Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe
Author: Gerard Prunier
Publisher: Oxford University Press
The Rwandan genocide sparked a horrific bloodbath that swept across sub-Saharan Africa, ultimately leading to the deaths of some four million people. In this extraordinary history of the recent wars in Central Africa, Gerard Prunier offers a gripping account of how one grisly episode laid the groundwork for a sweeping and disastrous upheaval. Prunier vividly describes the grisly aftermath of the Rwandan genocide, when some two million refugees--a third of Rwanda's population--fled to exile in Zaire in 1996. The new Rwandan regime then crossed into Zaire and attacked the refugees, slaughtering upwards of 400,000 people. The Rwandan forces then turned on Zaire's despotic President Mobutu and, with the help of a number of allied African countries, overthrew him. But as Prunier shows, the collapse of the Mobutu regime and the ascension of the corrupt and erratic Laurent-D?sir? Kabila created a power vacuum that drew Rwanda, Uganda, Angola, Zimbabwe, Sudan, and other African nations into an extended and chaotic war. The heart of the book documents how the whole core of the African continent became engulfed in an intractible and bloody conflict after 1998, a devastating war that only wound down following the assassination of Kabila in 2001. Prunier not only captures all this in his riveting narrative, but he also indicts the international community for its utter lack of interest in what was then the largest conflict in the world. Praise for the hardcover: "The most ambitious of several remarkable new books that reexamine the extraordinary tragedy of Congo and Central Africa since the Rwandan genocide of 1994." --New York Review of Books "One of the first books to lay bare the complex dynamic between Rwanda and Congo that has been driving this disaster." --Jeffrey Gettleman, New York Times Book Review "Lucid, meticulously researched and incisive, Prunier's will likely become the standard account of this under-reported tragedy." --Publishers Weekly
Fesselnd und atemberaubend erzählt David van Reybrouck die Geschichte Kongos, wie wir sie noch nie gelesen haben. Der Autor, der den Bogen von der kolonialen Gewaltherrschaft unter Leopold II. über die 32jährige Mobutu-Diktatur bis hinein in die Gegenwart spannt, berichtet aus der eindrücklichen Perspektive derjenigen, die in ihrem Land leiden, kämpfen, leben – im Mittelpunkt stehen die Träume, Hoffnungen und Schicksale der sogenannten einfachen Bevölkerung. Für sein mehrfach preisgekröntes Buch hat der Autor zahlreiche Reisen in das zentralafrikanische Land unternommen, in dem er einzigartige Interviews führen konnte. Der Älteste, mit dem er sprach, wurde 1882 geboren. Seine Stimme und die vieler hundert anderer, Kindersoldaten und Rebellenführer, Politiker und Missionare, machen dieses Buch zu einer Sensation. Mit zahlreichen Augenzeugenberichten, bisher unbekannten Dokumenten aus Archiven und Van Reybroucks fundierter Kenntnis der Forschung stellt es einen Meilenstein auf dem Gebiet der Sachbuchliteratur dar.
Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe
Author: Gerard Prunier
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
The Rwandan genocide sparked a horrific bloodbath that swept across sub-Saharan Africa, ultimately leading to the deaths of some four million people. In this extraordinary history of the recent wars in Central Africa, Gerard Prunier offers a gripping account of how one grisly episode laid the groundwork for a sweeping and disastrous upheaval.Prunier vividly describes the grisly aftermath of the Rwandan genocide, when some two million refugees--a third of Rwanda's population--fled to exile in Zaire in 1996. The new Rwandan regime then crossed into Zaire and attacked the refugees, slaughtering upwards of 400,000 people. The Rwandan forces then turned on Zaire's despotic President Mobutu and, with the help of a number of allied African countries, overthrew him. But as Prunier shows, the collapse of the Mobutu regime and the ascension of the corrupt and erratic Laurent-Desire Kabila created a power vacuum that drew Rwanda, Uganda, Angola, Zimbabwe, Sudan, and other African nations into an extended and chaotic war. The heart of the book documents how the whole core of the African continent became engulfed in an intractible and bloody conflict after 1998, a devastating war that only wound down following the assassination of Kabila in 2001. Prunier not only captures all this in his riveting narrative, but he also indicts the international community for its utter lack of interest in what was then the largest conflict in the world.Praise for the hardcover:"The most ambitious of several remarkable new books that reexamine the extraordinary tragedy of Congo and Central Africa since the Rwandan genocide of 1994."--New York Review of Books"One of the first books to lay bare the complex dynamic between Rwanda and Congo that has been driving this disaster."--Jeffrey Gettleman, New York Times Book Review"Lucid, meticulously researched and incisive, Prunier's will likely become the standard account of this under-reported tragedy."--Publishers Weekly
Mit dem Werkbeitrag aus Kindlers Literatur Lexikon. Mit dem Autorenporträt aus dem Metzler Lexikon Weltliteratur. Mit Daten zu Leben und Werk, exklusiv verfasst von der Redaktion der Zeitschrift für Literatur TEXT + KRITIK. Kolonialwarenhändler erschließen den Dschungel von Belgisch-Kongo im Dienste der Mächte Europas. Der berüchtigte Mr. Kurtz, erfolgreichster aller Elfenbein-Lieferanten, beutet gnadenlos die Ureinwohner aus und lässt sich als Gott verehren. Zunehmend wird er Opfer seiner eigenen Allmachtsphantasien ... Der Horror lauert überall, wo der vermeintlich zivilisierte Westen glaubt, Heil bringen zu müssen.
