While acid-base indicators continue to find new applications in an ever-widening range of scientific disciplines, there is no current book that focuses entirely on the subject, nor one that brings together the relevant advances that have evolved over the last three decades. The Handbook of Acid-Base Indicators compiles the most up-to-date, comprehensive information on over 200 water-based and solvent-based indicators into a single source. Organized alphabetically, entries include: common name, other names, CA index name, CAS registry number, Merck index number, chemical structure, chemical/dye class, molecular formula, molecular weight, pH range, color change at pH, pKa, physical form, solubility, UV-visible (Lambda-max), melting point, and boiling point. This resource also offers unique coverage including protocols for synthesizing indicator compounds; data relating to adverse effects, toxicity, and safety; and major applications for each indicator. The Handbook of Acid-Base Indicators contains practical information for widespread applications that include semiconductors, displays, nanotechnology, OLEDs, fuel cells, sensors, security, surface coatings, adhesives, insecticides, agricultural chemicals, textiles, packaging, cosmetics, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and the detection and treatment of disease.
The goal of this book is to provide a bridge between the acid-base physiology taught in the classroom and the evaluation of the patient on the wards. This book will enable the reader to develop a practical and reasoned approach to the patient with an acid-base disorder. Additional resources at the back of the book include an abbreviation list to familiarize readers with common terms associated with acid-base pathophysiology and a comprehensive list of suggested readings.
This book chronicles the proceedings of the Symposium on Acid-Base Interactions: Relevance to Adhesion Science and Technology held on the occasion of the 75th birthday of Professor Frederick M. Fowkes as a part of the 64th Colloid and Surface Science Symposium held at Lehigh University, June 18--20, 1990. The book contains 22 papers which are divided into three sections. Topics covered include: Acid-base concepts: historical account, current status, and prospects for the future; quantum-mechanical approach to understanding acid-base interactions at metal-polymer interfaces; assessment of acidbase interactions at solid-liquid interfaces; quantitative characterization of the acid-base properties of solvents, polymers and inorganic surfaces (overview by Professor Fowkes); acid-base characteristics of a variety of solid materials (clay minerals, carbon fibers, glass fibers, silicas, metals, polymers); acid-base interactions in wetting; applications of acid-base interactions in a variety of situations, e.g. in the adhesion of polymers to metallic and ceramic substrates, mechanical properties of wood, properties of filled polymers, and behavior of fiber-reinforced polymer composites.
This book documents the proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Acid-Base Interactions: Relevance to Adhesion Science and Technology held in Newark, New Jersey, October 19--21, 1998. Since the first symposium on this topic was held on the occasion of the 75th birthday of Professor Frederick M. Fowkes in 1990, it was deemed opportune and necessary to hold the second symposium on this topic. This symposium was organized with the following objectives in mind: (i) to consolidate the R&D activity carried out since the first symposium, (ii) to provide a forum for discussion of latest research results, (iii) to provide an opportunity for cross-pollination of ideas, (iv) to identify topics where there was discordance of opinion or discrepancy, and (v) to highlight areas which needed intensified R&D activities. The final technical program contained a total of 36 papers by researchers and technologists from academia, industry and other organizations. This book contains a total of 32 papers, which were rigorously peer reviewed and suitably revised before inclusion in this book. The book is divided into three parts as follows: Part 1: Fundamental Aspects of Acid-Base Interactions; Part 2: Characterization of the Acid-Base Properties of Materials; and Part 3: Applications of Acid-Base Interactions. The topics covered include: Surface free energy acid-base theory applied to solid surfaces; Good, van Oss and Chaudhury theory; contact angle measurements and interpretation; acid-base theory of contact angles; acid-base strength of solid surfaces; acid-base interactions at solid surfaces; acid-base interactions at the molecular level; characterization of acid-base properties of a host of materials (polymers, wood, glass, ceramics, silica particles, textile fibers, rocks) by XPS, inverse gas chromatography, immersion calorimetry, contact angle titration, and thin layer wicking; and relevance of acid-base interactions to bioadhesion, microbial adhesion, polymer adhesion, and adhesion in reinforced polymer composites.
