**Author**: Jean-Louis Loday,Bruno Vallette

**Publisher:** Springer Science & Business Media

**ISBN:** 3642303625

**Category:** Mathematics

**Page:** 636

**View:** 7390

In many areas of mathematics some “higher operations” are arising. These havebecome so important that several research projects refer to such expressions. Higher operationsform new types of algebras. The key to understanding and comparing them, to creating invariants of their action is operad theory. This is a point of view that is 40 years old in algebraic topology, but the new trend is its appearance in several other areas, such as algebraic geometry, mathematical physics, differential geometry, and combinatorics. The present volume is the first comprehensive and systematic approach to algebraic operads. An operad is an algebraic device that serves to study all kinds of algebras (associative, commutative, Lie, Poisson, A-infinity, etc.) from a conceptual point of view. The book presents this topic with an emphasis on Koszul duality theory. After a modern treatment of Koszul duality for associative algebras, the theory is extended to operads. Applications to homotopy algebra are given, for instance the Homotopy Transfer Theorem. Although the necessary notions of algebra are recalled, readers are expected to be familiar with elementary homological algebra. Each chapter ends with a helpful summary and exercises. A full chapter is devoted to examples, and numerous figures are included. After a low-level chapter on Algebra, accessible to (advanced) undergraduate students, the level increases gradually through the book. However, the authors have done their best to make it suitable for graduate students: three appendices review the basic results needed in order to understand the various chapters. Since higher algebra is becoming essential in several research areas like deformation theory, algebraic geometry, representation theory, differential geometry, algebraic combinatorics, and mathematical physics, the book can also be used as a reference work by researchers.

The ultimate goal of this book is to explain that the Grothendieck–Teichmüller group, as defined by Drinfeld in quantum group theory, has a topological interpretation as a group of homotopy automorphisms associated to the little 2-disc operad. To establish this result, the applications of methods of algebraic topology to operads must be developed. This volume is devoted primarily to this subject, with the main objective of developing a rational homotopy theory for operads. The book starts with a comprehensive review of the general theory of model categories and of general methods of homotopy theory. The definition of the Sullivan model for the rational homotopy of spaces is revisited, and the definition of models for the rational homotopy of operads is then explained. The applications of spectral sequence methods to compute homotopy automorphism spaces associated to operads are also explained. This approach is used to get a topological interpretation of the Grothendieck–Teichmüller group in the case of the little 2-disc operad. This volume is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in the applications of homotopy theory methods in operad theory. It is accessible to readers with a minimal background in classical algebraic topology and operad theory.

This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the interactions between noncommutative algebra and classical algebraic geometry.

This book is a collection of expository articles from the Center of Mathematics at Notre Dame's 2011 program on quantization. Included are lecture notes from a summer school on quantization on topics such as the Cherednik algebra, geometric quantization, detailed proofs of Willwacher's results on the Kontsevich graph complex, and group-valued moment maps. This book also includes expository articles on quantization and automorphic forms, renormalization, Berezin-Toeplitz quantization in the complex setting, and the commutation of quantization with reduction, as well as an original article on derived Poisson brackets. The primary goal of this volume is to make topics in quantization more accessible to graduate students and researchers.

Class field theory, which is so immediately compelling in its main assertions, has, ever since its invention, suffered from the fact that its proofs have required a complicated and, by comparison with the results, rather imper spicuous system of arguments which have tended to jump around all over the place. My earlier presentation of the theory [41] has strengthened me in the belief that a highly elaborate mechanism, such as, for example, cohomol ogy, might not be adequate for a number-theoretical law admitting a very direct formulation, and that the truth of such a law must be susceptible to a far more immediate insight. I was determined to write the present, new account of class field theory by the discovery that, in fact, both the local and the global reciprocity laws may be subsumed under a purely group theoretical principle, admitting an entirely elementary description. This de scription makes possible a new foundation for the entire theory. The rapid advance to the main theorems of class field theory which results from this approach has made it possible to include in this volume the most important consequences and elaborations, and further related theories, with the excep tion of the cohomology version which I have this time excluded. This remains a significant variant, rich in application, but its principal results should be directly obtained from the material treated here.

This introduction to algebraic number theory discusses the classical concepts from the viewpoint of Arakelov theory. The treatment of class theory is particularly rich in illustrating complements, offering hints for further study, and providing concrete examples. It is the most up-to-date, systematic, and theoretically comprehensive textbook on algebraic number field theory available.

The notion of an operad supplies both a conceptual and effective device to handle a variety of algebraic structures in various situations. Operads were introduced 40 years ago in algebraic topology in order to model the structure of iterated loop spaces. Since then, operads have been used fruitfully in many fields of mathematics and physics. This monograph begins with a review of the basis of operad theory. The main purpose is to study structures of modules over operads as a new device to model functors between categories of algebras as effectively as operads model categories of algebras.

Categories and sheaves appear almost frequently in contemporary advanced mathematics. This book covers categories, homological algebra and sheaves in a systematic manner starting from scratch and continuing with full proofs to the most recent results in the literature, and sometimes beyond. The authors present the general theory of categories and functors, emphasizing inductive and projective limits, tensor categories, representable functors, ind-objects and localization.

Algebraic K-theory is a modern branch of algebra which has many important applications in fundamental areas of mathematics connected with algebra, topology, algebraic geometry, functional analysis and algebraic number theory. Methods of algebraic K-theory are actively used in algebra and related fields, achieving interesting results. This book presents the elements of algebraic K-theory, based essentially on the fundamental works of Milnor, Swan, Bass, Quillen, Karoubi, Gersten, Loday and Waldhausen. It includes all principal algebraic K-theories, connections with topological K-theory and cyclic homology, applications to the theory of monoid and polynomial algebras and in the theory of normed algebras. This volume will be of interest to graduate students and research mathematicians who want to learn more about K-theory.