Ein Hotelpool in Kigali 1994, Treffpunkt für Entwicklungshelfer, Botschaftsangestellte, Journalisten, Geistliche, Prostituierte, Politiker und alle, die in Ruanda das Sagen haben. Hier verliebt sich der alternde kanadische Journalist Valcourt in die schöne junge Kellnerin Gentille, eine Hutu, die verfolgt wird. In dem Land, das von Aids und Armut gezeichnet ist, verdichten sich die Hinweise auf den bevorstehenden Völkermord. Straßensperren werden errichtet, Freunde werden ermordet, und die öffentlichen Tötungsaufrufe nehmen zu. Gentille und Valcourt hoffen vergebens auf Hilfe von außen – von den Vereinten Nationen, deren Blauhelmtruppen in Ruanda anwesend sind, von den Menschenrechtsorganisationen, von der Kirche. Vor den Augen der Öffentlichkeit bricht die Hölle los, die das Schicksal der kleinen Gemeinschaft besiegelt. »Ein Sonntag am Pool in Kigali« erzählt von einem der schlimmsten Massaker in der Geschichte, bei dem 800.000 Menschen, vornehmlich Tutsi, den Tod fanden. Ein Roman, der den Opfern des Völkermords in Ruanda ein Gesicht gibt.
As new comparative perspectives on race and ethnicity open up, scholars are identifying and exploring fresh topics and questions in an effort to reconceptualize ethnic studies and draw attention to nation–based approaches that may have previously been ignored. This volume, by recognizing the complexity of cultural production in both its diasporic and national contexts, seeks a nuanced critical approach in order to look ahead to the future of transnational literary studies. The majority of the chapters, written by literary and ethnic studies scholars, analyze ethnic literatures of the United States which, given the nation’s history of slavery and immigration, form an integral part of mainstream American literature today. While the primary focus is literary, the chapters analyze their specific topics from perspectives drawn from several disciplines, including cultural studies and history. This book is an exciting and insightful resource for scholars with interests in transnationalism, American literature and ethnic studies.
Poverty and violence are issues of global importance. In Poverty, War, and Violence in South Africa, Clifton Crais explores the relationship between colonial conquest and the making of South Africa's rural poor. Based on a wealth of archival sources, this detailed history changes our understanding of the origins of the gut-wrenching poverty that characterizes rural areas today. Crais shifts attention away from general models of economic change and focuses on the enduring implications of violence in shaping South Africa's past and present. Crais details the devastation wrought by European forces and their African auxiliaries. Their violence led to wanton bloodshed, large-scale destruction of property, and famine. Crais explores how the survivors struggled to remake their lives, including the adoption of new crops, and the world of inequality and vulnerability colonial violence bequeathed. He concludes with a discussion of contemporary challenges and the threats to democracy in South Africa.
Patrick Manning refuses to divide the African diaspora into the experiences of separate regions and nations. Instead, he follows the multiple routes that brought Africans and people of African descent into contact with one another and with Europe, Asia, and the Americas. In weaving these stories together, Manning shows how the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Indian Ocean fueled dynamic interactions among black communities and cultures and how these patterns resembled those of a number of connected diasporas concurrently taking shape across the globe. Manning begins in 1400 and traces five central themes: the connections that enabled Africans to mutually identify and hold together as a global community; discourses on race; changes in economic circumstance; the character of family life; and the evolution of popular culture. His approach reveals links among seemingly disparate worlds. In the mid-nineteenth century, for example, slavery came under attack in North America, South America, southern Africa, West Africa, the Ottoman Empire, and India, with former slaves rising to positions of political prominence. Yet at the beginning of the twentieth century, the near-elimination of slavery brought new forms of discrimination that removed almost all blacks from government for half a century. Manning underscores the profound influence that the African diaspora had on world history, demonstrating the inextricable link between black migration and the rise of modernity, especially in regards to the processes of industrialization and urbanization. A remarkably inclusive and far-reaching work, The African Diaspora proves that the advent of modernity cannot be imaginatively or comprehensively engaged without taking the African peoples and the African continent as a whole into account.
Images, Spectatorship, and the Politics of Violence
Author: Frank Möller
Category: Political Science
This book introduces a new research agenda for visual peace research, providing a political analysis of the relationship between visual representations and the politics of violence nationally and internationally. Using a range of genres, from photography to painting, it elaborates on how people can become agents of their own image.
