Category: Mathematics

Page: 341

View: 9076

This book introduces the study of knots, providing insights into recent applications in DNA research and graph theory. It sets forth fundamental facts such as knot diagrams, braid representations, Seifert surfaces, tangles, and Alexander polynomials. It also covers more recent developments and special topics, such as chord diagrams and covering spaces. The author avoids advanced mathematical terminology and intricate techniques in algebraic topology and group theory. Numerous diagrams and exercises help readers understand and apply the theory. Each chapter includes a supplement with interesting historical and mathematical comments.

Manifolds and Modular Forms

Author: Friedrich Hirzebruch

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3663140458

Category: Mathematics

Page: 212

View: 1572

Algebraic Topology

A First Course

Author: William Fulton

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461241804

Category: Mathematics

Page: 430

View: 2238

To the Teacher. This book is designed to introduce a student to some of the important ideas of algebraic topology by emphasizing the re lations of these ideas with other areas of mathematics. Rather than choosing one point of view of modem topology (homotopy theory, simplicial complexes, singular theory, axiomatic homology, differ ential topology, etc.), we concentrate our attention on concrete prob lems in low dimensions, introducing only as much algebraic machin ery as necessary for the problems we meet. This makes it possible to see a wider variety of important features of the subject than is usual in a beginning text. The book is designed for students of mathematics or science who are not aiming to become practicing algebraic topol ogists-without, we hope, discouraging budding topologists. We also feel that this approach is in better harmony with the historical devel opment of the subject. What would we like a student to know after a first course in to pology (assuming we reject the answer: half of what one would like the student to know after a second course in topology)? Our answers to this have guided the choice of material, which includes: under standing the relation between homology and integration, first on plane domains, later on Riemann surfaces and in higher dimensions; wind ing numbers and degrees of mappings, fixed-point theorems; appli cations such as the Jordan curve theorem, invariance of domain; in dices of vector fields and Euler characteristics; fundamental groups

Classical Topology and Combinatorial Group Theory

Author: N.A

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468401106

Category: Mathematics

Page: 301

View: 3833

In recent years, many students have been introduced to topology in high school mathematics. Having met the Mobius band, the seven bridges of Konigsberg, Euler's polyhedron formula, and knots, the student is led to expect that these picturesque ideas will come to full flower in university topology courses. What a disappointment "undergraduate topology" proves to be! In most institutions it is either a service course for analysts, on abstract spaces, or else an introduction to homological algebra in which the only geometric activity is the completion of commutative diagrams. Pictures are kept to a minimum, and at the end the student still does not understand the simplest topological facts, such as the reason why knots exist. In my opinion, a well-balanced introduction to topology should stress its intuitive geometric aspect, while admitting the legitimate interest that analysts and algebraists have in the subject. At any rate, this is the aim of the present book. In support of this view, I have followed the historical develop ment where practicable, since it clearly shows the influence of geometric thought at all stages. This is not to claim that topology received its main impetus from geometric recrea. ions like the seven bridges; rather, it resulted from the visualization of problems from other parts of mathematics complex analysis (Riemann), mechanics (poincare), and group theory (Oehn). It is these connections to other parts of mathematics which make topology an important as well as a beautiful subject.

Introduction to piecewise-linear topology

Author: Colin Patrick Rourke,Brian J. Sanderson,Brian Joseph Sanderson

Publisher: Not Avail

ISBN: 9783540111023

Category: Mathematics

Page: 123

View: 9705

Kombinatorische Optimierung

Theorie und Algorithmen

Author: Bernhard Korte,Jens Vygen

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3540769196

Category: Mathematics

Page: 675

View: 8262

Das Lehrbuch ist die deutsche Übersetzung der 4., wesentlich erweiterten Auflage des Titels „Combinatorial Optimization – Theory and Algorithms". Es gibt den neuesten Stand der kombinatorischen Optimierung wieder und liefert vornehmlich theoretische Resultate und Algorithmen mit beweisbar guten Laufzeiten und Ergebnissen, jedoch keine Heuristiken. Enthalten sind vollständige Beweise, auch für viele tiefe und neue Resultate, von denen einige bisher in der Lehrbuchliteratur noch nicht erschienen sind. Mit Übungen und umfassendem Literaturverzeichnis.

Einführung in die Funktionalanalysis

Author: Reinhold Meise,Dietmar Vogt

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322803104

Category: Mathematics

Page: 416

View: 9033

Dieses Buch wendet sich an Studenten der Mathematik und der Physik, welche über Grundkenntnisse in Analysis und linearer Algebra verfügen.

Formal Knot Theory

Author: Louis H. Kauffman

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 048645052X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 254

View: 1999

This exploration of combinatorics and knot theory is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students. The author, Louis H. Kauffman, is a professor in the Department of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Kauffman draws upon his work as a topologist to illustrate the relationships between knot theory and statistical mechanics, quantum theory, and algebra, as well as the role of knot theory in combinatorics. Featured topics include state, trails, and the clock theorem; state polynomials and the duality conjecture; knots and links; axiomatic link calculations; spanning surfaces; the genus of alternative links; and ribbon knots and the Arf invariant. Key concepts are related in easy-to-remember terms, and numerous helpful diagrams appear throughout the text. The author has provided a new supplement, entitled "Remarks on Formal Knot Theory," as well as his article, "New Invariants in the Theory of Knots," first published in The American Mathematical Monthly, March 1988.