This introductory, yet in-depth, book explains the physical principles of electronic imaging and sensing and provides the reader with the information necessary to understand the design, operation, and practical applications of contemporary electronic imaging and sensing systems. The text has strong practical focus and contains examples of biomedical applications of optical electronic imaging and sensing. Each chapter draws upon the authors’ extensive research, teaching, and industrial experience and provides a useful resource for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as a convenient reference for scientists and engineers working in the field of electronic imaging and sensing.
Surface penetration for the purpose of detecting objects of interest is a field of importance in both military and civilian applications. This work touches on the entire scope of the problem, including the detection and classification of objects and the process of forming an image. Military applications such as See-Through-Wall radar and landmine detection dominate the specific applications explored. Initially, the problem of decreasing signal-to-noise ratio is addressed by applying non-statistical methods to signal enhancement. Metal detectors and ground penetrating radar, the standard sensors for landmine detection, are given the focus. Next, statistical methods are explored for both object detection and classification. A Gaussian mixture is used to model the response of multiple objects of interest to the standard sensors. Two sensor scheduling techniques are then studied within the context of confirmation. The first applies an information gain metric called the Renyi Divergence to schedule a single sensor out of a toolset of sensors. (Three appendices discuss the physics of potential sensors that could make up the toolset.) The second uses a learning approach to determine a policy for applying more than one confirmation sensor. The policy dictates when to declare an object class and when to deploy another sensor. The resulting policy produces the maximum probability of correct classification with the minimum number of sensor dwells. Imaging begins with backpropagation synthetic aperture radar imaging and progresses to an efficient implementation of wavenumber migration. The use of a sparse prior for image reconstruction is introduced in an iterative method that transforms the data back and forth between image and observation domains using Landweber iteration. Soft-thresholding is used as the mechanism for applying the sparse prior. Examples are shown in 2D and 3D. The final contribution is an adaptive imaging technique called the Iterative Redeployment of Illumination and Sensing. This algorithm utilizes the scene itself to determine the best locations to acquire further observations. An E&M simulator dubbed a virtual transmitter is used in conjunction with information gain to direct the imaging device to the next location. The final result is an image that approximates a large synthetic aperture from multiple observations with a much smaller aperture device.
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges two long-running serials-Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. This series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains.
The chapters in this volume were presented at the July 2005NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advances in Sensing with Security App- cations. The conference was held at the beautiful Il Ciocco resort near Lucca, in the glorious Tuscany region of northern Italy. Once again we gathered at this idyllic spot to explore and extend the reciprocity between mathematics and engineering. The dynamic interaction - tween world-renowned scientists from the usually disparate communities of pure mathematicians and applied scientists which occurred at our six previous ASI’s continued at this meeting. The fusion of basic ideas in mathematics, biology, and chemistry with ongoing improvements in hardware and computation o?ers the promise of much more sophisticated and accurate sensing capabilities than c- rently exist. Coupled with the dramatic rise in the need for surveillance in innumerable aspects of our daily lives, brought about by hostile acts deemed unimaginable only a few short years ago, the time was right for scientists in the diverse areas of sensing and security to join together in a concerted e?ort to combat the new brands of terrorism. This ASI was one important initial step. To encompass the diverse nature of the s- ject and the varied backgrounds of the anticipated participants, the ASI was divided into three broadly de?ned but interrelated areas: the - creasing need for fast and accurate sensing, the scienti?c underpinnings of the ongoing revolution in sensing, and speci?c sensing algorithms and techniques. The ASI brought together world leaders from academia, government, andindustry,withextensivemultidisciplinarybackgroundsevidencedby theirresearchandparticipationinnumerousworkshopsandconferences.
The book explores various aspects of existing and emerging fiber and waveguide optics sensing and imaging technologies including recent advances in nanobiophotonics. The focus is both on fundamental and applied research as well as on applications in civil engineering, biomedical sciences, environment, security and defence. The book aims to provide a reference of state-of-the-art overviews covering a variety of topics on the interface of engineering and biomedical sciences.