Social, Economic, Military and Reconciliation Prospects
Author: Patrick Noack
Category: Political Science
The authors explore the outlook of Rwanda in the context of development of East Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa. They examine Rwanda's vision, achievements and uncertainties in terms of national unity, institutional leadership, the spectre of industrial policy and economic development,perceptions of civil society engagement, etc.
The Origins and Dynamics of Genocide in Contemporary Africa
Author: Scott Straus
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Category: Political Science
In Making and Unmaking Nations, Scott Straus seeks to explain why and how genocide takes place—and, perhaps more important, how it has been avoided in places where it may have seemed likely or even inevitable. To solve that puzzle, he examines postcolonial Africa, analyzing countries in which genocide occurred and where it could have but did not. Why have there not been other Rwandas? Straus finds that deep-rooted ideologies—how leaders make their nations—shape strategies of violence and are central to what leads to or away from genocide. Other critical factors include the dynamics of war, the role of restraint, and the interaction between national and local actors in the staging of campaigns of large-scale violence. Grounded in Straus's extensive fieldwork in contemporary Africa, the study of major twentieth-century cases of genocide, and the literature on genocide and political violence, Making and Unmaking Nations centers on cogent analyses of three nongenocide cases (Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal) and two in which genocide took place (Rwanda and Sudan). Straus’s empirical analysis is based in part on an original database of presidential speeches from 1960 to 2005. The book also includes a broad-gauge analysis of all major cases of large-scale violence in Africa since decolonization. Straus’s insights into the causes of genocide will inform the study of political violence as well as giving policymakers and nongovernmental organizations valuable tools for the future.
From interpretations of the Holocaust to fascist thought and anti-fascists' responses, this book tackles topics which are rarely studied in conjunction. This is a unique collection of essays on a wide variety of subjects, which contributes to understanding the roots and consequences of mid-twentieth-century Europe's great catastrophe.
The Democratic Republic of Congo has become one of the world's bloodiest hot spots. 2003 saw the end of a five-year war in which millions lost their lives - one of the deadliest conflicts since World War II. Despite recent peace agreements and democratic elections, the country is still plagued by army and militia violence. Congo remains deeply troubled, since the deep-rooted causes of conflict have not been adequately addressed. The conflict in the DRC has divided opinion; some call it a civil war, or a war of aggression by the country's neighbours; others a continuation of Rwanda's Hutu-Tutsi conflict on Congolose soil, and a war of partition and pillage. The prevalence of rape and sexual violence has led some analysts to mark it out as a hidden ‘war against women'. Tom Turner's insightful book reveals how each of these descriptions accurately captures the separate elements of this complex and multidimensional political conflict. In exploring each of these contributory factors, he shows how current attempts to rebuild the shattered state and society of DRC are doomed to fail. So long as the full complexity of the Congo crisis is not taken into account and a clear consensus as to its precise dimensions reached, the future looks bleak. The DRC, he argues, will likely remain a global hot spot for some time to come.
Gefahren für die globale Sicherheit gehen heute vor allem von schwachen und zerfallenden Staaten aus. Überall dort, wo Regierungen die öffentliche Ordnung nicht mehr sicherstellen können, eskaliert nicht nur die Gewalt und leiden Menschen. Die staatsfreien Zonen werden von "warlords", international agierenden Terroristen und der organisierten Kriminalität besetzt und für ihre Ziele missbraucht. Spätestens seit den Terroranschlägen vom 11.9. stehen daher Fragen der Staats- und Nationsbildung im Zentrum der internationalen Aufmerksamkeit. Denn die Stabilität der internationalen Ordnung selbst hängt nicht zuletzt davon ab, dass ihre Bausteine, die Staaten, funktionstüchtig und belastbar sind. Das Buch untersucht exemplarisch die Ursachen für prekäre Staatlichkeit und diskutiert, wie die Europäische Union und im Weiteren die internationale Gemeinschaft den Aufbau lebensfähiger Staaten unterstützen können. Hierbei werden neben „klassischen“ Ansätzen zur Staatsbildung auch andere Formen der Herrschaftsorganisation (Imperien, geteilte Souveränität, global governance) erörtert.
Drawn from the award-winning 5-volume Encyclopedia of War,this valuable, one-volume reference provides readers with essentialinformation on the conflicts and concepts that shaped globalwarfare in the twentieth-century and up to the present day. Provides essential coverage of twentieth-century warfareacross the world Incorporates entries on all major wars, conflicts and conceptsin the study of warfare during the period Features detailed coverage of the First and Second World Wars,along with conflicts including the Russo-Japanese War, theGreco-Turkish War, the Falklands Conflict, the Soviet Invasion ofAfghanistan, the Gulf Wars, the War Against Terrorism, and theSomalian Civil War Covers topics including chemical warfare, ethnic cleansing,psychological warfare, and women and war Creates an affordable and handy personal reference forstudents of modern and contemporary history, professional scholars,and military history enthusiasts Comprises authoritative, up-to-date content - each entryranging from 1,000 to 6,000 words - written by the bestinternational scholars