Acids and bases are ubiquitous in chemistry. Our understanding of them, however, is dominated by their behaviour in water. Transfer to non-aqueous solvents leads to profound changes in acid-base strengths and to the rates and equilibria of many processes: for example, synthetic reactions involving acids, bases and nucleophiles; isolation of pharmaceutical actives through salt formation; formation of zwitter- ions in amino acids; and chromatographic separation of substrates. This book seeks to enhance our understanding of acids and bases by reviewing and analysing their behaviour in non-aqueous solvents. The behaviour is related where possible to that in water, but correlations and contrasts between solvents are also presented. Fundamental background material is provided in the initial chapters: quantitative aspects of acid-base equilibria, including definitions and relationships between solution pH and species distribution; the influence of molecular structure on acid strengths; and acidity in aqueous solution. Solvent properties are reviewed, along with the magnitude of the interaction energies of solvent molecules with (especially) ions; the ability of solvents to participate in hydrogen bonding and to accept or donate electron pairs is seen to be crucial. Experimental methods for determining dissociation constants are described in detail. In the remaining chapters, dissociation constants of a wide range of acids in three distinct classes of solvents are discussed: protic solvents, such as alcohols, which are strong hydrogen-bond donors; basic, polar aprotic solvents, such as dimethylformamide; and low-basicity and low polarity solvents, such as acetonitrile and tetrahydrofuran. Dissociation constants of individual acids vary over more than 20 orders of magnitude among the solvents, and there is a strong differentiation between the response of neutral and charged acids to solvent change. Ion-pairing and hydrogen-bonding equilibria, such as between phenol and phenoxide ions, play an increasingly important role as the solvent polarity decreases, and their influence on acid-base equilibria and salt formation is described.
The general aim of this book is to present a practical, case- orientated approach to the analysis of acid-base problems in the clinical setting. Medical students, residents, fellows and attendings will find the book a required addition to their medical library.
Author: Joyce LeFever Kee,Betty J. Paulanka,Carolee Polek
Publisher: Cengage Learning
With a clear, comprehensive approach, this quick-reference handbook on the basic principles of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balances, imbalances, and related disorders is a must-have for all nursing students. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disorders: Clinical Evaluation & Management is a clear and concise presentation of the fundamentals of fluid, electrolyte and acid-base disorders frequently encountered in clinical practice. Each chapter begins with pertinent basic physiology followed by its clinical disorder. Cases for each fluid, electrolyte and acid-base disorder are discussed with answers. In addition, board-type questions with explanations are provided for each clinical disorder to increase the knowledge for the clinician. Practical and clinically oriented, this book is a handy reference for practicing physicians, students, residents and fellows.
Author: David Mount,Mohamed H. Sayegh,Ajay K. Singh
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders are central to the day-to-day practice of almost all areas of patient-centered medicine – both medical and surgical. Virtually every aspect of these disorders has experienced major developments in recent years. Core Concepts in the Disorders of Fluid, Electrolytes and Acid-Base Balance encompasses these new findings in comprehensive reviews of both pathophysiology and clinical management. In addition, this volume offers clinical examples providing step-by-step analysis of the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and management of selected clinical problems. Written by leading experts in fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders, this reference is an invaluable resource for both the nephrologist and the non-specialist physician, or medical trainee.
The leading reference for the diagnosis and management of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base imbalances in small animals, Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Disorders in Small Animal Practice, 4th Edition provides cutting-edge, evidence-based guidelines to enhance your care of dogs and cats. Information is easy to find and easy to use, with comprehensive coverage including fluid and electrolyte physiology and pathophysiology and their clinical applications, as well as the newest advances in fluid therapy and a discussion of a new class of drugs called vaptans. Lead author Stephen DiBartola is a well-known speaker and the "go-to" expert in this field, and his team of contributors represents the most authoritative and respected clinicians and academicians in veterinary medicine. Over 30 expert contributors represent the "cream of the crop" in small animal medicine, ensuring that this edition provides the most authoritative and evidence-based guidelines. Scientific, evidence-based insights and advances integrate basic physiological principles into practice, covering patient evaluation, differential diagnosis, normal and abnormal clinical features and laboratory test results, approaches to therapy, technical aspects of therapy, patient monitoring, assessing risk, and prediction of outcomes for each disorder. Hundreds of tables, algorithms, and schematic drawings demonstrate the best approaches to diagnosis and treatment, highlighting the most important points in an easy-access format. Drug and dosage recommendations are included with treatment approaches in the Electrolyte Disorders section. Clear formulas in the Fluid Therapy section make it easier to determine the state of dehydration, fluid choice, and administration rate and volume in both healthy and diseased patients. Updated chapters cover the latest advances in fluid therapy in patient management, helping you understand and manage a wide range of potentially life-threatening metabolic disturbances. Expanded Disorders of Sodium and Water chapter includes information on a new class of drugs called vaptans, vasopressin receptor antagonists that may soon improve the ability to manage patients with chronic hyponatremia. Hundreds of new references cover the most up-to-date advances in fluid therapy, including renal failure and shock syndromes.
