By the mid-1980s researchers from artificial intelligence, computer science, brain and cognitive science, and psychology realized that the idea of computers as intelligent machines was inappropriate. The brain does not run "programs"; it does something entirely different. But what? Evolutionary theory says that the brain has evolved not to do mathematical proofs but to control our behavior, to ensure our survival. Researchers now agree that intelligence always manifests itself in behavior -- thus it is behavior that we must understand. An exciting new field has grown around the study of behavior-based intelligence, also known as embodied cognitive science, "new AI," and "behavior-based AI."This book provides a systematic introduction to this new way of thinking. After discussing concepts and approaches such as subsumption architecture, Braitenberg vehicles, evolutionary robotics, artificial life, self-organization, and learning, the authors derive a set of principles and a coherent framework for the study of naturally and artificially intelligent systems, or autonomous agents. This framework is based on a synthetic methodology whose goal is understanding by designing and building.The book includes all the background material required to understand the principles underlying intelligence, as well as enough detailed information on intelligent robotics and simulated agents so readers can begin experiments and projects on their own. The reader is guided through a series of case studies that illustrate the design principles of embodied cognitive science.
This book is dedicated to the scholar and academic teacher Franz Monks, who is considered internationally to be one of the most brilliant 'giftedness' researchers. The wide spectrum of his writings and activities is reflected in the number of renowned international scholars who contributed to this unique collection of essays on gifted education as a life-long challenge.
Evolution, Biologie und Pädagogik musikalischer Begabung.
Author: Wilfried Gruhn
Publisher: Georg Olms Verlag
Die Frage, was Begabung sei, ist ebenso so alt und aktuell, wie Schule und Unterricht, Lernen und Lehren im öffentlichen Bewusstsein stehen und bildungspolitisch diskutiert werden. Dabei stellt sich die Frage, was denn eigentlich Begabung im Allgemeinen und musikalische Begabung im Besonderen ausmache und woran sie zu erkennen sei. Auf dem Wege der Beantwortung sollen verschiedene historische Positionen und wissenschaftliche Disziplinen, die sich mit dem Phänomen der Begabung befassen, zu Wort kommen. Wissenschaftlern und Studierenden wie allen an Begabungsfragen Interessierten wird damit ein Überblick über den Diskussions- und Forschungsstand der musikalischen Begabungsforschung gegeben, so dass auch Eltern und Erzieher eine aktuelle fachliche Orientierung in der Vielfalt der verschiedenen Aspekte und Erkenntnisse erhalten. Aus dem Inhalt: Grundlagen: Musikalität, Intelligenz und Persönlichkeit - Hochbegabung - Zielgerichtete Übung und Begabung - Musikalische Begabungstests Begabung und Entwicklung: Erkennen und Fördern musikalischer Begabung in der Kindheit - Musikalische Begabung und Talent in der Lebenszeit Perspektive - Begabungsforschung im Sport Biologie der Begabung: Warum wir musikalisch sind: Antworten aus der Evolutionsbiologie - Hormonelle Einflüsse auf die Begabungsentwicklung - Neurobiologie der Begabung - Neurokognitive Aspekte musikalischer Begabung
The transferability of vocational education and training qualifications across international borders is a live issue in this heterogeneous field. Key to this goal is defining a common methodology for measuring vocational competences. This publication sets out a proposal for just that, based on the results of a pilot project known as ‘COMET’ on competence diagnostics in the field of electrical engineering. The study deploys longitudinal analysis to explore issues of competence development, the development of vocational identity, and occupational commitment. It focuses on two discrete occupational profiles in electrical engineering in an ambitious test of a model currently applied to other professions as well. The model’s success in its first phase is detailed in the second part of the volume, where the authors show that the transfer of the competence framework into an empirical model was successful. They also demonstrate that the methodology can be applied to designing and evaluating vocational education and training processes, making the material relevant to VET teachers and trainers as well as academics. With its first section comprising a full description of the theoretical framework, this book is a significant step forward in an urgent task facing administrations, labor forces and employers around the world. The achievement is in proportion to the notorious complexities of a field whose diversity makes tough demands on large-scale methods of assessment.
A mood is defined as the prevailing psychological state (habitual or relatively temporary). It is further defined as a feeling, state or prolonged emotion that influences the whole of one's psychic life. It can relate to passion or feeling; humour; as a melancholy mood or a suppliant mood. Mood can and does affect perceived health, personal confidence, one's perceptions of the world around us and our actions based on those perceptions. Moods can and do change often although mood swings of a sharp nature may be a symptom of underlying disease. Moods may signify happiness, anger, tension, or anxiety. Chronic periods of any mood state may be an indicator of a disorder as well. This new book gathers important research from throughout the world in this rapidly changing field.