This book is a comprehensive study of cyclic homology theory together with its relationship with Hochschild homology, de Rham cohomology, S1 equivariant homology, the Chern character, Lie algebra homology, algebraic K-theory and non-commutative differential geometry. Though conceived as a basic reference on the subject, many parts of this book are accessible to graduate students.

This book contains some important new contributions to the theory of structured ring spectra.

EMAlgebra, Arithmetic, and Geometry: In Honor of Yu. I. ManinEM consists of invited expository and research articles on new developments arising from Manin’s outstanding contributions to mathematics.

The subject of this book is the theory of operads and colored operads, sometimes called symmetric multicategories. A (colored) operad is an abstract object which encodes operations with multiple inputs and one output and relations between such operations. The theory originated in the early 1970s in homotopy theory and quickly became very important in algebraic topology, algebra, algebraic geometry, and even theoretical physics (string theory). Topics covered include basic graph theory, basic category theory, colored operads, and algebras over colored operads. Free colored operads are discussed in complete detail and in full generality. The intended audience of this book includes students and researchers in mathematics and other sciences where operads and colored operads are used. The prerequisite for this book is minimal. Every major concept is thoroughly motivated. There are many graphical illustrations and about 150 exercises. This book can be used in a graduate course and for independent study.

This book, in honor of Hari M. Srivastava, discusses essential developments in mathematical research in a variety of problems. It contains thirty-five articles, written by eminent scientists from the international mathematical community, including both research and survey works. Subjects covered include analytic number theory, combinatorics, special sequences of numbers and polynomials, analytic inequalities and applications, approximation of functions and quadratures, orthogonality and special and complex functions. The mathematical results and open problems discussed in this book are presented in a simple and self-contained manner. The book contains an overview of old and new results, methods, and theories toward the solution of longstanding problems in a wide scientific field, as well as new results in rapidly progressing areas of research. The book will be useful for researchers and graduate students in the fields of mathematics, physics and other computational and applied sciences.

This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a torsor under the motivic Galois group in Nori's sense, and the period conjecture of Kontsevich and Zagier can be recast in this setting. Periods and Nori Motives is highly informative and will appeal to graduate students interested in algebraic geometry and number theory as well as researchers working in related fields. Containing relevant background material on topics such as singular cohomology, algebraic de Rham cohomology, diagram categories and rigid tensor categories, as well as many interesting examples, the overall presentation of this book is self-contained.

The book aims to exemplify the recent developments in operad theory, in universal algebra and related topics in algebraic topology and theoretical physics. The conference has established a better connection between mathematicians working on operads (mainly the French team) and mathematicians working in universal algebra (primarily the Chinese team), and to exchange problems, methods and techniques from these two subject areas.

Alexander Reznikov (1960-2003) was a brilliant and highly original mathematician. This book presents 18 articles by prominent mathematicians and is dedicated to his memory. In addition it contains an influential, so far unpublished manuscript by Reznikov of book length. The book further provides an extensive survey on Kleinian groups in higher dimensions and some articles centering on Reznikov as a person.

Sheaf Theory is modern, active field of mathematics at the intersection of algebraic topology, algebraic geometry and partial differential equations. This volume offers a comprehensive and self-contained treatment of Sheaf Theory from the basis up, with emphasis on the microlocal point of view. From the reviews: "Clearly and precisely written, and contains many interesting ideas: it describes a whole, largely new branch of mathematics." –Bulletin of the L.M.S.

MATRIX is Australia’s international, residential mathematical research institute. It facilitates new collaborations and mathematical advances through intensive residential research programs, each lasting 1-4 weeks. This book is a scientific record of the five programs held at MATRIX in its first year, 2016: Higher Structures in Geometry and Physics (Chapters 1-5 and 18-21); Winter of Disconnectedness (Chapter 6 and 22-26); Approximation and Optimisation (Chapters 7-8); Refining C*-Algebraic Invariants for Dynamics using KK-theory (Chapters 9-13); Interactions between Topological Recursion, Modularity, Quantum Invariants and Low-dimensional Topology (Chapters 14-17 and 27). The MATRIX Scientific Committee selected these programs based on their scientific excellence and the participation rate of high-profile international participants. Each program included ample unstructured time to encourage collaborative research; some of the longer programs also included an embedded conference or lecture series. The articles are grouped into peer-reviewed contributions and other contributions. The peer-reviewed articles present original results or reviews on selected topics related to the MATRIX program; the remaining contributions are predominantly lecture notes based on talks or activities at MATRIX.

``Operads'' are mathematical devices which model many sorts of algebras (such as associative, commutative, Lie, Poisson, alternative, Leibniz, etc., including those defined up to homotopy, such as $A_{\infty}$-algebras). Since the notion of an operad appeared in the seventies in algebraic topology, there has been a renaissance of this theory due to the discovery of relationships with graph cohomology, Koszul duality, representation theory, combinatorics, cyclic cohomology, moduli spaces, knot theory, and quantum field theory. This renaissance was recognized at a special session ``Moduli Spaces, Operads, and Representation Theory'' of the AMS meeting in Hartford, CT (March 1995), and at a conference ``Operades et Algebre Homotopique'' held at the Centre International de Rencontres Mathematiques at Luminy, France (May-June 1995). Both meetings drew a diverse group of researchers. The authors have arranged the contributions so as to emphasize certain themes around which the renaissance of operads took place: homotopy algebra, algebraic topology, polyhedra and combinatorics, and applications to physics.