Published on the occasion of the XXIst Congress of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) in Beiijng, China in 2008, Advances in Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences: 2008 ISPRS Congress Book is a compilation of 34 contributions from 62 researchers active within the ISPRS. The book covers the state-of-the-art in photogrammetry, remote sensing, and spatial information sciences, and is divided into six parts: - Introduction - Sensors, Platforms and Data Acquisition Systems - Data Processing and Analysis - Data Modelling, Management and Visualisation - Applications - Education and Cooperation. Advances in Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences: 2008 ISPRS Congress Book provides a comprehensive overview of the progress made in these areas since the XXth ISPRS Congress, which was held in 2004 in Istanbul, Turkey. The volume will be invaluable not only to scientists and researchers, but also to university students and practitioners.
Machine Vision technology is becoming an indispensible part of the manufacturing industry. Biomedical and scientific applications of machine vision and imaging are becoming more and more sophisticated, and new applications continue to emerge. This book gives an overview of ongoing research in machine vision and presents the key issues of scientific and practical interest. A selected board of experts from the US, Japan and Europe provides an insight into some of the latest work done on machine vision systems and appliccations.
Advances in technological devices unveil new architectures for instrumentation and improvements in measurement techniques. Sensing technology, related to biomedical aspects, plays a key role in nowadays applications; it promotes different advantages for: healthcare, solving difficulties for elderly persons, clinical analysis, microbiological characterizations, etc.. This book intends to illustrate and to collect recent advances in biomedical measurements and sensing instrumentation, not as an encyclopedia but as clever support for scientists, students and researchers in other to stimulate exchange and discussions for further developments.
Generating a satisfactory classification image from remote sensing data is not a straightforward task. Many factors contribute to this difficulty including the characteristics of a study area, availability of suitable remote sensing data, ancillary and ground reference data, proper use of variables and classification algorithms, and the analyst’s experience. An authoritative text, Advances in Environmental Remote Sensing: Sensors, Algorithms, and Applications compiles comprehensive review articles to examine the developments in concepts, methods, techniques, and applications as well as focused articles and case studies on the latest on a particular topic. Divided into four sections, the first deals with various sensors, systems, or sensing operations using different regions of wavelengths. Drawing on the data and lessons learned from the U.S. Landsat remote sensing programs, it reviews key concepts, methods, and practical uses of particular sensors/sensing systems. Section II presents new developments in algorithms and techniques, specifically in image preprocessing, thematic information extraction, and digital change detection. It gives correction algorithms for hyperspectral, thermal, and multispectral sensors, discusses the combined method for performing topographic and atmospheric corrections, and provides examples of correcting non-standard atmospheric conditions, including haze, cirrus, and cloud shadow. Section III focuses on remote sensing of vegetation and related features of the Earth’s surface. It reviews advancements in the remote sensing of ecosystem structure, process, and function, and notes important trade-offs and compromises in characterizing ecosystems from space related to spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions of the imaging sensors. It discusses the mismatch between leaf-level and species-level ecological variables and satellite spatial resolutions and the resulting difficulties in validating satellite-derived products. Finally, Section IV examines developments in the remote sensing of air, water, and other terrestrial features, reviews MODIS algorithms for aerosol retrieval at both global and local scales, and demonstrates the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness (AOT). This section rounds out coverage with a look at remote sensing approaches to measure the urban environment and examines the most important concepts and recent research.
Land degradation and desertification are amongst the most severe threats to human welfare and the environment, as they affect the livelihoods of some 2 billion people in the world’s drylands, and they are directly connected to pressing global environmental problems, such as the loss of biological diversity or global climate change. Strategies to combat these processes and mitigate their effects at the land-management and policy level require spatially explicit, up-to-date information, which can be provided based on remote sensing data and using geoinformation processing techniques. Recent Advances in Remote Sensing and Geoinformation Processing for Land Degradation Assessment introduces the current state of the art in this field and provides an overview of both conceptual and technological advances of the recent past. With a specific focus on desertification and land degradation, the volume covers the assessment of related biophysical indicators, as well as complementary qualitative information at different spatial and temporal scales. It is shown how remote sensing data may be utilized in the context of assessing and monitoring affected ecosystems and how this information may be assimilated into integrated interpretation and modelling concepts. In addition, different case studies are provided to demonstrate the implementation of these methods in the frame of different local settings. The volume will be of interest to scientists and students working at the interface of ecosystem services, land degradation/desertification, spatial ecology, remote sensing and spatial modelling, as well as to land managers and policy makers.