Understanding acid-base equilibria made easy for students in chemistry, biochemistry, biology, environmental and earth sciences. Solving chemical problems, be it in education or in real life, often requires the understanding of the acid-base equilibria behind them. Based on many years of teaching experience, Heike Kahlert and Fritz Scholz present a powerful tool to meet such challenges. They provide a simple guide to the fundamentals and applications of acid-base diagrams, avoiding complex mathematics. This textbook is richly illustrated and has full color throughout. It offers learning features such as boxed results and a collection of formulae.
Acid-base cements have been known since the mid-nineteenth century and offer an alternative to polymerization as a route for forming solid substances. They are quick setting materials and some have unusual properties for cements, such as adhesion and translucency. They find diverse applications ranging from the biomedical to the industrial. Despite this there has been a failure to recognize them as constituting a single, well defined class of material. This book attempts to remedy this situation by unifying the subject and treating this range of materials as a single class. Following a brief historical overview, an introductory chapter defines these cements as materials that are formed by reacting a basic powder with an acidic liquid to yield a salt-like matrix. The nature of the cementation process and the cement-forming acids and bases are discussed. Other chapters are devoted to the methods of study, the structure of water and simple polyelectrolyte theory. In the remaining chapters the various types of cements classified according the anionic constituent of the matrix, are described. Thus, there are chapters on polyalkenoate, phosphate, oxychloride, oxysulphate and the non-aqueous phenolate cements. A chapter is devoted to miscellaneous aqueous cements which include the recently discovered polyphosphonate cements.
During the last 20 years two groups of investigators have concerned themselves with the problem of acid-base regulation at various body temperatures. Each group, in professional isolation, pursued a separate path. Surgeons and anesthe tists developed techniques and tools for hypothermic cardio-pulmonary by-pass operations and based their rationale for acid-base management on in vitro models of blood behavior. Physiologists and biochemists, on the other hand, endeavored to understand acid-base regulation in living organisms naturally subjected to changes in body temperature. Only in the last decade has there been an increasing awareness that each group could benefit from the other's experiences. With this goal in mind members of both groups were invited to present their views and observations in the hope of arriving at a better understanding of acid-base management during hypothermia and gaining a greater insight into the factors which control acid-base regulation during normothermia. This led to the presen tation of the present volume with the aim of providing the clinician with a survey of present theories and the resulting strategies for management of the hypother mic patient. Acknowledgment The editors express their great appreciation to Miss Augusta Dustan for her dedicated effort in the preparation and editing of the manuscripts. Contributors Heinz Becker, M. D. Department of Surgery, University of California Medical Center, Los An geles, Los Angeles, CA 90024, U. S. A. Gerald D. Buckberg, M. D. Department of Surgery, University of California Medical Center, Los An geles, CA 90024, U. S. A.
Mitchell L. Halperin,Marc B. Goldstein,Kamel S. Kamel
Author: Mitchell L. Halperin,Marc B. Goldstein,Kamel S. Kamel
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
The revised and updated fourth edition of Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Physiology continues to offer expert advice on the bedside management of acid-base and electrolyte disorders. Distinguished authors synthesize key theoretical and clinical information in a way that is easy to understand and apply. Discussions on the latest science, as well as new cases, new discoveries, and new approaches in intensive care are just a few of the updates you’ll find to help you make the best management decisions. Clinical information is presented in an easy-to-understand style, and the integration of color offers increased visual guidance. What’s more, diagnostic flow charts and critical questions challenge your problem-solving skills and reinforce your decision-making expertise. Incorporates relevant information on energy metabolism and endocrine, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and cardiovascular physiology. Features a consistent, user-friendly format with diagnostic algorithms and helpful margin notes. Includes numerous case studies that illustrate how key management principles are applied in practice. Presents questions and explanations throughout that let you test your knowledge and hone your skills. Features entirely new cases with discussions that keep you on the cusp of current clinical dilemmas and standards of practice. Discusses new treatment options to help you provide optimal care. Presents new discoveries to bring you up to date on the latest findings in science and clinical practice. Offers new approaches in critical care keeping you current in this emerging area of nephrology.